1, In either case, we will always indent the statements controlled by the while by one tab stop (which we have shown as four spaces) so you can see at a glance which statements are inside the loop. The indentation emphasizes the logical structure of the program. Although C compilers do not care about how a program looks, proper indentation and spacing are critical in making programs easy for people to read. We recommend writing only one statement per line, and using blanks around operators to clarify grouping.

2,If an arithmetic operator has integer operands, an integer operation is performed. If an arithmetic operator has one floating-point operand and one integer operand, however, the integer will be converted to floating point before the operation is done. If we had written (fahr-32), the 32 would be automatically converted to floating point. Nevertheless, writing floating-point constants with explicit decimal points even when they have integral values emphasizes their floating-point nature for human readers.

3,It’s bad practice to bury “magic numbers” like 300 and 20 in a program; they convey little information to someone who might have to read the program later, and they are hard to change in a systematic way. One way to deal with magic numbers is to give them meaningful names. A #define line defines a symbolic name or symbolic constant to be a particular string of characters

4, Symbolic constant names are conventionally written in upper case so they can ber readily distinguished from lower case variable names. Notice that there is no semicolon at the end of a #define line.

5, By the way, printf is not part of the C language; there is no input or output defined in C itself. printf is just a useful function from the standard library of functions that are normally accessible to C programs. The behaviour of printf is defined in the ANSI standard, however, so its properties should be the same with any compiler and library that conforms to the standard.

6,   #include <stdio.h>

   /* copy input to output; 2nd version  */
       int c;

       while ((c = getchar()) != EOF)

We used int for a subtle but important reason.

The problem is distinguishing the end of input from valid data. The solution is that getchar returns a distinctive value when there is no more input, a value that cannot be confused with any real character. This value is called EOF, for “end of file”. We must declare c to be a type big enough to hold any value that getchar returns. We can’t use char since c must be big enough to hold EOF in addition to any possible char. Therefore we use int.

EOF is an integer defined in <stdio.h>, but the specific numeric value doesn’t matter as long as it is not the same as any char value. By using the symbolic constant, we are assured that nothing in the program depends on the specific numeric value.

7,for (nc = 0; gechar() != EOF; ++nc)
The body of this for loop is empty, because all the work is done in the test and increment parts. But the grammatical rules of C require that a for statement have a body. The isolated semicolon, called a null statement, is there to satisfy that requirement. We put it on a separate line to make it visible.

8,You may have noticed that there is a return statement at the end of main. Since main is a function like any other, it may return a value to its caller, which is in effect the environment in which the program was executed. Typically, a return value of zero implies normal termination; non-zero values signal unusual or erroneous termination conditions. In the interests of simplicity, we have omitted return statements from our main functions up to this point, but we will include them hereafter, as a reminder that programs should return status to their environment.