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Palladium Chloride, also known as palladium dichloride and palladous chloride, are the chemical compounds with the formula PdCl2. PdCl2 is a common starting material in palladium chemistry – palladium-based catalysts are of particular value in organic synthesis. It is prepared bychlorination of palladium


Two forms of PdCl2 are known. In both forms, the palladium centres adopt the square-planar coordination geometry that is characteristic of Pd(II). Furthermore, in both forms, the Pd(II) centres are linked by μ2-chloride bridges. The α-form of PdCl2 is a polymer, consisting of “infinite” slabs or chains. The β-form of PdCl2 is molecular, consisting of an octahedral cluster of six Pd atoms. Each of the twelve edges of this octahedron is spanned by Cl. PtCl2 adopts similar structures, whereas NiCl2 adopts the CdCl2 motif, featuring hexacoordinated Ni(II

Palladium(II) chloride is a common starting point in the synthesis of other palladium compounds. It is not particularly soluble in water or non-coordinating solvents, so the first step in its utilization is often the preparation of labile but soluble Lewis base adducts, such as those derived fromacetonitrile or benzonitrile.[2] The acetonitrile complex is prepared by treating PdCl2 in refluxing acetonitrile:

PdCl2 + 2 MeCN → PdCl2(MeCN)2

Although occasionally recommended, inert-gas techniques are not necessary if the complex is to be used in situ. As an example,bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II) dichloride may be prepared from palladium(II) chloride by reacting it with triphenylphosphine in benzonitrile:[3]

PdCl2 + 2 PPh3 → PdCl2(PPh3)2

Further reduction in the presence of more triphenylphosphine gives tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0); the second reaction may be carried out without purifying the intermediate dichloride:[4]

PdCl2(PPh3)2 + 2 PPh3 + 2.5 N2H4 → Pd(PPh3)4 + 0.5 N2 + 2 N2H5+Cl

Alternatively, palladium(II) chloride may be solubilized in the form of the tetrachloropalladate anion, e.g. sodium tetrachloropalladate, by reacting with the appropriate alkali metal chloride in water:[5] Palladium(II) chloride is insoluble in water, whereas the product dissolves:

PdCl2 + 2 MCl → M2PdCl4

This compound may also further react with phosphines to give phosphine complexes of palladium.[5]

Palladium chloride may also be used to give heterogeneous palladium catalysts: palladium on barium sulfate, palladium on carbon, and palladium chloride on carbon.

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Palladium(II) Chloride; palladium chloride; Palladium(II) Chloride;Cl2Pd
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