androidjiaoliang

   前言

    开源这个开放源代码的中文缩写,这个承载了软件行业光荣与梦想的单词,造就了Emacs、Linux、Netscape、Firefox、MySql、Apache、JBoss这样可以与商业软件媲美的自由软件。开源也在让Android在短短几年间就成了移动操作系统不能被忽视的力量。

    但梦想终归是梦想,当Sun收购Mysql,然后被Oracle收购;当RedHat收购JBoss;当Eclipse背后晃动的IBM的蓝色身影;当RedHat、Novell、Intel在贡献着Linux Kernel大部分代码,当70到95%的开发者是拿着报酬写着一行一行的Linux Kernel的代码。那个Stallman的GNU的梦想与现实的软件产业已经分道扬镳。开源之路不会终止,因为它已经是商业公司达到某一商业目的的手段,Android亦如此。

    但开源对于商业公司来说终归是一件危险的行为。如果丧失了对开了源的软件控制力,那么悲剧或许会上演。悲剧不乏先例,被WebKit边缘化的KHTML就是一个很好的例子。或许很多人知道苹果的Safari、Google的Chrome浏览器、Google的Chrome OS、Palm的WebOS都拥有相同的心:浏览器渲染引擎WebKit。但你如果不熟悉Linux,你或许没听说过KHTML、以及以KHTML为核心的Konqueror浏览器。当2002年苹果公司选用KHTML作为自身浏览器的引擎的时候,KDE还在期待苹果为KHTML带来新气象,毕竟同时要面对微软的Internet Explorer以及同样开源的Mozilla,KDE自身的力量太过渺小。但当脱胎于KHTML的WebKit与KHTML越来越多开发模式的分歧,双方的代码无法兼容。KDE正在丧失浏览器渲染引擎的控制力。有苹果公司支持的WebKit如日中天,而KHTML依然默默无闻。

    Google:领导者的角色不容挑战

    Android的开源对于Google这样的公司符合商业逻辑。在拥有Android前,Google在即将到来的移动互联网时代没有任何资本。除去手机终端厂家以外,微软这个Google的老对手的Windows Mobile正在试图一如PC操作系统那样统治着手机操作系统。与移动通讯本来毫无关系的苹果公司的iPhone正在带领着手机行业进入互联网时代。开源免费或许是Android这个移动操作系统后来者要想实现成语“后来居上”唯一而且最有效的手段。因为Google是一家互联网公司,一家互联网软件公司,而非手机制造商。获取手机操作系统的授权费对于Google来说相比其未来移动互联网的地位和利益过于微不足道,因为后者关乎Google这家公司的存亡。

    但Android并不是像Linux Kernel、Apache Web Server那样纯粹意义的开源软件。Google牢牢控制着Android的代码开发。因为Google一旦丧失Android的控制力,那么KHTML那样的悲剧或许会重演。当别的开源软件及时的发布着未来版本的测试版代码的时候,Android却在玩着时间差的把戏。当搭载Android 2.1系统的谷歌Nexus One上市的时候,Android Git服务器(分布式版本控制软件,Google通过git.android.com服务器发布源代码)上却找不到2.1版本的任何代码,即便稍后发布的2.1的SDK也没有2.1版本特有的动态桌面。这样的做法并非偶然,因为在08年为了吸引开发者开发Android应用的ADC(Android Developer Challenge)大赛中,不更新SDK长达4个月,仅仅ADC第二轮选手获得了1.5版本的SDK,而其他的开发人员只能使用1.1版本进行开发。时间差对于Google来说是有效防止Android出现其他重大分支最好的办法。因为当你拿着Android代码进行开发和增加新功能的时候,新版本Android的突然释出,很可能让你的努力付诸东流,因为你修改的代码或许无法合并到新版的系统之中。

    没有Gmail、GMap、GTalk、Google Market的Android手机或许称不上合格的Gphone。这些Android上的重要应用包含在GMS(Google Mobile Services)中。这些与Google的服务紧密结合的软件并非开源软件,你也无法在Android的Git服务器获取这些软件的二进制代码。GMS二进制代码的获取需要Google授权,这或许是Google另外一种控制力把控的手段。

    2010年1月6日Google自主品牌的Nexus One上市,虽然很大程度有考虑与苹果公司iPhone竞争的因素。但Moto Dorid上市74天售出100万部的业绩或许让Google有些担心,一旦一个终端厂家在Android的市场份额中占据相当的比重,那么这家公司在Android的生态链中,或者说在OHA联盟(Google android手机开放联盟)在话语权就会上升。一旦该厂家在Android系统中自主产生重大分支,那么类似Linux发行版分裂的局面就会出现,或许这是Google最不愿意看到的。尽管Nexus One销售业绩不甚理想,74天只售出13.5万部,但Google在Android系统中的主导权得到进一步维护。

    终端厂家:寻找核心竞争力
   
    HTC与MOTO应该是目前Android系统最核心的两家手机终端厂家。或许也是在Android收益最大的手机生产商。不过开源的Android,随着更多的Android手机上市,在可预见的将来势必会带来激烈的同质竞争。虽然与Google有着良好的合作关系,但Android系统本身无法给两家公司带来有别于其他终端厂家的核心竞争力。Moto的第一款Android手机CLIQ就采用了MOTO自主开发的Moto Blur界面,而HTC也在Hero手机上首次采用了自有的HTC Sense界面。殊路同归的做法,无非是两家公司希望能够在Android系统之上定制个性化的东西,以期待将来的竞争中有自己的核心竞争力。Nexus One的上市或许让刚刚压了全部身家到Android系统之上的Moto相当的不爽。Moto在2010年曾经指出自己生产的GPhone手机可以非常方便的替换手机内置的Google搜索引擎为第三方搜索引擎。2010年3月12日Moto更宣称在中国上市的Android手机将会默认采用微软的必应作为内置的搜索引擎。同时Moto自主的Android应用商店Shop4apps也已经在开发日程之上。

    联想手机在与中移动合作开发基于OMS系统手机O1尝到了甜头。在CES 2010展会上,同样基于Android改造的联想自主的系统乐Phone得以面世。而联想集团在09年年底2亿美金回购联想手机也说明了联想集团在手机领域的野心,一个苹果公司式的野心。而这样的野心如果寄存在原生的Android系统之上,联想还不够有底气。而乐Phone系统的开发使得联想有了自身的控制力,一个不完全受制于Google的控制力。
    OMS:业务控制力的代价

    互联网带给运营商不断增长的互联网接入收入的同时,也在使得运营商逐渐被管道化。运营商在收取宽带接入费用的同时,更多的时候成了互联网的看客。因为互联网的发展让人与人的联系越来越与电话无关,在互联网上人与人的沟通更多的是通过即时通讯软件以及Email。而移动互联网的发展对与运营商来说或许会是传统互联网的尴尬局面再次重演。不过有别于传统互联网PC操作系统Windows一家独大的局面无法改变,智能手机操作系统竞争的序幕刚刚拉开。即便占据市场份额最大的Symbian系统也只有十二年不到的历史。但由于运营商不生产手机,也不开发手机操作系统。在手机终端的控制力相当有限。虽然NTT DoCoMo曾在手机操作系统与Symbian有过合作,不过也就是Symbian为NTT DoCoMo的FOMA手机提供源代码,以便为终端厂家开发FOMA手机提供必要的支持。开放源代码的Android,而且基于Apache License的授权方式,给了运营商一个从手机操作系统层面控制业务提供了一个手段。有着UT背景的博思一如小灵通引入中国的拿来主义路径,在Android上开发了OMS这个中国移动“深度定制”的移动操作系统。OMS在终端手机上完整深度订制了“飞信、快讯、无线音乐随身听、139邮箱、移动梦网、号簿管家、百宝箱等”中国移动数据业务。

    但事情并非一如中移动所期待那样发展。在获取了更大的业务控制权的时候也带来了负面的影响。Android在去年高速的版本升级,让基于Android 1.5开发的OMS非常尴尬。修改了大量代码的OMS,要想跟上Android的版本更新相当的不易。博思公司相比Google的开发能力,二次开发的系统无法做到原生Android系统那样稳定,况且Android在1.5版本的时候本身就不够稳定。二次授权的OMS,一定也无法获得Android上关键应用GMS的”批发”权限。使用OMS系统的手机,没有Gmail、GMap、GTalk、Google Market,缺少吸引力,甚至无法稳定运行为Android开发的应用程序。OMS的存在或许还带来另外一个严重的负面问题,中国移动用户或许无法拥有一款基于原生Android系统的TD-SCDMA的手机。作为MOTO Sholes(该系列在国外有:dorid,milestone,在国内有:XT800,XT710,XT701)的TD版本的手机XT701在上市的时候已经被更换为了OMS,而非Android 2.0系统。
   Android上的博弈或许才刚刚开始。


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