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Cookie,是某些网站为了辨别用户身份而储存在用户本地终端上的数据,通常会经过加密,也常常被比喻为用户的网络身份证,而就在昨天的315晚会上,央视曝光了品友互动、易传媒、悠易、爱维易动、传漾公司等公司通过在别的网站加代码方式套取用户 Cookie 信息

首先遭曝光的品友互动可以捕捉到互联网上5.7亿的 Cookie;易传媒号称拥有3亿多互联网用户 Cookie 数据;悠易互通,艾维邑动号称拥有5亿网民Cookie数据;传漾公司号称拥有9亿 Cookie;亿玛在线号称拥有9亿 Cookie;与品友互动一样,这些公司获取用户 Cookie,基本都是通过在别的网站加代码来实现的。除了第三方公司,网易也被曝对自己的用户进行跟踪分析,甚至包括用户非常隐私的邮件内容。

对于互联网公司借助 Cookie 跟踪用户上网行为的现象不仅仅发生在国内,国外也是普遍现象。Google 在去年年底还因此遭到巨额罚款,美国地方法院批准了美国联邦贸易委员会判罚谷歌2250万美元的决定,美国联邦贸易委员会同时要求谷歌公司彻底停止追踪用户上网习惯的侵权行为

隐私保护的前奏

对于保护用户的隐私,浏览器厂商在此之前已经有所行动。

微软去年宣布 2013 年要把用户的在线隐私放在首位——并且在 IE10 浏览器中将“禁止跟踪”(DoNotTrack) 作为默认开启状态设置。火狐也不甘落后,今年二月,据国外媒体报道,互动广告局(IAB)高级副总裁兼总顾问迈克詹内斯(Mike Zaneis)发表推特称,火狐浏览器现在可以自动拦截所有的第三方 Cookie 了,这一默认设置将对广告行业造成巨大的打击。虽然火狐用户可以手动禁用 Cookie,但是预计在22版火狐中,禁用 Cookie 将成为一项默认的设置。目前火狐的最新版本为19版,预计22版火狐最早将在4月5日发布。

苹果也没有闲着。据报道,二月苹果公司的应用审查团队叫停了移动应用开发者普遍使用的“ Cookie 追踪”技术。在此之前,当用户首次启动应用时,系统的 Safari 浏览器就会去读取用户手机中所存储的广告互动 Cookie,毫无疑问,这在一定程度上会影响用户体验,但目前有一些应用开发者正将其作为是 UDID(唯一设备识别码)技术的替代者,苹果在 2011 年中期就宣布将逐步淘汰该项技术。UDID 是一个包含40个字母和数字的字符串,它允许开发者和广告网络以此来收集用户的相关数据,尽管 UDID 本身并不包含设备拥有者的个人身份信息,但第三方应用却可以利用它来获得用户的姓名、位置、偏好、应用使用情况等信息,从而对用户进行较为详细的描述。

禁用Cookie——广告主受伤

Cookie 常常被广告主们用来做个性化的广告投放,根据用户的浏览记录投放更精准的广告,而一旦“禁止跟踪”,将意味着“智能”的精准广告将可能面临致命威胁。当然,受影响的不仅仅是广告主,如果用户关闭 Cookie,很多网站的个人化服务功能很可能也不能再使用。

而网友CAOZ认为,基于用户 Cookie 进行广告匹配策略并没有什么不妥,从2000年左右 double click 开始,而后 Google 收购了 doubleclick,现在内容分析和广告匹配则来自于 Google Adsense。 加入做互联网的,没有收集数据,基本没有用户分析,也没有数据分析,更不可能有投入产出分析,没有收集数据,所有广告跟踪系统等同于零,所有网站用户分析等同于零,整个互联网行业也会发生变化。

技术革新——RTB

人群实时竞价(RTB: Real Time Bidding,是一种利用第三方技术在数以百万计的网站上针对每一个用户展示行为进行评估以及出价的竞价技术),是近年兴起于美国的网络广告交易模式。如今这一模式正在全球范围内被大力发展。相关数据显示,欧美数字广告发行商中有 2/3 使用 RTB 模式。RTB 模型的实时交易性质,内在特性将使它继续发展壮大,无论第三方 Cookie 限制严格到何种程度。

传统的展示广告购买是基于“预测”:广告主根据以往的数据,平均估算目标群体、投放时间、投放地点,广告曝光按照广告主和数字媒体双方协商的价格售卖。而“预测”的来源就是 Cookie ,如果一旦 Cookie 被禁止,那预测就无从谈起。换句话说,第三方 Cookie 推动了精准广告,而 RTB 是一个能适应并成功拓展到第三方 Cookie 等因素之外的购买模式,这一模式希望通过让广告主购买目标受众群而改变游戏规则。

从另一个角度来说,如果用户不能通过 Cookie 进行“跟踪”,那么网站还可能要求用户留下其他的信息用来身份识别,而相对于 Cookie 的匿名来说,那些信息会涉及到更多的隐私。

所以,无论 Cookie 是否涉及到隐私问题,通过不断的技术创新仍能解决一定的问题,而我们无法解决的,是技术之外的东西,比如道德,比如底线。


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  2. 网络广告要被打击了

  3. 禁用cookie这么扯谈啊

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