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 亚马逊的蝴蝶 :Web2.0

     在Google检索了下第二次互联网革命,发现这个想法并不是第一次提出来,阅读其内容基本上是对某一种或者多种web2.0应用的有意或者无意地过度褒奖而冠以了革命。但从中也可以看出web2.0所带来的互联网深刻的变革。Web2.0是这次互联网革命的启蒙,或许更确切的说Web2.0是一只亚马逊的蝴蝶,它改变了人类从传统媒体继承而来的中心化的思想,人类不再以传统媒体的观念来思考互联网,更重要的是它让人类重新思考浏览器除了获取信息还能干嘛,这一转变的成就不亚于人类发现了可以用圆木作为搬运大型物品的工具所带来的启示:Web 2.0不仅仅是一个基于Internet的一个概念,同时它已经延伸到Internet以外的领域,而它的武器是Internet。办公软件(比如Office)、通讯工具甚至操作系统都在因为Web2.0而被Internet融化。只要你有互联网,没有Office软件你可以用Google的spreed sheet,没有通讯工具你可以用myspace与你的朋友联系,用facebook与你的同学进行联系,也使用twitter告诉别人我现在都在干嘛。Web2.0正在改变着人类对于互联网的认识、改变着编程方式、改变着网站的运营模式从而改变着人类现实的生活和工作方式。虽然你现在还不能期待这个改变有多巨大因为web2.0正如它的版本号2.0一样年轻,一切才开始。

 

 大鳄的礼物: Ajax

     浏览器是互联网的胞弟,生下来就被告诫需要保持良好的身材。虽然出现了Microsoft和NetScape这两个大鳄争夺他的抚养权。虽然两家公司在为了争夺他送了很多礼物给浏览器,但是苗条对于浏览器来说就跟苗条对世界小姐一样重要。因为他苗条,我们使用他的时候不用安装其他客户端软件,因为苗条,我们使用他的使用不需要消耗太多的CPU和内存。也因为苗条他挤掉了在传统思想里面能够被Internet化的客户端软件的份额。这一切还不够,因为Microsoft和NetScape送的礼物和新技术开始抢夺传统思想里面能够被Internet化的客户端软件的份额。

     Microsoft和NetScape送的礼物是啥,一个叫Ajax的精灵。其实Ajax不忘本的话他应该叫DHTML,这个在Microsoft和NetScape大战时候收到的礼物,一直到了最近才被浏览器抹去尘土而打开。Ajax的心脏是一个叫XmlHttpRequest的技术,一个看起来非常技术化的词汇。说简单点XmlHttpRequest就是浏览器在不按F5,不提交表单的情况下就可以获取服务器上新的数据。也许你不做互联网开发,不知道不刷新获取新数据意味着啥。浏览器天生的苗条意味着他不像其他客户端软件保持一个长连接来实时获取数据,就意味着获取新的数据需要通过不断的刷新或者不断的表单提交而获取。因为你不能容许每做一次操作都需要重新访问web服务器重新刷新页面,所以无休止的刷新浏览器意味着浏览器不能成为其他客户端一样成为你编写表格或者成为你与别人打麻将的工具;而这一切因为XmlHttpRequest而终止。Google的spreed sheet替浏览器告诉你浏览器能够完成微软的Office所能完成的一切,虽然他刚出生才学会如何走路,但是它右上角粉红色的四个字Beta会让你有更多的期待。在Web2.0的时代,Ajax才刚起步,没有非常适合他的IDE,没有全面的SDK,但他还是成为众多网站架构的核心驱动力,而IDE,SDK都在被完善,这个完善过程的参与者不仅仅是微软、SUN这些软件业的大鳄,也包括了互联网的新贵Google、Yahoo甚至才冒出来的facebook。在这个礼物的赠送者的名单上也增加了这些未来的大鳄的署名。

  

浏览器不再骨感:Flex

    Flash这个名字在互联网上已经耳熟能详。而在 1993年乔纳森.盖(Jonathan Gay)在用自己开发的Future Splash Animator的软件应用于迪斯尼网站项目的时候不会想到他的这个发明会对互联网产生如此深刻的影响,不然他不会将它轻易的卖给Macromedia。Macromedia收购了Future Splash Animator并将它改名为Flash1.0。到了98年5月Flash 3.0推出时Flash作为真正的互联网多媒体软件,被应用于非常多的领域。

     尽管Flash如日中天,他的局限性也显而易见,它不擅长与服务器进行交互(虽然它有flash remoting),不具可编程性(虽然它有action script)。它虽然演技了得,但是由于它的局限性它在一直是互联网舞台的配角,它被用来当作装饰html的工具,使得html看起来更加充满活力;但多年以来配角的地位一直未变,他无法替代html成为互联网UI的基础。Macromedia公司比其他人更容易看到这个问题,所以他开发了一个软件叫Flash Generator,这个可以在服务器端生成特定flash播放文件的服务器软件。但他没有改变flash的制作方式同样也没有大幅度改善Flash的局限性,所以到了2.0以后就销声匿迹。

     2004年Macromedia公司诞生了一个婴儿名字叫Flex, 同时也诞生了一个新的标记语言叫:MXML,或许将来MXML会跟HTML一样伟大。有了Flex人们发现可以使用编写HTML一样的方式来生成flash,因为MXML是文本格式的。文本格式意味着我可以使用现有的开发语言(JSP,PHP,Perl,C#)就可以生成Flash文件,意味着我们可以将Web的应用由HTML的表现形式全部转换成Flash的表现形式,这还是开始,因为Flash只有在加载的时候需要http协议,而一旦加载此后所有的舞台全部交给了Flash,它意味着Web可以彻底告别Web浏览器短连接的时代,意味着你可以使用任何方式来获取服务器上的数据而不一定是HTTP协议。

     Flash以及Flex的新东家Adobe公司在收购了Macromedia公司宣布:Flex以MozillaPublic License (MPL)的授权模式开源。这不仅包括了Flex SDK中ActionScript组件的源代码,还包括了ActionScript和MXML 编译器的Java源代码,AtionScript调试器,SDK中的核心库。Flex SDK包含了创建Flex应用程序的所有组件。Flex程序可以运行于Macos X, Window和linux的主要浏览器上,而其现在还可以运行在Apollo平台上。开发人员可以自由的使用Flex SDK或者Adobe Flex Builder来开发和部署Flex 程序。这无疑释放了Flex全部的束缚加入到这场悄然的互联网革命当中。

     Flex虽然被称为富媒体应用RIA(rich internet application)的代表,相比于其他客户端软件,它依然是轻量级的,所以他不会改变浏览器的苗条特性,但使得浏览器不在那么苗条的瘦骨嶙峋。

 

 

革命的本质:Web化:

    这一次悄然发生的革命的本质是web化。互联网的很多应用已经或者正在被Web化(基于Telnet的BBS被Web化了,基于IRC的聊天也被Web化了),而这一趋势正在因为这场革命而被加速。

     浏览器在互联网的统治地位是不容置疑的,但是它所涉及领域深度如何我们需要重新思考。我们拿互联网目前最广泛的电子邮件来说明,虽然有WebMail,但是多数人的选择还是Outlook,Foxmail这样的邮件客户端。原因很简单,它的Web化由于技术的原因所带来的好处远没有Outlook,Foxmail这样的邮件客户端带来的方便那么吸引人。而这一切正在因为Google的创新而改变。Gmail看似跟其他的WebMail没有太多本质的区别,但是它悄然改变着人们使用电子邮件的习惯。邮件的全文检索使得几个G的邮件在几秒内就完成,如果使用客户端估计硬盘要响上一阵子;邮件的上下文关联,使得相关的邮件能够一目了然,如果使用客户端软件估计眼睛要累上一段时间;邮件直接阅读和编辑word,Execl文件,如果使用客户端估计软件启动等上一小会(当然严格来说你还要花钱问微软买word,Execl软件)。这些还没完,因为他是Web化的,你不需要安装特别的软件,不需要升级这些软件,不用担心软件的漏洞给你的操作系统带来的伤害,不用担心病毒破坏你的邮件,更不用担心系统重装后会丢失这些邮件。

    Web化在其擅长的领域正在进行,而在被普遍认为不擅长的领域也在进行。前面提到的Google spreed sheet正在进行着Office软件的Web化;Travian整个风靡全球的Web Game正在侵蚀着大型MMRPG的市场份额;meebo正在把IM搬到Web浏览器里面。这一切都得益于Ajax,Flex这些RIA的技术。还有人试图将操作系统也Web话,来实现上世纪末NC(Network Computer)的梦想。

  

巨头的梦想:Inside

   说到Inside这个单词,似乎一直跟Intel公司联系在一起。这里所说的Inside是指平台或者更本质的说是基础。从这个角度来说目前把Inside做的最好的是微软公司,无论你是否是Linux忠实的拥护者还是刚刚接触电脑的新手,Microsoft都无处不在。你可以不用Word软件,但是你无法避免别人给你发过来的word写的文档;你可以使用Linux作为Web服务器,但是你不得不考虑你的页面在Internet Explorer会显示成怎么样。

    而互联网巨头们因为这场革命发现他们与微软如此接近,开始谋划着他在互联网领域或者它所涉及的互联网领域的Inside梦想。Google来了,他用code.google.com来告诉你,你可以使用它提供的api将Google的服务无缝的融入到你的系统,甚至你可以完全利用Google提供服务开发新的应用。Facebook带来了它的F8,告诉你Facebook上的庞大的用户群可以为你所用,他甚至开放了SNS网站的核心:用户之间的人际关系。Yahoo也来了,他带着Yui告诉你:你可以跟Yahoo的工程师一样的方式开发者互联网应用。他们需要的不是你的流量,不需要你给他带来美钞,他要做的是在你的网站的心脏印上他的Logo。

 


39条评论

  1. 3.0怎么样了?

  2. very good

  3. 这不叫一场革命吧?it技术总是在不停的进步,互联网也一样。这些,很多不过是互联网技术的进步而已,算不上一场革命。

  4. 对ajax的感觉太妙了!第二次的工业革命应该在我有生之年都能看到的,但是第三次的工业革命的确在慢慢地渗透着.

  5. 这个新鲜,第一次听:”浏览器不再骨感:Flex“

    受教了。谢谢。

  6. WEB化一个词就够了;就是广义的社区化吗?!这样说更符合生活而不仅是网络,这样说是本土化说法吗。谢谢作者

  7. 受教了。

  8. 技术要让生活更美好

    才可以造成革命

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