2005年03月02日

http://www.whhit.com/department/english/wenzhang/ArticleShow.asp?ArticleID=252&ArticlePage=1

学点语言学
赵宝斌

语言学是对语言的系统研究,对于一个学习英语的人来说,应该懂一点语言学的知识,它可以在理论上对学习语言有指导作用,有助于更好的学习语言,下面介绍一点语言学知识。

I. Introduction

1. What is Language

Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication.

2. What is Linguistics(语言学)

Linguistics is the scientific study of language.

3.Some Basic Distinctions(区分) in Linguistics

3.1 Speech and Writing

One general principle(原则) of linguistic analysis is the primacy of speech over writing. Writing gives language new scope(范畴) and uses that speech does not have.

3.2 Descriptive(描述性) or Prescriptive(说明性)

A linguistic study is descriptive if it describes and analyses facts observed; it is prescriptive if it tries to lay down rules for “correct” behavior.

3.3 Synchronic(共时) and Diachronic(历时) Studies

The description of a language at some point in time is a synchronic study and The description of a language as it changes through time is a diachronic study.

3.4 Langue(语言) and Parole(言语)

This is a distinction made by the Swiss linguist F.De Saussure (索绪尔)early last century. langue refers to the abstract linguistic system shared by all the members of a speech community and parole refers to the actualized(实际的) language, or realization of langue.

3.5 Competence(能力)and Performance(行为)

Competence is the ideal language user’s knowledge of the rules of his language. Performance is the actual realization of this knowledge in utterances(发声).

4.The Scope of Linguistics

General linguistics is the study of language as a whole.

Phonetics(语音学) is the branch of linguistics which studies the characteristics of speech sounds and provides methods for their description, classification and transcription.

Phonology(音韵学) is the branch of linguistics which studies the sound patterns of languages.

Morphology(词法) is the branch of linguistics which studies the form of words.

Syntax(句法) is the branch of linguistics which studies the rules governing the combination of words into sentences.

Semantics(语义学) is the branch of linguistics which studies the meaning of language.

Applied linguistics(应用语言学) is the study of the teaching of foreign and second languages.

Sociolinguistics is the study of the relationship between language and society.

Psycholinguistics is the study of the relationship between language and the mind.

Historical Linguistics(历史语言学) is the study of language changes.

Anthropological linguistics(人文语言学) uses the theories and methods of anthropology to study language variation and language use in relation to the cultural patterns and beliefs of man.

Neurolinguistics(神经语言学) studies the neurological basis of language development and use in human beings.

Mathematical linguistics(数学语言学) studies the mathematical features of language, often employing models and concepts of mathematics.

Computational linguistics(计算语言学) is an approach to linguistics in which mathematical techniques and concepts(概念) are applied, often with the aid of a computer.

II. Phonetics(语音学)

1. scope of phonetics

Speech sounds may be studied from different angles, thus we have at least three branches of phonetics:

Articulatory phonetics(发音语音学)we may examine the way in which a speech sound is produced to discover which vocal organs are involved and how they coordinate(协调) in the process.

Auditory phonetics (听觉语音学)we may look into the impression a speaker makes on the hearer as mediated(调节) by the ear, the auditory nerve(神经) and the brain.

Acoustic phonetics (声学语音学) we study the physical properties of speech sounds, as transmitted(传送) between mouth and ear.

2. The vocal organs

The vocal organs may be viewed as consisting of three parts, the initiator of the air-stream,(气流发生器官) the producer of voice(声音发生器官) and the resonating cavities.(声音共振器官)

3. Consonants(辅音)

Places of articulation(发音部位): bilabial,(双唇) Labiodentals,(唇齿) dental,(齿) alveolar,(齿龈) retroflex,(卷舌) palate-alveolar,(上齿龈) palatal,(上颚) velar,(软腭) uvular,(小舌) glottal(声门)

Manners of articulation: plosive,(暴破) nasal,(鼻音) trill,(颤音) lateral,(边音) fricative,(摩擦) approximant,(近似音) affricate(破擦)

4. Vowels (元音)

The classification of vowels: the height of tongue raising (high, mid, low), the position of the highest part of the tongue(front, central, back), and the degree of lip rounding(rounded, unrounded)

III. Phonology(音韵学)

1. phonemes(音素):a distinctive(有区别的) sound in a language.

2. Allophones(音位变体):The nondistinctive sounds are members of the same phoneme.

3. Minimal pairs(最小对立体): word forms which differ from each other only by one sound.

4. Free variation (自由变异):If two sounds occurring in the same environment(环境), they does not produce a different word form, but merely a different pronunciation of the same word.

5. Complementary distribution(补充分类):Not all the speech sounds occur in the same environment. When two sounds never occur in the same environment

6.Suprasegmental phonology(超音段音位):the study of phonological properties(性质) of units lager than the segment-phoneme. They are syllable(音节), stress,(重音) word stress, sentence stress. pitch (音调)and intonation(语调).

IV. Morphology(词法)

1. inflection(构形法):the grammatical relationships through the addition of inflectional affixes.(屈折词缀)

2. Word-formation(构词):the processes(过程) of word variations signaling lexical relationships.(表明词法关系) They are compound(合成)and derivation (派生).

3. Morpheme(词素): the smallest unit in terms of relationship between expression and content.

4. Allomorph(同质异象变体): some morphemes have considerable variation, for instance, alternate shapes or phonetic forms.

5. Types of morphemes: They are roots,(词根) affix(词缀) and stem(词干).

6. Lexicon(语言词汇):in its most general sense, is synonymous with vocabulary.

7. Closed-class words(封闭性) and open-class words(开放性):the former whose membership is fixed or limited and the latter whose membership is in principle(实际上) indefinite or unlimited.

8. Word class(词性):It displays a wider range of more precisely defined classes.

9. Lexeme(词位):the smallest unit in the meaning system of a language that can be distinguished from other smaller units.

10. Idiom(习语,成语):Most phrasal lexemes are idioms. It is especially true for a sequence of words(词序) which is semantically(语义上) and often syntactically(句法上) restricted.(限制)

11. Collocation(搭配): the habitual(习惯的) co-occurrences (同时出现)of individual lexical items.

V. Syntax (句法)

1. Positional relation or word order(词序):the sequential(顺序) arrangement of words in a language.

2. Construction or constituent (句子结构): the overall process of internal (内部)organization of a grammatical unit .

3. Syntactic function(句法功能): the relationship between a linguistic form and other parts of the linguistic pattern in which it is used. The names of functions are expressed in terms of subjects, objects, predicates, modifiers,(修饰语) complements(补语), etc.

4. Category(范畴):It refers to classes and functions in its narrow sense, e.g. noun, verb, subject, predicate, noun phrase, verb phrase, etc. The categories of the noun include number, gender, case and countability.

5. Phrase: a single element of structure containing more than one word, and lacking the subject-predicate structure typical of clause.

6. Clause: a group of words with its own subject and predicate, if it is included in a larger sentence.

7. Sentence: It is the minimum part of language that expresses a complete thought.

VI. Semantics

1. Conceptualism or mentalism (概念主义):Following F. De Saussure(索学尔)’s “sign” theory, the linguistic sign is said to consist of a signifier (所指)and signified(被指), i.e., a sound image and a concept, liked by a psychological(心理的) “associative” bond.(相关联系)

2. Mechanism(机械主义):Some linguists, Bloomfield,(布鲁费尔德) for example, turned to science to counter(反)-act the precious theories and this leads to what call the mechanistic approach(方法). The nature of this theory has nothing to do with the scientific study of mental phenomena.(智力现象)

3. Contextualism (语境主义):It is based on the presumption(假定) that one can derive meaning from or reduce it to observable context.

4. Behaviorism (行为主义):Behaviourists attempt to define (定义)the meaning of a language form as “the situation(情景) in which the speaker utters(说话) it and the response(反应) it calls forth in the hearer.”

5. functionalism (功能主义):functionalists as represented (代表)by the Prague school(布拉格学派) linguists and neo-Firthian (新弗斯)linguists, approach the problem from an entirely new orientation(方法). They argue(争辩) that meaning could only be interpreted(解释) from its use or function in social life.

6. Sense relationships: While reference deals with the relationship between the linguistic elements, words, sentences, etc.,and the non-linguistic world of experience, sense relates to the complex system of relationships that hold between the linguistic elements themselves. They include synonymy(同义词),antonymy(反义词),hyponymy(下层次)Polysemy(一词多义)and Homonymy (同音异义词)

7. Semantic analysis: It includes 1) componential(成分) analysis which defines the meaning of a lexical element in terms of semantic components.(意义成分)2) predication (表述)analysis in which the meaning of a sentence is not merely the sum of the meanings of the words which compose it. 3) relational components in which the semantic analysis of some words presents a complicated picture, because they show relations between two and perhaps more terms.

VII. Language variation (语言变化)

1. Lexical change(词汇的变化):changes in lexis.

2. Invention: (新造词)new entities.

3. Compounding:(合成词)New words are sometimes constructed by combining two old words.

4. Blending: (混合词):It is a relatively complex form of compounding, in which two roots are blended by joining the initial part of the first root and the final part of the second root, or by joining the initial parts of the two roots.

5. Abbreviation or clipping:(缩写)A new word is created by cutting the final part or cutting the initial part.

6. acronym:(取首字母的缩写词)It is made up from the first letters of the name of an organization, which has a heavily modified (修饰) headword.

7. metanalysis:(再分化)It refers to a process through which a division is made where there were note before.

8. Back-formation:(逆构词) It refers to an abnormal(非正常) type of word-formation where a shorter word is derived by deleting(去掉) an imagined affix from a longer form already present in the language.

9. Analogical creation:(类比造词)It can account for(说明) the co-existence of two forms, regular and irregular, in the conjugation(结合) of some English verbs.

10. Borrowing(借用):English in its development has managed to widen her vocabulary by borrowing words from other languages.

11. Phonological change(音变):It is related to language variation in the phonological system of language. It includes loss,(省音) addition,(加音) assimilation,( 同化)dissimilation.(异化)

12. Grammatical change: Changes in both morphology(词法) and syntax(句法) are listed under this heading.

13. Semantic change:(语义变化)It includes broadening,(语义扩大) narrowing,(语义缩小) meaning shift,(意义转化) class shift(词性转换) and folk etymology.(词源变化)

14. Orthographic change :(正字法)Changes can also be found at the graphetic level.

2005年02月22日

2005专八新题型

发布日期:[2005-1-18 10:58:13] 来源: 王迈迈英语教学网 阅读次数:985


时间:185分钟

一。Listening comprehension
旧:A.talk B.conversation C.news broadcast D.note taking and gap filling

新:A.mini-leture(10个) B.conversation (5个) C.news broadcast(5个)


二。Reading comprehension

无fast reading只有normal reading 30分钟20个题


三。Humanities:

人文知识包括语言,语音,文化,英美概况等,不会太难(我们老师说的)10道选择题

四。改错(无变化)

五。Translation(无变化)

六。Writing:

400字,45分钟内(字数增多。时间变少)


其中听力中的mini lecture 就是note-taking 的部分。


总 则

国家教委<高等学校英语专业高年级英语教学大纲)规定,高等学校英语专业高年级英语的教学任务是“继续打好语言基本功,进一步扩大知识面,重点应放在培养英语综合技能,充实文化知识,提高交际能力上。” 同时,<大纲)也指出,“大纲的执行情况主要通过统一测试进行检查。”“测试和评分应力求尽快达到标准化和电脑化,使其具有科学性、客观性和可行性。”
根据(大纲)中的上述规定,英语专业八级考试大纲规定了以下原则及考试内容:

一、考试目的:
本考试的目的是检查大纲的执行情况,特别是大纲所规定的八级水严所要达到的综合语言技能和交际能力,藉以促进大纲的进一步贯彻,提高教学质量。

二、考试的性质与范围:
本考试是一种测试应试者单项和综合语言能力的尺度参照性水平考试。考试的范围包括大纲所规定的听、读、写、译四个方面的技能。由于大规模口试的条件目前尚不具备,所以有关“说”的技能暂缓测试。

三、考试时间与命题:
英语专业八级考试于每年3月份举行。由英语专业学生八级考试命题小组负责命题与实施。

四、考试内容:
本考试包括六个部分:听力理解,校对与改错,阅读理解,人文知识、翻译,写作。整个开始需要时间185分钟。

I.听力理解(PartI:Listening Comprehension)
测试要求:

(a)能听懂交际场合中各种英语会话和讲话。
(能听懂VOA或BBC、CNN等国外传媒的节目中有关政治、经济、文化教育、科技等方面的专题报道。
©能听懂有关政治、经济、历史、文化教育、语言文学、科普方面的一般讲座及讲座后的答问。
(d)时间25分钟。

题型:

听力理解部分采用填空题和多向选择题,包括三个项目:SectionA,SectionB,SectionC,共20题。
SectionA:Mini-lecture
由 900个单词的讲座和一项填空人物组成,要求边听边做笔记,然后完成填空人物。答题时间10分钟。本部分共10题。
SectionB:Conversation & Interview
约800个单词的会话组成,之后,有5道多选题。
SectionC:NewsBroadcast
若干新闻报道后,会有5道多选题。

注意:Section B&C的每一道题目后面有10秒的间隙,选一最佳答案。录音速度为每分钟约为150个单词。
念一遍!!!

Ⅱ.阅读理解 (PartII:ReadingComprehension)
测试要求:
(a)能读懂一般英美报刊杂志上的社论、政治和书评,既能理解其主旨和大意,又能分辨出其中的事实与细 节。
(能读懂一般历史传记及文学作品,既能理解其字面意义又能理解其隐含意义。
©能分析上述题材的文章的思想观点,通篇布局,语言技巧及修辞手法。
(D)能够在阅读中调整自己的阅读速度。
(E)考试时间 30分钟

题型:
采用多项选择题,选一最佳答案,数篇材料组成。含3,000个单词。每篇材料后面有若干小题。共20题。
速度:约150个单词/分钟。
选材:A) 题材广泛,社会、文化、科技、经济、日常知识,人物传记
体裁:记叙文、说明文、描写文、议论文、广告、说明书、图表
III. 人文知识 (Part III : General Knowledge)
测试要求:
A) 基本了解主要英语国家的地理、历史、现状、文化传统
初步具备英语文学知识
C) 初步具备英语语言知识
D) 考试时间 10分钟

题型
部分采用多选形式,选出一道最佳答案。共10题。
测试范围:
A) 英语国家社会和文化知识
英语文学知识
C) 英语语言知识
改错题 (Part IV:ProofreadingandErrorCorrection)
测试要求:
要求学生能运用语法、修辞、结构等语言知识识别短文内的语病并提出改正的方法。

题型:
本题由一篇250词左右的短文组成,短文中有10行标有题号。该10行均含有一个语误。要求学生根据“增添”、“删去”或“改变其中的某一单词或短语”三种方法中的一种,以改正语误。考试时间共计15分钟.共10题。
IV.翻译 (Part V:Translation)
测试要求:
汉译英项目要求应试者运用汉译英的理论和技巧,翻译我国报刊杂志上的论述文和国情介绍,以及一般文学作品的节录。速度为每小时约250-300汉字。译文必须忠实原意,语言通顺。
英译汉项目要求应试者运用英译汉的理论和技巧,翻译英、美报刊杂志上有关政治、经济、历史、文化等方面的论述文以及文学原著的节录。速度为每小时约250-300词。译文要求忠实原意,语言流畅。

题型:
本题分为两项:SectionA及SectionB。考试时间共计60分钟。
SectionA:
A 150词左右的段落被底线划出。要求根据上下文将此段 落译成英语。

SectionB:
B 150词左右的段落被底线划出。要求根据上下文将此段落译成汉语。

V.写作 (Part VI:Writing)
测试要求:
学生应能根据所给题目及要求撰写一篇400词左右的说明文或议论文。该作文必须语言通顺,用词得体,结构合理,文体恰当,具有说服力。

题型:
要求应试者按题撰文。考试时间为45分钟。
TEM 8答题和计分

试卷各部分采用记权的办法,折算成百分制。以60分为及格标准。
1. 听力25分钟 A) 主观题 10 题,10分,C)客观题各5题,共10分。
2. 阅读 30分钟 客观题 20题,20分
3. 人文知识 10分钟,客观题,10题,10分
4. 改错 15分钟,10题,10分
5. 翻译 时间60分钟。中英互译,各一题,各10分
6. 写作 时间 45分钟,主观题,20分

总计 185分钟。


2004年专业8级试卷部分

发布日期:[2004-11-11 9:50:37] 来源: 武汉外研所 阅读次数:2067


2004年英语专业八级考试历年全真试卷

试卷一 (95 min)

Part Listening Comprehension (40 min)

In Sections A,B and C you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on your coloured answer sheet.


 

SECTION A TALK

Questions 1 to 5 refer to the talk in this section. At the end of the talk you will be given 75 seconds to answer the questions.

Now listen to the talk.

1.The parallel between waltzing and language use lies in ____.

A.the coordination based on individual actions

B.the number of individual participants

C.the necessity of individual actions

D.the requirements for participants

2.In the talk the speaker thinks that language use is a(n) ____ process.

A.individual

B.combined

C.distinct

D.social

3.The main difference between personal and nonpersonal settings is in ____.

A.the manner of language use

B.the topic and content of speech

C.the interactions between speaker and audience

D.the relationship between speaker and audience

4.In fictional settings, speakers ____.

A.hide their real intentions

B.voice others intentions

C.play double roles on and off stage

D.only imitate other people in life

5.Compared with other types of settings, the main feature of private setting is ____.

A.the absence of spontaneity

B.the presence of individual actions

C.the lack of real intentions

D.the absence of audience

SECTION B INTERVIEW

Questions 6 to 10 are based on an interview. At the end of the interview you will be given 75 seconds to answer the questions.

Now listen to the interview.

6.What was education like in Professor Wangs days?

A.Students worked very hard.

B.Students felt they needed a second degree.

C.Education was not careeroriented.

D.There were many specialized subjects.

7.According to Professor Wang, what is the purpose of the presentday education?

A.To turn out an adequate number of elite for the society.

B.To prepare students for their future career.

C.To offer practical and utilitarian courses in each programme.

D.To set up as many technical institutions as possible.

8.In Professor Wangs opinion, technical skills ____.

A.require good education

B.are secondary to education

C.dont call for good education

D.dont conflict with education

9.What does Professor Wang suggest to cope with the situation caused by increasing numbers of feepaying students?

A.Shifting from one programme to another.

B.Working out ways to reduce student number.

C.Emphasizing better quality of education.

D.Setting up stricter examination standards.

10.Future education needs to produce graduates of all the following categories EXCEPT ____.

A.those who can adapt to different professions

B.those who have a high flexibility of mind

C.those who are thinkers, historians and philosophers

D.those who possess only highly specialized skills

SECTION C NEWS BROADCAST

Questions 11 to 13 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item,

you will be given 45 seconds to answer the questions.

Now listen to the news.

11.Which of the following regions in the world will witness the sharpest

drop in life expectancy?

A.Latin America.

B.SubSaharan Africa.

C.Asia.

D.The Caribbean.

12.According to the news, which country will experience small life expectancy drop?

A.Burma.

B.Botswana.

C.Cambodia.

D.Thailand.

13.The countries that are predicted to experience negative population growth are mainly in ____

A.Asia.

B.Africa.

C.Latin America.D.The Caribbean.

Questions 14 and 15 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 30 seconds to answer the questions.

Now listen to the news.

14.The trade dispute between the European Union and the US was caused by ____.

A.US refusal to accept arbitration by WTO

B.US imposing tariffs on European steel

C.US refusal to pay compensation to EU

D.US refusal to lower import duties on EU products

15.Who will be consulted first before the EU list is submitted to WTO?

A.EU member states.

B.The United States.

C.WTO.

D.The steel corporations.

SECTION D NOTE-TAKING AND GAP-FILLING

In this section you will hear a minilecture. You will hear the lecture ONCE ONLY. While listening to the lecture, take notes on the important points. Your notes will not be marked, but you will need them to complete a 15minute gapfilling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE after the minilecture. Use the blank sheet for notetaking.

Conversation Skills

People who usually make us feel comfortable in conversations are good talkers. And they have something in common, i.e. skills to put people at ease.

1. Skill to ask question

1) be aware of the human nature: readiness to answer others questions regardless of (1)____ (1)____

2) start a conversation with some personal but unharmfull

questions about ones (2)____ job (2)____

questions about ones activities in the (3)____ (3)____

3) be able to spot signals for further talk

2. Skill to (4)____for answers (4)____

1) dont shift from subject to subject

sticking to the same subject: signs of (5)____in (5)____

conversation

2) listen to (6)____of voice (6)____

If people sound unenthusiastic, then change subject.

3) use eyes and ears

steady your gaze while listening

3. Skill to laugh

Effects of laughter:

ease peoples (7)____ (7)____

help start (8)____ (8)____

4. Skill to part

1) importance: open up possibilities for future friendship or

contact

2) ways:

men: a smile, a (9)____ (9)____

women: same as (10)____now (10)____

how to express pleasure in meeting someone.

Part Proofreading and Error Correction (15 min)

The passage contains TEN errors. Each indicated line contains a maximum of ONE error. In each case, only ONE word is involved. You should proofread the passage and correct it in the following way:

For a wrong word, underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank provided at the end of the line.

For a missing word, mark the position of the missing word with a “∧” sign and write the word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the line.

For an unnecessary word, cross the unnecessary word with a slash /and put the word in the blank provided at the end of the line.

Example

When art museum wants a new exhibit, (1) an

it never buys things in finished form and hangs (2) never

them on the wall. When a natural history museum

wants an [ZZ(Z]exhibition[ZZ)], it must often build it. (3)exhibit

Proofread the given passage on ANSWER SHEET TWO as instructed.

One of the most important non-legislative functions of the U.S Congress

is the power to investigate. This power is usually delegated to committees – either

standing committees, special committees set for a specific (1)____

purpose, or joint committees consisted of members of both houses. (2)____

Investigations are held to gather information on the need for

future legislation, to test the effectiveness of laws already passed,

to inquire into the qualifications and performance of members and

officials of the other branches, and in rare occasions, to lay the (3)____

groundwork for impeachment proceedings. Frequently, committees

rely outside experts to assist in conducting investigative hearings (4)____

and to make out detailed studies of issues. (5)____

There are important corollaries to the investigative power. One

is the power to publicize investigations and its results. Most (6)____

committee hearings are open to public and are reported (7)____

widely in the mass media. Congressional investigations

nevertheless represent one important tool available to lawmakers (8)____

to inform the citizenry and to arouse public interests in national issues.

(9)____

Congressional committees also have the power to compel

testimony from unwilling witnesses, and to cite for contempt

of Congress witnesses who refuse to testify and for perjury

these who give false testimony. (10)____

Part Reading Comprehension (30 min)

In this section there are four reading passages followed by a total of fifteen multiplechoice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on your coloured answer sheet.

TEXT A

Farmers in the developing world hate price fluctuations. It makes it hard to plan ahead. But most of them have little choice: they sell at the price the market sets. Farmers in Europe, the U.S. and Japan are luckier: they receive massive government subsidies in the form of guaranteed prices or direct handouts. Last month U.S. President Bush signed a new farm bill that gives American farmers $190 billion over the next 10 years, or $83 billion more than they had been scheduled to get, and pushes U.S. agricultural support close to crazy European levels. Bush said the step was necessary to promote farmer independence and preserve the farm way of life for generations. It is also designed to help the Republican Party win control of the Senate in Novembers midterm elections.

Agricultural production in most poor countries accounts for up to 50% of GDP, compared to only 3% in rich countries. But most farmers in poor countries grow jus

t enough for themselves and their families. Those who try exporting to the West find their goods whacked with huge tariffs or competing against cheaper subsidized goods. In 1999 the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development concluded that for each dollar developing countries receive in aid they lose up to $14 just because of trade barriers imposed on the export of their manufactured goods. Its not as if the developing world wants any favours, says Gerald Ssendwula, Ugandas Minister of Finance. What we want is for the rich countries to let us compete.”

Agriculture is one of the few areas in which the Third World can compete. Land and labour are cheap, and as farming methods develop, new technologies should improve output. This is no pieinthesky speculation. The biggest success in Kenyas economy over the past decade has been the boom in exports of cut flowers and vegetables to Europe. But that may all change in 2008, when Kenya will be slightly too rich to qualify for the leastdeveloped country status that allows African producers to avoid paying stiff European import duties on selected agricultural products. With trade barriers in place, the horticulture industry in Kenya will shrivel as quickly as a discarded rose. And while agriculture exports remain the great hope for poor countries, reducing trade barriers in other sectors also works: Americas African Growth and Opportunity Act, which cuts duties on exports of everything from handicrafts to shoes, has proved a boon to Africas manufacturers. The lesson: the Third World can prosper if the rich world gives it a fair go.

This is what makes Bushs decision to increase farm subsidies last month all the

more depressing. Poor countries have long suspected that the rich world urges rade liberalization only so it can wangle its way into new markets. Such suspicions caused the Seattle trade talks to break down three years ago. But last November members of the World Trade Organization, meeting in Doha, Qatar, finally agreed to a new round of talks designed to open up global trade in agriculture and

textiles. Rich countries assured poor countries, that their concerns were finally being addressed. Bushs handout last month makes a lie of Americas commitment to those talks and his personal devotion to free trade.

16.By comparison, farmers ____ receive more government subsidies than others.

A.in the developing world

B.in Japan

C.in Europe

D.in America

17.In addition to the economic considerations, there is a ____ motive behind Bushs signing of the new farm bill.

A.partisan

B.social

C.financial

D.cultural

18.The message the writer attempts to convey throughout the passage is that ____.

A.poor countries should be given equal opportunities in trade

B.the leastdeveloped country status benefits agricultural countries

C.poor countries should remove their suspicions about trade liberalization

D.farmers in poor countries should also receive the benefit of subsidies

19.The writers attitude towards new farm subsidies in the U.S. is ____.

A.favourable

B.ambiguous

C.critical

D.reserved

TEXT B

Oscar Wilde said that work is the refuge of people who have nothing better to do. If so, Americans are now among the worlds saddest refugees. Factory workers in the United States are working longer hours than at any time in the past halfcentury. America once led the rich world in cutting the average working weekfrom 70 hours in 1850 to less than 40 hours by the 1950s. It seemed natural that as people grew richer they would trade extra earnings for more leisure. Since the 1970s, however, the hours clocked up by American workers have risen, to an average of 42 this year in manufacturing.

Several studies suggest that something similar is happening outside manufacturing: Americans are spending more time at work than they did 20 years ago. Executives and lawyers boast of 80hour weeks. On holiday, they seek out fax machines and phones as eagerly as Germans bag the best sunloungers. Yet working time in Europe and Japan continues to fall. In Germanys engineering industry the working week is to be trimmed from 36 to 35 hours next year. Most Germans get six weeks paid annual holiday; even the Japanese now take three weeks. Americans still make do with just two.

Germany responds to this contrast with its usual concern about whether peoples aversion to work is damaging its competitiveness. Yet German workers, like the Japanese, seem to be acting sensibly: as their incomes rise, they can achieve a better standard of living with fewer hours of work. The puzzle is why America, the worlds richest country, sees things differently. It is a puzzle with sinister

social implications. Parents spend less time with their children, who may be left alone at home for longer. Is it just a coincidence that juvenile crime is on the rise?Some explanations for Americas time at work fail to stand up to scrutiny. One blames weak trade unions that leave workers open to exploitation. Are workers being forced by costcutting firms to toil harder just to keep their jobs? A recent study by two American economists, Richard Freeman and Linda Bell, suggests not: when asked, Americans actually want to work longer hours. Most German workers, in contrast, would rather work less.

Then, why do Americans want to work harder? One reason may be that the real earnings of many Americans have been stagnant or falling during the past two decades. People work longer merely to maintain their living standards. Yet many higher

skilled workers, who have enjoyed big increases in their real pay, have been working harder too. Also, one reason for the slow growth of wages has been the rapid growth in employmentwhich is more or less where the argument began.Taxes may have something to do with it. People who work an extra hour in America are allowed to keep more of their money than those who do the same in Germany. Falls in marginal tax rates in America since the 1970s have made it all the more profitable to work longer.None of these answers really explains why the centurylong decline in working hours has gone into reverse in America but not elsewhere (though Britain shows signs of following Americas lead). Perhaps cultural differencesthe last refuge of the defeated economistare at play. Economists used to believe that once workers earned enough to provide for their basic needs and allow for a few luxuries, their incentive to work would be eroded, like lions relaxing after a kill. But humans are more susceptible to advertising than lions. Perhaps clever marketing has ensured that basic needs”—for a shower with builtin TV, for a rocketpropelled carexpand continuously. Shopping is already one of Americas most popular pastimes. But it requires moneyhence more work and less leisure.Or try this: the television is not very good, and baseball and hockey keep being wiped out by strikes. Perhaps Wilde was right. Maybe Americans have nothing better to do.

20.In the United States, working longer hours is ____.

A.confined to the manufacturing industry

B.a traditional practice in some sectors

C.prevalent in all sectors of society

D.favoured by the economists

21.According to the third paragraph, which might be one of the consequences of working longer hours?

A.Rise in employees working efficiency.

B.Rise in the number of young offenders.

C.Rise in peoples living standards.

D.Rise in competitiveness.

22.Which of the following is the cause of working longer hours stated by

the writer?

A.Expansion of basic needs.

B.Cultural differences.

C.Increase in real earnings.

D.Advertising.

TEXT C

The fox really exasperated them both. As soon as they had let the fowls out, in

the early summer mornings, they had to take their guns and keep guard; and then

again as soon as evening began to mellow, they must go once more. And he was so sly. He slid along in the deep grass; he was difficult as a serpent to see. And he seemed to circumvent the girls deliberately. Once or twice March had caught sight of the white tip of his brush, or the ruddy shadow of him in the deep grass, and she had let fire at him. But he made no account of this.The trees on the woodedge were a darkish, brownish green in the full lightfor it was the end of August. Beyond, the naked, copperlike shafts and limbs of the pine trees shone in the air. Nearer the rough grass, with its long, brownish stalks all agleam, was full of light. The fowls were round aboutthe ducks were still swimming on the pond under the pine trees. March looked at it all, saw it all, and did not see it. She heard Banford speaking to the fowls in the distanceand she did not hear. What was she thinking about? Heaven knows. Her consciousness was, as it were, held back.She lowered her eyes, and suddenly saw the fox. He was looking up at her. His chin was pressed down, and his eyes were looking up. They met her eyes. And he knew her. She was spellboundshe knew he knew her. So he looked into her eyes, and her soul failed her. He knew her, he has not daunted.She struggled, confusedly she came to herself, and saw him making off, with slow leaps over some fallen boughs, slow, impudent jumps. Then he glanced over his shoulder, and ran smoothly away. She saw his brush held smooth like a feather, she saw his white buttocks twinkle. And he was gone, softly, soft as the wind.

She put her gun to her shoulder, but even then pursed her mouth, knowing it was nonsense to pretend to fire. So she began to walk slowly after him, in the direction he had gone, slowly, pertinaciously. She expected to find him. In her heart she was determined to find him. What she would do when she saw him again she did not consider. But she was determined to find him. So she walked abstractedly about on the edge of the wood, with wide, vivid dark eyes, and a faint flush in her cheeks. She did not think. In strange mindlessness she walked hither and thither…

As soon as supper was over, she rose again to go out, without saying why.

She took her gun again and went to look for the fox. For he had lifted his eyes

upon her, and his knowing look seemed to have entered her brain. She did not so

much think of him: she was possessed by him. She saw his dark, shrewd, unabashed

eye looking into her, knowing her. She felt him invisibly master her spirit. She knew the way he lowered his chin as he looked up, she knew his muzzle, the golden brown, and the greyish white. And again she saw him glance over his shoulder at her, half inviting, half contemptuous and cunning. So she went, with her great startled eyes glowing, her gun under her arm, along the wood edge. Meanwhile

the night fell, and a great moon rose above the pine trees.

23.At the beginning of the story, the fox seems to the all EXCEPT ____.

A.cunning

B.fierce

C.defiant

D.annoying

24.As the story proceeds, March begins to feel under the spell of ____.

A.the light

B.the trees

C.the night

D.the fox

25.Gradually March seems to be in a state of ____.

A.blankness

B.imagination

C.sadness

D.excitement

26.At the end of the story, there seems to be a sense of ____ between March and the fox.

A.detachment

B.anger

C.intimacy

D.conflict

27.The passage creates an overall impression of ____.

A.mystery

B.horror

C.liveliness

D.contempt

TEXT D

The banners are packed, the tickets booked. The glitter and white overalls have

been bought, the gas masks just fit and the mobile phones are ready. All that remains is to get to the parties.

This week will see a feast of panEuropean protests. It started on Bastille Day

, last Saturday, with the French unions and immigrants on the streets and the first demonstrations in Britain and Germany about climate change. It will continue tomorrow and Thursday with environmental and peace rallies against President Bush. But the big one is in Genoa, on Friday and Saturday, where the G8 leaders will meet behind the lines of 18,000 heavily armed police.

Unlike Prague, Gothenburg, Cologne or Nice, Genoa is expected to be Europes Seattle, the coming together of the disparate strands of resistance to corporate globalisation.Neither the protesters nor the authorities know what will happen, but some things are predictable. Yes, there will be violence and yes, the mass media will focus on it. What should seriously concern the G8 is not so much the violence, the numbers in the streets or even that they themselves look like idiots hiding behind the barricades, but that the deep roots of a genuine new version of internationalism are growing.

For the first time in a generation, the international political and economic condition is in the dock. Moreover, the protesters are unlikely to go away, their confidence is growing rather than waning, their agendas are merging, the protests are spreading and drawing in all ages and concerns.

No single analysis has drawn all the strands of the debate together. In the mean

time, the global protest movement is developing its own language, texts, agendas, myths, heroes and villains. Just as the G8 leaders, world bodies and businesses talk increasingly from the same script, so the protesters once disparate

political and social analyses are converging. The longterm project of governments and world bodies to globalise capital and development is being mirrored by the globalisation of protest.

But what happens next? Governments and world bodies are unsure which way to turn. However well they are policed, major protests reinforce the impression of indifferent elites, repression of debate, overreaction to dissent, injustice and unaccountable power.

Their optionsapart from actually embracing the broad agenda being put to themare to retreat behind even higher barricades, repress dissent further, abandon global meetings altogether or, more likely, meet only in places able to physically resist the masses.

Brussels is considering building a super fortress for international meetings. Genoa may be the last of the European superprotests.

28.According to the context, the word parties at the end of the first paragraph refers to ____.

A.the meeting of the G8 leaders

B.the protests on Bastille Day

C.the coming panEuropean protests

D.the big protest to be held in Genoa

29.According to the passage, economic globalisation is paralleled by ____.

A.the emerging differences in the global protest movement

B.the disappearing differences in the global protest movement

C.the growing European concern about globalisation

D.the increase in the number of protesters

30.According to the last paragraph, what is Brussels considering doing?

A.Meeting in places difficult to reach.

B.Further repressing dissent.

C.Accepting the protesters agenda.

D.Abandoning global meetings.

SECTION B SKIMMING AND SCANNING (10 MIN)

In this section there are seven passages with ten multiplechoice questions. Skim or scan them as required and then mark your answers on your coloured answer sheet.

First read the question.

31.The main purpose of the passage is to ____.

A.demonstrate how to prevent crime

B.show the seriousness of crime

C.look into the causes of crime

D.call for more government efforts

Now go through TEXT E quickly to answer question 31.

For three weeks, every night at 11 p.m., correspondents, officers and judges from justice courts, police departments and prisons, psychiatrists, criminologists,

victims and even criminals in prisons made their appearance on TV to debate on

a topic Crime in the United States.

Indeed, crime has been disturbing the American people and has become a serious social problem just next to the unemployment problem. Some figures are terrifying

: 1 of 4 Americans has been a victim of some kind of crimes; nearly 22 million crimecases occurred last year throughout the country. A simple arithmetic calculation indicates that on average, a crime is being committed in every 2 seconds. Now the Americans are living in a horrible environment. Their safety and property are threatened by various crimes: robbery, theft, rape, kidnapping, murder, arson, vandalism and violence.

The most worrisome problem comes from the fact that about onethird of crime cases were committed by the juvenile and 53% of criminals in jails are youngsters

below 25. A poll indicates that about 73% of citizens said they avoided teenagers in streets, especially at night.

To protect themselves from crime, according to a released figure, 52% of Americans keep guns at home. But some gun owners turn out to be potential criminals. Some people demand that strict law for gun control be enforced; but others oppose the ban of gun. No decision is in sight.

Some experts said poverty, unemployment and racial discrimination are the cause

of crime. They cited figures to show that 47% of crime cases were committed by t

he black, though they account for only about 12% of the population of the nation

. Others argued that about 54% of convicted criminals came from families associated with these evils.

The American state government and federal government spend billions of dollars each year in maintaining the police departments and jails. But police authorities

complain that they have not sufficient welltrained hands and advanced equipment to detect and stop crimes. Several cases of criminal insurgence were reported

as a result of resentment at overcrowded prisons. Taxpayers complain that they pay more and more tax but receive less and less protection from crime for their lives and property.

Though the host of the live TV programme made great efforts to search for a solution, so far no participant could put forward a measure that was approved by most of the attendants.

TEXT F

First read the question.

32.What is the main topic of the following passage?

A.Differences between modes of learning.

B.Deficiencies of formal learning.

C.Advantages of informal learning.

D.Social context and learning systems.

Now go through TEXT F quickly to answer question 32.

The term formal learning is used in this paper to refer to all learning that

takes place in the classroom, irrespective of whether such learning is informed

by conservative or progressive ideologies. Informal learning, on the other

hand, is used to refer to learning which takes place outside the classroom.

These definitions provide the essential, though by no means sole, difference bet

ween formal and informal learning. Formal learning is decontextualised from daily life and, indeed, as Scribner and Cole (1973:553) have observed, may actually

promote ways of learning and thinking which often run counter to those nurtured in practical daily life. A characteristic feature of formal learning is the

centrality of activities that are not closely paralleled by activities outside the

classroom. The classroom can prepare for, draw on, and imitate the challenges of adult life outside the classroom, but it cannot, by its nature, consist of these challenges.

In doing this, language plays a critical role as the major channel for information exchange. Success in the classroom requires a student to master this abstract code. As Bernstein (1969:152) noted, the language of the classroom is more

similar to the language used by middleclass families than that used by workingclass families. Middleclass children thus find it easier to acquire the language of the classroom than their workingclass peers.

Informal learning, in contrast, occurs in the setting to which it relates, making learning immediately relevant. In this context, language does not occupy such

an important role: the childs experience of learning is more holistic, involving sight, touch, taste, and smellsenses that are underutilised in the classroom.While formal learning is transmitted by teachers selected to perform this role,

informal learning is acquired as a natural part of a childs development. Adults

or older children who are proficient in the skill or activity provide – sometime

s unintentionally – target models of behaviour in the course of everyday activity. Informal learning, therefore, can take place at any time and is not subject to the limitations imposed by institutional timetabling.

The motivation of the learner provides another critical difference between the two modes of learning. The formal learner is generally motivated by some kind of external goal such as parental approval, social status, and potential financial reward. The informal learner, however, tends to be motivated by successful completion of the task itself and the partial acquisition of adult status.

TEXT G

First read the question.

33.The three approaches mentioned in the passage aim at ____.

A.restructuring economy

B.improving the tax system

C.improving the living conditions

D.reducing poverty

Now go through TEXT G quickly to answer question 33.

As a rule, it is essential that the poors productive capabilities be mobilized

and the conditions for developing these human resources be improved. In this con

nection, German development policy has developed the following three approaches:

Structural reform: Structural reform is the preferred approach for reducing

poverty because it eliminates the causes of poverty rather than just its symptoms. It is vital that economic, political and social conditions which can alleviate poverty be established at national and international levels. Efforts at international level focus on fair conditions for international trade and competition.

At national level, the poor must be helped through structural reform such as the

introduction of democratic government, options for independent private enterprise, decentralization and agricultural reform. Development policy tools for realizing such reforms include political dialogue, political advisory services, structural adjustment measures and personnel and material support for reform efforts in the government, business and administrative sectors.— Direct measures: Projects of this category are aimed at directly helping the poor and improving their living conditions or increasing their job options and earning potential. Of special importance are those projects which provide help for selfhelp in reducing poverty. The material support and advisory services offered by these projects reinforce the poors will to help themselves and help eable them to lead selfsufficient lives. Typical direct aid projects include the construction of simple housing by selfhelp groups, the creation of a savings and loan system for the poorer segments of society and support for womens selfhelp organizations.

Indirect measures: A projects beneficiaries – its target group – are not only often difficult to identify clearly, they are also not necessarily all poor

people. In these cases, the project in question must be integrated into one of the partner nations overall or sectorspecific policies that aim at reducing poverty. A good illustration of this type of project is the use of advisory services to improve the tax system. Advising and upgrading the qualifications of personnel working in the fiscal system can lead to increased tax revenues which could be allocated for antipoverty measures. In keeping with this focus, German development assistance concentrates on the poorest nations and on projects to reduce poverty. In 1993, some 10 percent of the commitments Germany made for bilateral financial and technical assistance went to selfhelp projects aimed at reducing poverty. Basic needs projects comprised 48 percent of all projects and almost 30 percent of the commitments made for financial and technical assistance were allocated for the worlds least developed countries (LDCs).

TEXT H

First read the question.

34.What is the following passage mainly concerned with?

A.Educational facilities in Africa.

B.Founding a university for women.

C.Agricultural production in Zimbabwe.

D.Womens role in agricultural production.

Now go through TEXT H quickly to answer question 34.

Access to education facilities is inadequate in subSaharan Africa. And women and girls there face greater disadvantages. They are often denied education as customs dictate they marry early and have children.

Two Zimbabwean academics plan to open a university to help African women whose education was interrupted by either family commitments or financial constraints.

The university will initially be in Harare, but will be relocated to Marondera,

80 kilometres east. The academics, Hope Sadza, former deputy commissioner of Zimbabwes Public Service Commission and Fay Chung, former Minister of Education,

are to open the university this month. It will initially have 400 students.

Students will be split into groups of 100 and placed in one of four faculties: social science, agriculture, environmental studies or science and technology. The university is for women aged 25 or older.

The need for a university for women is more acute in Africa, where women are the

poorest and most disadvantaged. When they do have access to education they often must endure sexual harassment. Most women drop out because they lack educational materials or the schools are inaccessible.

In Africa, women till the land and produce the bulk of the food, yet they have

no understanding about marketing, Sadza siad. Agriculture is another area w

here we can empower women.”

The university will have a 285hectare farm and courses will include agricultural production and marketing.

Women account for 80 per cent of Africas agricultural production, but have no control over either the resources or policies.

The university since August has raised about Z$32.5 million (US$591,000) in donations and pledges. The university will be open to students from across Africa. It will be the second womens university – after Sudans Ahfad University – in Africa.

TEXT I

First read the questions.

35.Which president advocated the lifting of the ban on women teachers?

A.Xu Yangqiu.

B.Wu Yifang.

C.Tao Xingzhi.

D.Chen Heqin.

36.What is Guo Juefu?

A.A painter.

B.A poet.

C.A biologist.

D.A psychologist.

Now go through TEXT I quickly to answer questions 35 and 36.

Many presidents of the centuryold Nanjing Normal University (NJNU) have put forward insightful and inspiring education theories and practices, which have had

a farreaching impact on Chinas education history.

Jiang Qian and Guo Bingwen proposed a schoolrunning principle that advocated the balance between versatility and specialization, liberal arts and sciences.

Tao Xingzhi, a wellknown educator, carried out many important reforms in the university. For the first time in China, he advocated the lifting of the ban on women teachers and opened adult training classes in summer vacations.

Wu Yifang, Chinas first woman university president, emphasized normal education, regarding it as the parent engine and heavy industry of education.

Chen Heqin established a Chinesestyle and scientific theory for modern educati

on for children.

There have also been many noted scholars and artists.

Educator Xu Yangqiu was one of Chinas earliest scholars to study American education theory.

Professor Luo Bingwen devoted himself to normal education theory and Chinese and

foreign education history, advocating that teachers should be models of virtue

for the students so that their behaviour guides the students.

Psychologist Guo Juefu is an important figure in Chinas psychological history.

China Psychological HistoryWTBZ, a book he authored, has made its mark in international psychological circles.

Zhang Daqian, a wellknown master of traditional Chinese painting, advised his

students to read books systematically and selectively to rid themselves of worldliness, fickleness and pedantry. Zhang also pointed out that success comes largely from ones own endeavours, but partly from circumstance.

Sun Wang, a poet versed in the poems popular in the Tang Dynasty (AD 618907),

told students to map out a longterm schedule for their studies and to work to

wards fulfillment of their goal phase by phase.

Biologist Chen Bangjie overcame formidable difficulties to collect plant specimen and became Chinas father of bryology.

Generations of talented educators have given Nanjing Normal University a fine re

putation.

TEXT J

First read the questions.

37.The Chicago GSB M.B.A. Programme for Executives is scheduled to be completed within ____.

A.22 months

B.20 months

C.16 weeks

D.14 weeks

38.If you are in Malaysia, when is your attendance date?

A.January 17th.

B.January 15th.

C.January 29th.

D.February 27th.

Now go through TEXT J quickly to answer questions 37 and 38.

CHICAGOWorldwide campuses.Worldrenowned faculty.Worldclass M.B.A. degree.

A world of opportunity.

Limitless, lifelong opportunity awaits you when you attend the University of Chicago Graduate School of Business, and now you can do so from anywhere in the world.

Experience international business firsthand at the only topranked graduate school with campuses worldwide. The Chicago GSB M.B.A. Programme for Executives spreads 16 weeks of class sessions over 20 months so you can earn this renowned degree without leaving your job or relocating. Base your studies in Singapore; then collaborate with executives at our Chicago and Barcelona campuses. Learn not just the business theories of today but the business framework of tomorrow from the most acclaimed faculty in the world. Establish a global network of accomplished peers. And benefit for the rest of your life from the leadership training, the thinking, the relationships that become yours at Chicago GSB.

If you are a toplevel manager seeking an unparalleled general management education, apply to the Chicago GSB M.B.A. Programme for Executives.And be among those who shape the future.

The University of Chicago Graduate School of Business

Where worldclass leaders emerge.

Chicago GSB / Asia Campus

101 Penang Road, Singapore 238466

telephone 65 238 2196fax 65 835 6483

email singapore.inquiries@gsb.uchicago.edu

www.gsb.uchicago.edu/execMBASia

Please reserve your attendance by fax or email.

Jakarta 15/Jan,Tuesday

The Grand Hyatt Hotel 19:00-21:30

Manila 24/Jan,Tuesday Taipei

The ShangriLa Edsa Plaza 19:00-21:30 The Grand Formosa Regent

Hotel Hotel

17/Jan,Tuesday Kuala Lumpur 19/Feb,Tuesday

19:00-21:30 The Regent Hotel 19:00-21:30

29/Jan,Tuesday

Bangkok 19:00-21:30 Singapore

The Grand Hyatt Erawan Hotel GSB Asia Campus

22/Jan,Tuesday Hong Kong 27/Feb,Tuesday

19:00-21:30 The Mandarin Oriental Hotel 19:00-21:30

05/Feb,Tuesday

Tokyo 19:00-21:30

The Imperial Hotel

TEXT K

First read the questions.

39.Who has written Cultural Amnesia: Americas Future and the Crisis of Memory?

A.Michael G.Zey.

B.Stephen Bertman.

C.Don Tapscott, et al.

D.Marvin Cetron et al.

40.Which book is a collection of papers?

A.Digital Capital: Harnessing the Power of Business Webs.

B.Cheating Death: The Promise and the Future Impact of Trying to Live Forever.

C.The Future Factor: The Five Forces Transforming Our Lives and Shaping Human De

stiny.

D.The University in Transformation: Global Perspectives on the Future of the Uni

versity.

Now go through TEXT K quickly to answer questions 39 and 40.

Digital Capital: Harnessing the Power of Business Webs

by Don Tapscott, David Ticoll, and Alex Lowy.

Harvard Business School Press. 2000. 272 pages.

Electronic business webs have demolished the rules of competition. Innovative partnerships of digitally linked producers, suppliers, service providers, and customers are accelerating productivity and generating wealth in entirely new ways.

This book offers a behindthescenes look at success stories such as Linux, eBay, and Cisco, and provides a stepbystep process for implementing an effective businessweb strategy.

Regular Price:$27.50

The University in Transformation: Global Perspectives on the Future of the University

edited by Sohail Inayatullah and Jennifer Gidley.

Bergin & Garvey/Greenwood Publishing Group. 2000. 270 pages.

This anthology of essays from scholars around the world describes how the forces

of technology and economic globalization may alter what we think of as higher education. Topics include the virtual university, paying for college, feminist a

lternative universities, the role of corporations in higher education,and the ri

se of multiversities.

Regular Price:$65.00

The Future Factor: The Five Force Transforming Our Lives and Shaping Human Destiny

by Michael G.Zey.

McGrawHill. 2000. 289 pages.

This optimistic vision of the human future argues that unprecedented opportuniti

es for growth are emerging from breathtaking innovations in biotechnology, comput

ing, robotics, medicine, energy development, and space technology. Powerful new

forces altering society and the global economy include cybergenesis, the merging

of humans and smart machines, and biogenesis, the harnessing of genetic technol

ogies to improve ourselves.

Regular Price: $24.95

Cheating Death: The Promise and the Future Impact of Trying to Live Forever

by Marvin Cetron and Owen Davies.

St. Martins Press. 1998. 224 pages.

With advances in medicine and new gene research, the human lifespan could exte

nd hundreds of years. But a future of billions of people cheating death coul

d have devastating impacts on societies, the economy, the environment, and fami

ly life.

Regular Price: $21.95

Cultural Amnesia: Americas Future and the Crisis of Memory

by Stephen Bertman.

Praeger. 2000. 176 pages.

American society is losing its memory: 60% of American adults cannot name the pr

esident who ordered the dropping of the first atomic bomb, and 42% of college se

niors cannot place the Civil War in the correct half of the nineteenth century.

This loss of culture memory, as insidious as Alzheimers disease, eats away at t

he soul of the nation, says Bertman, author of Hyperculture. He argues that, t

o build a culture worthy of the future, Americans need to move away from their m

aterialistic, presentoriented lives and get more in touch with other dimension

s of time.

Regular Price: $35.00

试卷二 (120 min)

Part Translation (60 min)

SECTION A CHINESE TO ENGLISH

Translate the underlined part of the following text into English. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.

在人际关系问题上我们不要太浪漫主义。人是很有趣的,往往在接触一个人时首先看到的都

是他或她的优点。这一点颇像是在餐馆里用餐的经验。开始吃头盘或冷碟的时候,印象很好

。吃头两个主菜时,也是赞不绝口。愈吃愈趋于冷静,吃完了这顿宴席,缺点就都找出来了

。于是转喜为怒,转赞美为责备挑剔,转首肯为摇头。这是因为,第一,开始吃的时候你正

处于饥饿状态,而饿了吃糠甜如蜜,饱了吃蜜也不甜。第二,你初到一个餐馆,开始举筷时

有新鲜感,新盖的茅房三天香,这也可以叫做“陌生化效应”吧。

SECTION B ENGLISH TO CHINESE

Translate the underlined part of the following text into Chinese. Write your tra

nslation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.

For me the most interesting thing about a solitary life, and mine has been

that for the last twenty years, is that it becomes increasingly rewarding. When

I can wake up and watch the sun rise over the ocean, as I do most days, and know

that I have an entire day ahead, uninterrupted, in which to write a few pages,

take a walk with my dog, read and listen to music, I am flooded with happiness.

Im lonely only when I am overtired, when I have worked too long without a brea

k, when fro the time being I feel empty ad need filling up. And I am lonely somet

imes when I come back home after a lecture trip, when I have seen a lot of peopl

e and talked a lot, and am full to the brim with experience that needs to be sor

ted out.

Then for a little while the house feels huge and empty, and I wonder where my se

lf is hiding. It has to be recaptured slowly by watering the plants and perhaps,

by looking again at each one as though it were a person.

It takes a while, as I watch the surf blowing up in fountains, but the moment co

mes when the worlds falls away, and the self emerges again from the deep unconsc

ious, bringing back all I have recently experienced to be explored and slowly un

derstood.

Part Writing (60min)

It was reported in the press some time ago that a few second-and third-year students in a provincial university decided to try their hands at business in order to get prepared for the future. They opened six small shops near their university. Their teachers and classmates had different opinions about this phenomenon. Some thought that the students business experience would help them adapt better to society after graduation, while others held a negative view, saying that running shops might occupy too much of the students time and energy which should otherwise be devoted to their academic study. What do you think? Write a composition of about 300 words on the following topic:

Should University Students Go in for Business?

In the first part of your writing you should state clearly your main argument, and in the second part you should support your argument with appropriate details.

In the last part you should brig what you have written to a natural conclusion

or a summary.

Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.


发布日期:[2004-11-11 9:50:37] 来源: 武汉外研所 阅读次数:2067


2004年英语专业八级考试历年全真试卷

试卷一 (95 min)

Part Listening Comprehension (40 min)

In Sections A,B and C you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on your coloured answer sheet.


 

SECTION A TALK

Questions 1 to 5 refer to the talk in this section. At the end of the talk you will be given 75 seconds to answer the questions.

Now listen to the talk.

1.The parallel between waltzing and language use lies in ____.

A.the coordination based on individual actions

B.the number of individual participants

C.the necessity of individual actions

D.the requirements for participants

2.In the talk the speaker thinks that language use is a(n) ____ process.

A.individual

B.combined

C.distinct

D.social

3.The main difference between personal and nonpersonal settings is in ____.

A.the manner of language use

B.the topic and content of speech

C.the interactions between speaker and audience

D.the relationship between speaker and audience

4.In fictional settings, speakers ____.

A.hide their real intentions

B.voice others intentions

C.play double roles on and off stage

D.only imitate other people in life

5.Compared with other types of settings, the main feature of private setting is ____.

A.the absence of spontaneity

B.the presence of individual actions

C.the lack of real intentions

D.the absence of audience

SECTION B INTERVIEW

Questions 6 to 10 are based on an interview. At the end of the interview you will be given 75 seconds to answer the questions.

Now listen to the interview.

6.What was education like in Professor Wangs days?

A.Students worked very hard.

B.Students felt they needed a second degree.

C.Education was not careeroriented.

D.There were many specialized subjects.

7.According to Professor Wang, what is the purpose of the presentday education?

A.To turn out an adequate number of elite for the society.

B.To prepare students for their future career.

C.To offer practical and utilitarian courses in each programme.

D.To set up as many technical institutions as possible.

8.In Professor Wangs opinion, technical skills ____.

A.require good education

B.are secondary to education

C.dont call for good education

D.dont conflict with education

9.What does Professor Wang suggest to cope with the situation caused by increasing numbers of feepaying students?

A.Shifting from one programme to another.

B.Working out ways to reduce student number.

C.Emphasizing better quality of education.

D.Setting up stricter examination standards.

10.Future education needs to produce graduates of all the following categories EXCEPT ____.

A.those who can adapt to different professions

B.those who have a high flexibility of mind

C.those who are thinkers, historians and philosophers

D.those who possess only highly specialized skills

SECTION C NEWS BROADCAST

Questions 11 to 13 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item,

you will be given 45 seconds to answer the questions.

Now listen to the news.

11.Which of the following regions in the world will witness the sharpest

drop in life expectancy?

A.Latin America.

B.SubSaharan Africa.

C.Asia.

D.The Caribbean.

12.According to the news, which country will experience small life expectancy drop?

A.Burma.

B.Botswana.

C.Cambodia.

D.Thailand.

13.The countries that are predicted to experience negative population growth are mainly in ____

A.Asia.

B.Africa.

C.Latin America.D.The Caribbean.

Questions 14 and 15 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 30 seconds to answer the questions.

Now listen to the news.

14.The trade dispute between the European Union and the US was caused by ____.

A.US refusal to accept arbitration by WTO

B.US imposing tariffs on European steel

C.US refusal to pay compensation to EU

D.US refusal to lower import duties on EU products

15.Who will be consulted first before the EU list is submitted to WTO?

A.EU member states.

B.The United States.

C.WTO.

D.The steel corporations.

SECTION D NOTE-TAKING AND GAP-FILLING

In this section you will hear a minilecture. You will hear the lecture ONCE ONLY. While listening to the lecture, take notes on the important points. Your notes will not be marked, but you will need them to complete a 15minute gapfilling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE after the minilecture. Use the blank sheet for notetaking.

Conversation Skills

People who usually make us feel comfortable in conversations are good talkers. And they have something in common, i.e. skills to put people at ease.

1. Skill to ask question

1) be aware of the human nature: readiness to answer others questions regardless of (1)____ (1)____

2) start a conversation with some personal but unharmfull

questions about ones (2)____ job (2)____

questions about ones activities in the (3)____ (3)____

3) be able to spot signals for further talk

2. Skill to (4)____for answers (4)____

1) dont shift from subject to subject

sticking to the same subject: signs of (5)____in (5)____

conversation

2) listen to (6)____of voice (6)____

If people sound unenthusiastic, then change subject.

3) use eyes and ears

steady your gaze while listening

3. Skill to laugh

Effects of laughter:

ease peoples (7)____ (7)____

help start (8)____ (8)____

4. Skill to part

1) importance: open up possibilities for future friendship or

contact

2) ways:

men: a smile, a (9)____ (9)____

women: same as (10)____now (10)____

how to express pleasure in meeting someone.

Part Proofreading and Error Correction (15 min)

The passage contains TEN errors. Each indicated line contains a maximum of ONE error. In each case, only ONE word is involved. You should proofread the passage and correct it in the following way:

For a wrong word, underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank provided at the end of the line.

For a missing word, mark the position of the missing word with a “∧” sign and write the word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the line.

For an unnecessary word, cross the unnecessary word with a slash /and put the word in the blank provided at the end of the line.

Example

When art museum wants a new exhibit, (1) an

it never buys things in finished form and hangs (2) never

them on the wall. When a natural history museum

wants an [ZZ(Z]exhibition[ZZ)], it must often build it. (3)exhibit

Proofread the given passage on ANSWER SHEET TWO as instructed.

One of the most important non-legislative functions of the U.S Congress

is the power to investigate. This power is usually delegated to committees – either

standing committees, special committees set for a specific (1)____

purpose, or joint committees consisted of members of both houses. (2)____

Investigations are held to gather information on the need for

future legislation, to test the effectiveness of laws already passed,

to inquire into the qualifications and performance of members and

officials of the other branches, and in rare occasions, to lay the (3)____

groundwork for impeachment proceedings. Frequently, committees

rely outside experts to assist in conducting investigative hearings (4)____

and to make out detailed studies of issues. (5)____

There are important corollaries to the investigative power. One

is the power to publicize investigations and its results. Most (6)____

committee hearings are open to public and are reported (7)____

widely in the mass media. Congressional investigations

nevertheless represent one important tool available to lawmakers (8)____

to inform the citizenry and to arouse public interests in national issues.

(9)____

Congressional committees also have the power to compel

testimony from unwilling witnesses, and to cite for contempt

of Congress witnesses who refuse to testify and for perjury

these who give false testimony. (10)____

Part Reading Comprehension (30 min)

In this section there are four reading passages followed by a total of fifteen multiplechoice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on your coloured answer sheet.

TEXT A

Farmers in the developing world hate price fluctuations. It makes it hard to plan ahead. But most of them have little choice: they sell at the price the market sets. Farmers in Europe, the U.S. and Japan are luckier: they receive massive government subsidies in the form of guaranteed prices or direct handouts. Last month U.S. President Bush signed a new farm bill that gives American farmers $190 billion over the next 10 years, or $83 billion more than they had been scheduled to get, and pushes U.S. agricultural support close to crazy European levels. Bush said the step was necessary to promote farmer independence and preserve the farm way of life for generations. It is also designed to help the Republican Party win control of the Senate in Novembers midterm elections.

Agricultural production in most poor countries accounts for up to 50% of GDP, compared to only 3% in rich countries. But most farmers in poor countries grow jus

t enough for themselves and their families. Those who try exporting to the West find their goods whacked with huge tariffs or competing against cheaper subsidized goods. In 1999 the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development concluded that for each dollar developing countries receive in aid they lose up to $14 just because of trade barriers imposed on the export of their manufactured goods. Its not as if the developing world wants any favours, says Gerald Ssendwula, Ugandas Minister of Finance. What we want is for the rich countries to let us compete.”

Agriculture is one of the few areas in which the Third World can compete. Land and labour are cheap, and as farming methods develop, new technologies should improve output. This is no pieinthesky speculation. The biggest success in Kenyas economy over the past decade has been the boom in exports of cut flowers and vegetables to Europe. But that may all change in 2008, when Kenya will be slightly too rich to qualify for the leastdeveloped country status that allows African producers to avoid paying stiff European import duties on selected agricultural products. With trade barriers in place, the horticulture industry in Kenya will shrivel as quickly as a discarded rose. And while agriculture exports remain the great hope for poor countries, reducing trade barriers in other sectors also works: Americas African Growth and Opportunity Act, which cuts duties on exports of everything from handicrafts to shoes, has proved a boon to Africas manufacturers. The lesson: the Third World can prosper if the rich world gives it a fair go.

This is what makes Bushs decision to increase farm subsidies last month all the

more depressing. Poor countries have long suspected that the rich world urges rade liberalization only so it can wangle its way into new markets. Such suspicions caused the Seattle trade talks to break down three years ago. But last November members of the World Trade Organization, meeting in Doha, Qatar, finally agreed to a new round of talks designed to open up global trade in agriculture and

textiles. Rich countries assured poor countries, that their concerns were finally being addressed. Bushs handout last month makes a lie of Americas commitment to those talks and his personal devotion to free trade.

16.By comparison, farmers ____ receive more government subsidies than others.

A.in the developing world

B.in Japan

C.in Europe

D.in America

17.In addition to the economic considerations, there is a ____ motive behind Bushs signing of the new farm bill.

A.partisan

B.social

C.financial

D.cultural

18.The message the writer attempts to convey throughout the passage is that ____.

A.poor countries should be given equal opportunities in trade

B.the leastdeveloped country status benefits agricultural countries

C.poor countries should remove their suspicions about trade liberalization

D.farmers in poor countries should also receive the benefit of subsidies

19.The writers attitude towards new farm subsidies in the U.S. is ____.

A.favourable

B.ambiguous

C.critical

D.reserved

TEXT B

Oscar Wilde said that work is the refuge of people who have nothing better to do. If so, Americans are now among the worlds saddest refugees. Factory workers in the United States are working longer hours than at any time in the past halfcentury. America once led the rich world in cutting the average working weekfrom 70 hours in 1850 to less than 40 hours by the 1950s. It seemed natural that as people grew richer they would trade extra earnings for more leisure. Since the 1970s, however, the hours clocked up by American workers have risen, to an average of 42 this year in manufacturing.

Several studies suggest that something similar is happening outside manufacturing: Americans are spending more time at work than they did 20 years ago. Executives and lawyers boast of 80hour weeks. On holiday, they seek out fax machines and phones as eagerly as Germans bag the best sunloungers. Yet working time in Europe and Japan continues to fall. In Germanys engineering industry the working week is to be trimmed from 36 to 35 hours next year. Most Germans get six weeks paid annual holiday; even the Japanese now take three weeks. Americans still make do with just two.

Germany responds to this contrast with its usual concern about whether peoples aversion to work is damaging its competitiveness. Yet German workers, like the Japanese, seem to be acting sensibly: as their incomes rise, they can achieve a better standard of living with fewer hours of work. The puzzle is why America, the worlds richest country, sees things differently. It is a puzzle with sinister

social implications. Parents spend less time with their children, who may be left alone at home for longer. Is it just a coincidence that juvenile crime is on the rise?Some explanations for Americas time at work fail to stand up to scrutiny. One blames weak trade unions that leave workers open to exploitation. Are workers being forced by costcutting firms to toil harder just to keep their jobs? A recent study by two American economists, Richard Freeman and Linda Bell, suggests not: when asked, Americans actually want to work longer hours. Most German workers, in contrast, would rather work less.

Then, why do Americans want to work harder? One reason may be that the real earnings of many Americans have been stagnant or falling during the past two decades. People work longer merely to maintain their living standards. Yet many higher

skilled workers, who have enjoyed big increases in their real pay, have been working harder too. Also, one reason for the slow growth of wages has been the rapid growth in employmentwhich is more or less where the argument began.Taxes may have something to do with it. People who work an extra hour in America are allowed to keep more of their money than those who do the same in Germany. Falls in marginal tax rates in America since the 1970s have made it all the more profitable to work longer.None of these answers really explains why the centurylong decline in working hours has gone into reverse in America but not elsewhere (though Britain shows signs of following Americas lead). Perhaps cultural differencesthe last refuge of the defeated economistare at play. Economists used to believe that once workers earned enough to provide for their basic needs and allow for a few luxuries, their incentive to work would be eroded, like lions relaxing after a kill. But humans are more susceptible to advertising than lions. Perhaps clever marketing has ensured that basic needs”—for a shower with builtin TV, for a rocketpropelled carexpand continuously. Shopping is already one of Americas most popular pastimes. But it requires moneyhence more work and less leisure.Or try this: the television is not very good, and baseball and hockey keep being wiped out by strikes. Perhaps Wilde was right. Maybe Americans have nothing better to do.

20.In the United States, working longer hours is ____.

A.confined to the manufacturing industry

B.a traditional practice in some sectors

C.prevalent in all sectors of society

D.favoured by the economists

21.According to the third paragraph, which might be one of the consequences of working longer hours?

A.Rise in employees working efficiency.

B.Rise in the number of young offenders.

C.Rise in peoples living standards.

D.Rise in competitiveness.

22.Which of the following is the cause of working longer hours stated by

the writer?

A.Expansion of basic needs.

B.Cultural differences.

C.Increase in real earnings.

D.Advertising.

TEXT C

The fox really exasperated them both. As soon as they had let the fowls out, in

the early summer mornings, they had to take their guns and keep guard; and then

again as soon as evening began to mellow, they must go once more. And he was so sly. He slid along in the deep grass; he was difficult as a serpent to see. And he seemed to circumvent the girls deliberately. Once or twice March had caught sight of the white tip of his brush, or the ruddy shadow of him in the deep grass, and she had let fire at him. But he made no account of this.The trees on the woodedge were a darkish, brownish green in the full lightfor it was the end of August. Beyond, the naked, copperlike shafts and limbs of the pine trees shone in the air. Nearer the rough grass, with its long, brownish stalks all agleam, was full of light. The fowls were round aboutthe ducks were still swimming on the pond under the pine trees. March looked at it all, saw it all, and did not see it. She heard Banford speaking to the fowls in the distanceand she did not hear. What was she thinking about? Heaven knows. Her consciousness was, as it were, held back.She lowered her eyes, and suddenly saw the fox. He was looking up at her. His chin was pressed down, and his eyes were looking up. They met her eyes. And he knew her. She was spellboundshe knew he knew her. So he looked into her eyes, and her soul failed her. He knew her, he has not daunted.She struggled, confusedly she came to herself, and saw him making off, with slow leaps over some fallen boughs, slow, impudent jumps. Then he glanced over his shoulder, and ran smoothly away. She saw his brush held smooth like a feather, she saw his white buttocks twinkle. And he was gone, softly, soft as the wind.

She put her gun to her shoulder, but even then pursed her mouth, knowing it was nonsense to pretend to fire. So she began to walk slowly after him, in the direction he had gone, slowly, pertinaciously. She expected to find him. In her heart she was determined to find him. What she would do when she saw him again she did not consider. But she was determined to find him. So she walked abstractedly about on the edge of the wood, with wide, vivid dark eyes, and a faint flush in her cheeks. She did not think. In strange mindlessness she walked hither and thither…

As soon as supper was over, she rose again to go out, without saying why.

She took her gun again and went to look for the fox. For he had lifted his eyes

upon her, and his knowing look seemed to have entered her brain. She did not so

much think of him: she was possessed by him. She saw his dark, shrewd, unabashed

eye looking into her, knowing her. She felt him invisibly master her spirit. She knew the way he lowered his chin as he looked up, she knew his muzzle, the golden brown, and the greyish white. And again she saw him glance over his shoulder at her, half inviting, half contemptuous and cunning. So she went, with her great startled eyes glowing, her gun under her arm, along the wood edge. Meanwhile

the night fell, and a great moon rose above the pine trees.

23.At the beginning of the story, the fox seems to the all EXCEPT ____.

A.cunning

B.fierce

C.defiant

D.annoying

24.As the story proceeds, March begins to feel under the spell of ____.

A.the light

B.the trees

C.the night

D.the fox

25.Gradually March seems to be in a state of ____.

A.blankness

B.imagination

C.sadness

D.excitement

26.At the end of the story, there seems to be a sense of ____ between March and the fox.

A.detachment

B.anger

C.intimacy

D.conflict

27.The passage creates an overall impression of ____.

A.mystery

B.horror

C.liveliness

D.contempt

TEXT D

The banners are packed, the tickets booked. The glitter and white overalls have

been bought, the gas masks just fit and the mobile phones are ready. All that remains is to get to the parties.

This week will see a feast of panEuropean protests. It started on Bastille Day

, last Saturday, with the French unions and immigrants on the streets and the first demonstrations in Britain and Germany about climate change. It will continue tomorrow and Thursday with environmental and peace rallies against President Bush. But the big one is in Genoa, on Friday and Saturday, where the G8 leaders will meet behind the lines of 18,000 heavily armed police.

Unlike Prague, Gothenburg, Cologne or Nice, Genoa is expected to be Europes Seattle, the coming together of the disparate strands of resistance to corporate globalisation.Neither the protesters nor the authorities know what will happen, but some things are predictable. Yes, there will be violence and yes, the mass media will focus on it. What should seriously concern the G8 is not so much the violence, the numbers in the streets or even that they themselves look like idiots hiding behind the barricades, but that the deep roots of a genuine new version of internationalism are growing.

For the first time in a generation, the international political and economic condition is in the dock. Moreover, the protesters are unlikely to go away, their confidence is growing rather than waning, their agendas are merging, the protests are spreading and drawing in all ages and concerns.

No single analysis has drawn all the strands of the debate together. In the mean

time, the global protest movement is developing its own language, texts, agendas, myths, heroes and villains. Just as the G8 leaders, world bodies and businesses talk increasingly from the same script, so the protesters once disparate

political and social analyses are converging. The longterm project of governments and world bodies to globalise capital and development is being mirrored by the globalisation of protest.

But what happens next? Governments and world bodies are unsure which way to turn. However well they are policed, major protests reinforce the impression of indifferent elites, repression of debate, overreaction to dissent, injustice and unaccountable power.

Their optionsapart from actually embracing the broad agenda being put to themare to retreat behind even higher barricades, repress dissent further, abandon global meetings altogether or, more likely, meet only in places able to physically resist the masses.

Brussels is considering building a super fortress for international meetings. Genoa may be the last of the European superprotests.

28.According to the context, the word parties at the end of the first paragraph refers to ____.

A.the meeting of the G8 leaders

B.the protests on Bastille Day

C.the coming panEuropean protests

D.the big protest to be held in Genoa

29.According to the passage, economic globalisation is paralleled by ____.

A.the emerging differences in the global protest movement

B.the disappearing differences in the global protest movement

C.the growing European concern about globalisation

D.the increase in the number of protesters

30.According to the last paragraph, what is Brussels considering doing?

A.Meeting in places difficult to reach.

B.Further repressing dissent.

C.Accepting the protesters agenda.

D.Abandoning global meetings.

SECTION B SKIMMING AND SCANNING (10 MIN)

In this section there are seven passages with ten multiplechoice questions. Skim or scan them as required and then mark your answers on your coloured answer sheet.

First read the question.

31.The main purpose of the passage is to ____.

A.demonstrate how to prevent crime

B.show the seriousness of crime

C.look into the causes of crime

D.call for more government efforts

Now go through TEXT E quickly to answer question 31.

For three weeks, every night at 11 p.m., correspondents, officers and judges from justice courts, police departments and prisons, psychiatrists, criminologists,

victims and even criminals in prisons made their appearance on TV to debate on

a topic Crime in the United States.

Indeed, crime has been disturbing the American people and has become a serious social problem just next to the unemployment problem. Some figures are terrifying

: 1 of 4 Americans has been a victim of some kind of crimes; nearly 22 million crimecases occurred last year throughout the country. A simple arithmetic calculation indicates that on average, a crime is being committed in every 2 seconds. Now the Americans are living in a horrible environment. Their safety and property are threatened by various crimes: robbery, theft, rape, kidnapping, murder, arson, vandalism and violence.

The most worrisome problem comes from the fact that about onethird of crime cases were committed by the juvenile and 53% of criminals in jails are youngsters

below 25. A poll indicates that about 73% of citizens said they avoided teenagers in streets, especially at night.

To protect themselves from crime, according to a released figure, 52% of Americans keep guns at home. But some gun owners turn out to be potential criminals. Some people demand that strict law for gun control be enforced; but others oppose the ban of gun. No decision is in sight.

Some experts said poverty, unemployment and racial discrimination are the cause

of crime. They cited figures to show that 47% of crime cases were committed by t

he black, though they account for only about 12% of the population of the nation

. Others argued that about 54% of convicted criminals came from families associated with these evils.

The American state government and federal government spend billions of dollars each year in maintaining the police departments and jails. But police authorities

complain that they have not sufficient welltrained hands and advanced equipment to detect and stop crimes. Several cases of criminal insurgence were reported

as a result of resentment at overcrowded prisons. Taxpayers complain that they pay more and more tax but receive less and less protection from crime for their lives and property.

Though the host of the live TV programme made great efforts to search for a solution, so far no participant could put forward a measure that was approved by most of the attendants.

TEXT F

First read the question.

32.What is the main topic of the following passage?

A.Differences between modes of learning.

B.Deficiencies of formal learning.

C.Advantages of informal learning.

D.Social context and learning systems.

Now go through TEXT F quickly to answer question 32.

The term formal learning is used in this paper to refer to all learning that

takes place in the classroom, irrespective of whether such learning is informed

by conservative or progressive ideologies. Informal learning, on the other

hand, is used to refer to learning which takes place outside the classroom.

These definitions provide the essential, though by no means sole, difference bet

ween formal and informal learning. Formal learning is decontextualised from daily life and, indeed, as Scribner and Cole (1973:553) have observed, may actually

promote ways of learning and thinking which often run counter to those nurtured in practical daily life. A characteristic feature of formal learning is the

centrality of activities that are not closely paralleled by activities outside the

classroom. The classroom can prepare for, draw on, and imitate the challenges of adult life outside the classroom, but it cannot, by its nature, consist of these challenges.

In doing this, language plays a critical role as the major channel for information exchange. Success in the classroom requires a student to master this abstract code. As Bernstein (1969:152) noted, the language of the classroom is more

similar to the language used by middleclass families than that used by workingclass families. Middleclass children thus find it easier to acquire the language of the classroom than their workingclass peers.

Informal learning, in contrast, occurs in the setting to which it relates, making learning immediately relevant. In this context, language does not occupy such

an important role: the childs experience of learning is more holistic, involving sight, touch, taste, and smellsenses that are underutilised in the classroom.While formal learning is transmitted by teachers selected to perform this role,

informal learning is acquired as a natural part of a childs development. Adults

or older children who are proficient in the skill or activity provide – sometime

s unintentionally – target models of behaviour in the course of everyday activity. Informal learning, therefore, can take place at any time and is not subject to the limitations imposed by institutional timetabling.

The motivation of the learner provides another critical difference between the two modes of learning. The formal learner is generally motivated by some kind of external goal such as parental approval, social status, and potential financial reward. The informal learner, however, tends to be motivated by successful completion of the task itself and the partial acquisition of adult status.

TEXT G

First read the question.

33.The three approaches mentioned in the passage aim at ____.

A.restructuring economy

B.improving the tax system

C.improving the living conditions

D.reducing poverty

Now go through TEXT G quickly to answer question 33.

As a rule, it is essential that the poors productive capabilities be mobilized

and the conditions for developing these human resources be improved. In this con

nection, German development policy has developed the following three approaches:

Structural reform: Structural reform is the preferred approach for reducing

poverty because it eliminates the causes of poverty rather than just its symptoms. It is vital that economic, political and social conditions which can alleviate poverty be established at national and international levels. Efforts at international level focus on fair conditions for international trade and competition.

At national level, the poor must be helped through structural reform such as the

introduction of democratic government, options for independent private enterprise, decentralization and agricultural reform. Development policy tools for realizing such reforms include political dialogue, political advisory services, structural adjustment measures and personnel and material support for reform efforts in the government, business and administrative sectors.— Direct measures: Projects of this category are aimed at directly helping the poor and improving their living conditions or increasing their job options and earning potential. Of special importance are those projects which provide help for selfhelp in reducing poverty. The material support and advisory services offered by these projects reinforce the poors will to help themselves and help eable them to lead selfsufficient lives. Typical direct aid projects include the construction of simple housing by selfhelp groups, the creation of a savings and loan system for the poorer segments of society and support for womens selfhelp organizations.

Indirect measures: A projects beneficiaries – its target group – are not only often difficult to identify clearly, they are also not necessarily all poor

people. In these cases, the project in question must be integrated into one of the partner nations overall or sectorspecific policies that aim at reducing poverty. A good illustration of this type of project is the use of advisory services to improve the tax system. Advising and upgrading the qualifications of personnel working in the fiscal system can lead to increased tax revenues which could be allocated for antipoverty measures. In keeping with this focus, German development assistance concentrates on the poorest nations and on projects to reduce poverty. In 1993, some 10 percent of the commitments Germany made for bilateral financial and technical assistance went to selfhelp projects aimed at reducing poverty. Basic needs projects comprised 48 percent of all projects and almost 30 percent of the commitments made for financial and technical assistance were allocated for the worlds least developed countries (LDCs).

TEXT H

First read the question.

34.What is the following passage mainly concerned with?

A.Educational facilities in Africa.

B.Founding a university for women.

C.Agricultural production in Zimbabwe.

D.Womens role in agricultural production.

Now go through TEXT H quickly to answer question 34.

Access to education facilities is inadequate in subSaharan Africa. And women and girls there face greater disadvantages. They are often denied education as customs dictate they marry early and have children.

Two Zimbabwean academics plan to open a university to help African women whose education was interrupted by either family commitments or financial constraints.

The university will initially be in Harare, but will be relocated to Marondera,

80 kilometres east. The academics, Hope Sadza, former deputy commissioner of Zimbabwes Public Service Commission and Fay Chung, former Minister of Education,

are to open the university this month. It will initially have 400 students.

Students will be split into groups of 100 and placed in one of four faculties: social science, agriculture, environmental studies or science and technology. The university is for women aged 25 or older.

The need for a university for women is more acute in Africa, where women are the

poorest and most disadvantaged. When they do have access to education they often must endure sexual harassment. Most women drop out because they lack educational materials or the schools are inaccessible.

In Africa, women till the land and produce the bulk of the food, yet they have

no understanding about marketing, Sadza siad. Agriculture is another area w

here we can empower women.”

The university will have a 285hectare farm and courses will include agricultural production and marketing.

Women account for 80 per cent of Africas agricultural production, but have no control over either the resources or policies.

The university since August has raised about Z$32.5 million (US$591,000) in donations and pledges. The university will be open to students from across Africa. It will be the second womens university – after Sudans Ahfad University – in Africa.

TEXT I

First read the questions.

35.Which president advocated the lifting of the ban on women teachers?

A.Xu Yangqiu.

B.Wu Yifang.

C.Tao Xingzhi.

D.Chen Heqin.

36.What is Guo Juefu?

A.A painter.

B.A poet.

C.A biologist.

D.A psychologist.

Now go through TEXT I quickly to answer questions 35 and 36.

Many presidents of the centuryold Nanjing Normal University (NJNU) have put forward insightful and inspiring education theories and practices, which have had

a farreaching impact on Chinas education history.

Jiang Qian and Guo Bingwen proposed a schoolrunning principle that advocated the balance between versatility and specialization, liberal arts and sciences.

Tao Xingzhi, a wellknown educator, carried out many important reforms in the university. For the first time in China, he advocated the lifting of the ban on women teachers and opened adult training classes in summer vacations.

Wu Yifang, Chinas first woman university president, emphasized normal education, regarding it as the parent engine and heavy industry of education.

Chen Heqin established a Chinesestyle and scientific theory for modern educati

on for children.

There have also been many noted scholars and artists.

Educator Xu Yangqiu was one of Chinas earliest scholars to study American education theory.

Professor Luo Bingwen devoted himself to normal education theory and Chinese and

foreign education history, advocating that teachers should be models of virtue

for the students so that their behaviour guides the students.

Psychologist Guo Juefu is an important figure in Chinas psychological history.

China Psychological HistoryWTBZ, a book he authored, has made its mark in international psychological circles.

Zhang Daqian, a wellknown master of traditional Chinese painting, advised his

students to read books systematically and selectively to rid themselves of worldliness, fickleness and pedantry. Zhang also pointed out that success comes largely from ones own endeavours, but partly from circumstance.

Sun Wang, a poet versed in the poems popular in the Tang Dynasty (AD 618907),

told students to map out a longterm schedule for their studies and to work to

wards fulfillment of their goal phase by phase.

Biologist Chen Bangjie overcame formidable difficulties to collect plant specimen and became Chinas father of bryology.

Generations of talented educators have given Nanjing Normal University a fine re

putation.

TEXT J

First read the questions.

37.The Chicago GSB M.B.A. Programme for Executives is scheduled to be completed within ____.

A.22 months

B.20 months

C.16 weeks

D.14 weeks

38.If you are in Malaysia, when is your attendance date?

A.January 17th.

B.January 15th.

C.January 29th.

D.February 27th.

Now go through TEXT J quickly to answer questions 37 and 38.

CHICAGOWorldwide campuses.Worldrenowned faculty.Worldclass M.B.A. degree.

A world of opportunity.

Limitless, lifelong opportunity awaits you when you attend the University of Chicago Graduate School of Business, and now you can do so from anywhere in the world.

Experience international business firsthand at the only topranked graduate school with campuses worldwide. The Chicago GSB M.B.A. Programme for Executives spreads 16 weeks of class sessions over 20 months so you can earn this renowned degree without leaving your job or relocating. Base your studies in Singapore; then collaborate with executives at our Chicago and Barcelona campuses. Learn not just the business theories of today but the business framework of tomorrow from the most acclaimed faculty in the world. Establish a global network of accomplished peers. And benefit for the rest of your life from the leadership training, the thinking, the relationships that become yours at Chicago GSB.

If you are a toplevel manager seeking an unparalleled general management education, apply to the Chicago GSB M.B.A. Programme for Executives.And be among those who shape the future.

The University of Chicago Graduate School of Business

Where worldclass leaders emerge.

Chicago GSB / Asia Campus

101 Penang Road, Singapore 238466

telephone 65 238 2196fax 65 835 6483

email singapore.inquiries@gsb.uchicago.edu

www.gsb.uchicago.edu/execMBASia

Please reserve your attendance by fax or email.

Jakarta 15/Jan,Tuesday

The Grand Hyatt Hotel 19:00-21:30

Manila 24/Jan,Tuesday Taipei

The ShangriLa Edsa Plaza 19:00-21:30 The Grand Formosa Regent

Hotel Hotel

17/Jan,Tuesday Kuala Lumpur 19/Feb,Tuesday

19:00-21:30 The Regent Hotel 19:00-21:30

29/Jan,Tuesday

Bangkok 19:00-21:30 Singapore

The Grand Hyatt Erawan Hotel GSB Asia Campus

22/Jan,Tuesday Hong Kong 27/Feb,Tuesday

19:00-21:30 The Mandarin Oriental Hotel 19:00-21:30

05/Feb,Tuesday

Tokyo 19:00-21:30

The Imperial Hotel

TEXT K

First read the questions.

39.Who has written Cultural Amnesia: Americas Future and the Crisis of Memory?

A.Michael G.Zey.

B.Stephen Bertman.

C.Don Tapscott, et al.

D.Marvin Cetron et al.

40.Which book is a collection of papers?

A.Digital Capital: Harnessing the Power of Business Webs.

B.Cheating Death: The Promise and the Future Impact of Trying to Live Forever.

C.The Future Factor: The Five Forces Transforming Our Lives and Shaping Human De

stiny.

D.The University in Transformation: Global Perspectives on the Future of the Uni

versity.

Now go through TEXT K quickly to answer questions 39 and 40.

Digital Capital: Harnessing the Power of Business Webs

by Don Tapscott, David Ticoll, and Alex Lowy.

Harvard Business School Press. 2000. 272 pages.

Electronic business webs have demolished the rules of competition. Innovative partnerships of digitally linked producers, suppliers, service providers, and customers are accelerating productivity and generating wealth in entirely new ways.

This book offers a behindthescenes look at success stories such as Linux, eBay, and Cisco, and provides a stepbystep process for implementing an effective businessweb strategy.

Regular Price:$27.50

The University in Transformation: Global Perspectives on the Future of the University

edited by Sohail Inayatullah and Jennifer Gidley.

Bergin & Garvey/Greenwood Publishing Group. 2000. 270 pages.

This anthology of essays from scholars around the world describes how the forces

of technology and economic globalization may alter what we think of as higher education. Topics include the virtual university, paying for college, feminist a

lternative universities, the role of corporations in higher education,and the ri

se of multiversities.

Regular Price:$65.00

The Future Factor: The Five Force Transforming Our Lives and Shaping Human Destiny

by Michael G.Zey.

McGrawHill. 2000. 289 pages.

This optimistic vision of the human future argues that unprecedented opportuniti

es for growth are emerging from breathtaking innovations in biotechnology, comput

ing, robotics, medicine, energy development, and space technology. Powerful new

forces altering society and the global economy include cybergenesis, the merging

of humans and smart machines, and biogenesis, the harnessing of genetic technol

ogies to improve ourselves.

Regular Price: $24.95

Cheating Death: The Promise and the Future Impact of Trying to Live Forever

by Marvin Cetron and Owen Davies.

St. Martins Press. 1998. 224 pages.

With advances in medicine and new gene research, the human lifespan could exte

nd hundreds of years. But a future of billions of people cheating death coul

d have devastating impacts on societies, the economy, the environment, and fami

ly life.

Regular Price: $21.95

Cultural Amnesia: Americas Future and the Crisis of Memory

by Stephen Bertman.

Praeger. 2000. 176 pages.

American society is losing its memory: 60% of American adults cannot name the pr

esident who ordered the dropping of the first atomic bomb, and 42% of college se

niors cannot place the Civil War in the correct half of the nineteenth century.

This loss of culture memory, as insidious as Alzheimers disease, eats away at t

he soul of the nation, says Bertman, author of Hyperculture. He argues that, t

o build a culture worthy of the future, Americans need to move away from their m

aterialistic, presentoriented lives and get more in touch with other dimension

s of time.

Regular Price: $35.00

试卷二 (120 min)

Part Translation (60 min)

SECTION A CHINESE TO ENGLISH

Translate the underlined part of the following text into English. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.

在人际关系问题上我们不要太浪漫主义。人是很有趣的,往往在接触一个人时首先看到的都

是他或她的优点。这一点颇像是在餐馆里用餐的经验。开始吃头盘或冷碟的时候,印象很好

。吃头两个主菜时,也是赞不绝口。愈吃愈趋于冷静,吃完了这顿宴席,缺点就都找出来了

。于是转喜为怒,转赞美为责备挑剔,转首肯为摇头。这是因为,第一,开始吃的时候你正

处于饥饿状态,而饿了吃糠甜如蜜,饱了吃蜜也不甜。第二,你初到一个餐馆,开始举筷时

有新鲜感,新盖的茅房三天香,这也可以叫做“陌生化效应”吧。

SECTION B ENGLISH TO CHINESE

Translate the underlined part of the following text into Chinese. Write your tra

nslation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.

For me the most interesting thing about a solitary life, and mine has been

that for the last twenty years, is that it becomes increasingly rewarding. When

I can wake up and watch the sun rise over the ocean, as I do most days, and know

that I have an entire day ahead, uninterrupted, in which to write a few pages,

take a walk with my dog, read and listen to music, I am flooded with happiness.

Im lonely only when I am overtired, when I have worked too long without a brea

k, when fro the time being I feel empty ad need filling up. And I am lonely somet

imes when I come back home after a lecture trip, when I have seen a lot of peopl

e and talked a lot, and am full to the brim with experience that needs to be sor

ted out.

Then for a little while the house feels huge and empty, and I wonder where my se

lf is hiding. It has to be recaptured slowly by watering the plants and perhaps,

by looking again at each one as though it were a person.

It takes a while, as I watch the surf blowing up in fountains, but the moment co

mes when the worlds falls away, and the self emerges again from the deep unconsc

ious, bringing back all I have recently experienced to be explored and slowly un

derstood.

Part Writing (60min)

It was reported in the press some time ago that a few second-and third-year students in a provincial university decided to try their hands at business in order to get prepared for the future. They opened six small shops near their university. Their teachers and classmates had different opinions about this phenomenon. Some thought that the students business experience would help them adapt better to society after graduation, while others held a negative view, saying that running shops might occupy too much of the students time and energy which should otherwise be devoted to their academic study. What do you think? Write a composition of about 300 words on the following topic:

Should University Students Go in for Business?

In the first part of your writing you should state clearly your main argument, and in the second part you should support your argument with appropriate details.

In the last part you should brig what you have written to a natural conclusion

or a summary.

Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.

2004年专业8级答案详解

发布日期:[2004-11-11 9:56:46] 来源: 武汉外研所 阅读次数:1659


英语专业八级考试历年全真试卷

录音文字材料、答案及详解

听力原文

PART LISTENING COMPREHENSION

SECTION A TALK

Language is used for doing things. People use it in everyday conversation for transacting business, planning meals and vacations, debating politics, and gossiping. Teachers use it for instructing students, and comedians use it for amusing audiences. All these are instances of language use that is activities in which people do things with language. As we can see, language use is really a form of joint action.

What is joint action? I think it is an action that is carried out by a group of people doing things in coordination with each other. As simple examples, think of two people waltzing, or playing a piano duet. When two dancers waltz, they each move around the ballroom in a special way. But waltzing is different from the sum of their individual actions. Can you imagine these two dancers doing the same steps, but in separate rooms, or at separate times? So waltzing is, in fact, the joint action that emerges as the two dancers do their individual steps in coordination, as a couple.

Similarly, doing things with language is also different from the sum of the speaker speaking and the listener listening. It is the joint action that emerges when speakers and listeners, or writers and readers, perform their individual actions in coordination, as ensembles. Therefore, we can say that language use incorporates both individual and social processes. Speakers and listeners, writers and readers, must carry out actions as individuals, if they are to succeed in their use of language. But they must also work together as participants in the social units I have called ensembles. In the example I mentioned just now, the two dancers perform both individual actions, moving their bodies, arms, and legs, and joint actions, coordinating these movements, as they create the waltz. In the past, language use has been studied as if it were entirely an individual process. And it has also been studied as if it were entirely a social process. For me, I suggest that it belongs to both. We cannot hope to understand language use without viewing it as joint actions built on individual actions. In order to explain how all these actions work, Id like to review briefly settings of language use. By settings, I mean the scene in which language use takes place, plus the medium which refers to whether language use is spoken or written. And in this talk, Ill focus on spoken settings.

The spoken setting mentioned most often is conversation either face to face, or on the telephone. Conversations may be devoted to gossip, business transactions or scientific matters, but theyre all characterized by the free exchange of terms among the two participants. Ill call these personal settings. Then we have what I would call nonpersonal settings. A typical example is the monologue. In monologues, one person speaks with little or no opportunity for interruption, or turns by members of the audience. Monologues come in many varieties too, as a professor lectures to a class, or a student giving a presentation to a seminar. These people speak for themselves, uttering words they formulated themselves for the audience before them, and the audience isnt expected to interrupt. In another kind of setting which are called institutional settings, the participants engage in speech exchanges that look like ordinary conversation, but they are limited by institutional rules. As examples, we can think of a government official holding a news conference, a lawyer crossquestioning a witness in court, or a professor directing a seminar discussion. In these settings, what is said is more or less spontaneous, even though turns at speaking are allocated by a leader, or are restricted in other ways.

The person speaking isnt always the one whose intentions are being expressed. We have the clearest examples in fictional settings. Vivian Leigh plays Scarlett OHara in Gone with the Wind, Frank Sinatra sings a love song in front of a live audience, the speakers are each vocalizing words composed by someone else for instance a playwright or a composer and are openly pretending to be expressing opinions that arent necessarily their own. Finally there are private settings when people speak for themselves without actually addressing anyone else, for example, I might explain silently to myself, or talk to myself about solving a research problem, or rehearsing what Im about to say in a seminar tomorrow. What I say isnt intended to be recognized by other people, it is only of use to myself. These are the features of private settings.

SECTION B TALK

W: Good evening, Im Nancy Johnson. The guest on our radio talk this evening is Professor Wang Gongwu. Hello, Professor Wang.

M: Hello.

W: Professor Wang, youre now professor emeritus of Australia National University, and in your long academic career, youve worn many hats as tutor, lecturer, department head, dean, professor, and vice chancellor. However, as I know, youre still very fond of your university days as a student.

M: Thats right. That was in 1949. The university that I went to was a brandnew university then, and the only one in the country at that time. When I look back, it was an amazingly small university, and we knew everybody.

W: How did the students like you, for example, study then?

M: We didnt study very hard, because we didnt have to. We didnt have all this fantastic competition that you have today. Mmm. We were always made to feel that getting a first degree in the Arts faculty was not preparation for a profession. It was a general education. We were not under any pressure to decide on our careers, and we had such a good time. We were left very much on our own, and we were encouraged to make things happen.

W: What do you see as the most striking difference in university education since then?

M: University education has changed dramatically since those days. Things are very specialized today.

W: Yes, definitely so. And, in your subsequent career experience as an educator and later administrator in various institutions of higher education in Asia and elsewhere, Professor Wang, you have repeatedly noted that one has to look at the development of education in one particular country in a broad context. What do you mean by that?

M: Well, the whole world has moved away from elite education in universities to meet the needs of mass education, and entering universities is no longer a privilege for the few. And universities today are more concerned with providing jobs for their graduates in a way that universities in our time never had to be bothered about. Therefore, the emphasis of university programs today is now on the practical and the utilitarian, rather than on a general education or on personal development.

W: Do you think that is a welcome development?

M: Well, I personally regret this development. But the basic bachelors education now has to cater to people who really need a piece of paper to find a decent job.

W: So youre concerned about this development.

M: Yes, Im very concerned. With technical changes, many of the things that you learn are technical skills, which dont require you to become very well educated. Yet, if you can master those skills, you can get very good jobs. So the technical institutions are going to be increasingly popular at the expense of traditional universitites.

W: Professor Wang, lets look at a different issue. How do you comment on the current phenomenon because of the fees they pay?

M: Well, once you accept students on financial grounds, one wonders whether you have to pass them as well. But this is the development in education that we have to contend with. Yet, if we are concerned about maintaining standards, what we can do is to concentrate on improving the quality of education.

W: Yes, youre right. A university is judged by the quality of education it offers. Professor Wang, lets turn to the future. What type of graduates, in your view, to universities of the future need to produce, if they are to remain relevant?

M: I think their graduates must be able to shift from one profession to another, because they are trained in a very independent way. If you can do that, you raise the level of the flexibility of the mind. Todays rapid changes in technology demand this adaptability. And you see the best universities in the world are already trying to guarantee that their students will not only be technically trained, but will be the kind of people that can adapt to any changing situation.

W: I guess many people would agree with you on that point. University education should focus on both personal and professional development of students. But still some might believe there is a definite place for education in a broader sense that is, in personal intellectual development.

M: No doubt about that. We need people who will think about the future, about the past, and also people who will think about society. If a society doesnt have philosophers, or people who think about the value of life, its a very sad society indeed.

W: Professor Wang, my last question: do you see any common ground in education between your generation and the young generation now?

M: Adapting to new challenges is perhaps the true cornerstone of our generations legacy to education. And the future of education in a country rests not so much on the construction of better buildings, labs, etc., but in the development of an everadaptable mind.

W: Thats true. The essence of education is the education of the mind. Okay, thank you very much, Professor Wang, for talking to us on the show about the changing trends in education.

M: Youre welcome

SECTION C

A new data shows that the global AIDS pandemic will cause a sharp drop in life expectancy in dozens of countries, in some cases, declines of three decades. Several nations are losing a centurys progress in extending the length of life. Nations in every part of the world, 51 in all, are suffering declining life expectancies because of an increasing prevalence of HIV infection. The increase is occurring in Asia, Latin America, and the Carribbean, but is greatest in subSaharan Africa, a region with only 10% of the worlds population but 70% of the worlds HIV infections. Seven African countries have life expectancies of less than 40 years. For example, in Botswana, where 39% of the adult population is infected with HIV, life expectancy is 39 years. But by 2010, it will be less than 27 years. Without AIDS, it would have been 44 years. Life expectancy throughout the Carribbean and some Central American nations will drop into the 60’s by 2010, when they would otherwise have been in the 70’s without AIDS. In Cambodia and Burma, they are predicted to decline to around 60 years old, to what otherwise would have been in the mid60s. Even in countries where the number of new infections is dropping, such as Thailand, Uganda, and Senegal, small life expectancy drop is forecast. Back in the early 1990’s, we never would have suspected that population growth would have turned negative because of AIDS mortality. In less than 10 years, we expect that 5 countries will be experiencing negative population growth because of AIDS mortality, including South Africa, Mozambique, Lesotho, Botswana and Swaziland.

Questions 14 and 15 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 30 seconds to answer the questions. Now listen to the news.

The European Union has drafted a list of US products to be hit with import taxes in retaliation for tariffs the United States has imposed on European steel. EU member governments will review the list before the EU submits it to the World Trade Organization, which arbitrates international trade disputes. EU officials will not say which American products will be hit by the EU sanctions. But diplomats monitoring the most recent transAtlantic trade dispute say they include textiles and steel products.

Earlier this month, the Bush administration imposed tariffs of up to 30 percent on some steel imports, including European products.

The EU has appealed to the World Trade Organization to get those duties overturned. But a WTO decision on the matter could take up to a year or more. EU officials say that, under WTO rules, the EU has the right to impose retaliatory measures in June. But they say the United States can avoid the EUs possible countermeasures if it pays more than two billion dollars in compensation to the EU for imposing the steel tariffs in the first place. The officials say Washington could also escape retaliation by lowering U.S. import duties on other EU products.

The Bush administration says it will not pay compensation.

SECTION D TALK

Good morning. Todays lecture will focus on how to make people feel at ease in conversations. I guess all of you sitting here can recall certain people who just seem to make you feel comfortable when they are around. You spend an hour with them and feel as if youve known them half your life. These people who have that certain something that makes us feel comfortable have something in common, and once we know what that is, we can go about getting some of that something for ourselves. How is it done? Here are some of the skills that good talkers have. If you follow the skills, they will help you put people at their ease, make them feel secure, and comfortable, and turn acquaintances into friends.

First of all, good talkers ask questions. Almost anyone, no matter how shy, will answer a question. In fact, according to my observation, very shy persons are often more willing to answer questions than extroverts. They are more concerned that someone will think them impolite if they dont respond to the questions. So most skillful conversationalists recommend starting with a question that is personal, but not harmful. For example, once a famous American TV presenter got a long and fascinating interview from a notoriously private billionaire by asking him about his first job. Another example, one prominent woman executive confesses that at business lunches, I always ask people what they did that morning. Its a dull question, but it gets things going. From there, you can move on to other matters, sometimes to really personal questions. Moreover, how your responder answers will let you know how far you can go. A few simple catchwords like Really?” “Yes? are clear invitations to continue talking.

Second, once good talkers have asked questions, they listen for answers. This point seems obvious, but it isnt in fact. Making people feel comfortable isnt simply a matter of making idle conversation. Your questions have a point. Youre really asking, What sort of person are you? and to find out, you have to really listen. There are at least three components of real listening. For one thing, real listening means not changing the subject. If someone sticks to one topic, you can assume that he or she is really interested in it. Another component of real listening is listening not just to words but to tones of voice. I once mentioned D.H. Lawrence to a friend. To my astonishment, she launched into an academic discussion of the imagery in Lawrences works. Midway through, I listened to her voice. It was, to put it mildly, unanimated, and it seemed obvious that the imagery monologue was intended solely for my benefit, and I quickly changed the subject. At last, real listening means using your eyes as well as your ears. When your gaze wanders, it makes people think theyre boring your, or what they are saying is not interesting. Of course, you dont have to stare, or glare at them. Simply looking attentive will make most people think that you think theyre fascinating.

Next, good talkers are not afraid to laugh. If you think of all the people you know who make you feel comfortable, you may notice that all of them laugh a lot. Laughter is not only warming and friendly, its also a good way to ease other peoples discomfort. I have a friend who might enjoy watching at gathering of other people who do not know each other well. The first few minutes of talk are a bit uneasy and hesitant, for the people involved do not yet have a sense of each other. Invariably, a light comment or joke is made, and my friends easy laughter appears like sunshine in the conversation. There is always then a visible softening that takes place. Other people smile, and loosen in response to her laughter, and the conversation goes on with more warmth and ease.

Finally, good talkers are onces who cement a parting. That is, they know how to make use of parting as a way to leave a deep impression on others. Last impressions are just as important as first impressions in determining how a new acquaintance will remember you. People who make others really feel comfortable take advantage of that parting moment to close the deal. Men have had it easier. They have done it with a smile, and a good firm handshake. What about women then? Over the last several years, women have started to take over that custom well between themselves or with men. If youre saying goodbye, you might want to give him or her a second extra hand squeeze. Its a way to say, I really enjoyed meeting you. But its not all done with body language. If youve enjoyed being with someone, if you want to see that person again, dont keep it a secret. Let people know how you feel, and they may walk away feeling as if theyve known you half their life.

Okay, just to sum up. Today, weve talked about four ways to make people feel at ease in conversations. These skills are important in keeping conversations going, and in forming friendships later on. Of course, these skills are by no means the only ones we can use. the list is much longer. I hope you will use these four skills, and discover more on your own in your conversations with other people.

Now you have two minutes to check your notes, and then please complete the 15minute gapfilling task on Answer Sheet One.

This is the end of listening comprehension.



答案与详解

PAPER ONE

PART LISTENING COMPREHENSION

SECTION A TALK

1. 答案: A

【问句译文】跳华尔兹舞与语言运用的相似点在于什么?

【试题分析】本题属于细节题

【详细解答】从talk中我们听到语言运用是一种joint action,后面介绍了joint action的定

义,人们在跳华尔兹舞时,“…two dancers do their individual steps in coordinatio

n”,而人们使用语言时,“…perform their individual actions in coordination.”,

因此A正确。

2.答案: B

【问句译文】谈话中的说话者认为语言运用是一个什么样的过程?

【试题分析】本题属于细节题。

【详细解答】谈话中有“it belongs to both”的字样,即individualsocial二者,故B对。

3.答案: C

【问句译文】个人背景与非个人背景的主要区别是什么?

【试题分析】本题属于细节题。

【详细解答】对话属于personal settings,它们涉及到参与者的自由交流:Theyre all cha

racterized by the free exchange of turns among the two participants. 而独白属于n

onpersonal settings,它很少有或没有与观众交流的机会:little or no opportunity fo

r interruption, or turns by members of the audience. 因此,personal settings

nonpersonal settings 之间的主要区别在于讲话者与观众之间的相互交流。

4.答案: B

【问句译文】在小说背景中,讲话者_____

【试题分析】本题属于细节题。

【详细解答】Talk 中举了《飘》为例,句子“the speakers are each vocalizing words pr

epared by someone else”告诉我们,书中的讲话者表达的是别人(如作家、作曲家)为

之准备的话。

5.答案: D

【问句译文】与其他背景相比,私人背景的主要特征是什么?

【试题分析】本题属于细节题。

【详细解答】在private setting 中,“people speak for themselves without actually a

ddressing anyone else , 因而是没有观众的。

SECTION B INTERVIEW

6.答案: C

【问句译文】王教授那个时代的教育是什么样的?

【试题分析】细节题。

【详细解答】王教授说:We did not study very hard. We were not under any pressure t

o decide on our careers.故可排除选题AWe were always made to feel that getting

a first degree was not preparation for a profession.因而那时的教育并非为工作

作准备的,它是一般性的教育(general education)。

7.答案: B

【问句译文】据王教授看来,目前教育的目的是什么?

【试题分析】细节题。

【详细解答】句子“universities today are more concerned with providing jobs for th

eir graduates”说明如今的大学过多关注的是给毕业生提供工作。

8.答案: C

【问句译文】依王教授看来,科技能力_______

【试题分析】从访谈中,我们听到“technical skill which dont require you to become

very well educated,意思是technical skill 不需要你有很好的教育,故C对。

9.答案: C

【问句译文】对于因付费学生数量的增加而造成的情形,王教授提出了什么解决建议?

【试题分析】细节题。

【详细解答】王教授说“what we can do is to concentrate on improving the quality of

education”,意指我们要提高教育质量。

10.答案: D

【问句译文】下面哪个不是今后教育应该培养的毕业生?

【试题分析】本题属于推断题。

【详细解答】选项ABC都可在会谈中听到,是王教授所赞同的,而且句子“… the best universities in the world are already trying to guarantee that their students will not only be technically trained but will be the kind of people that can adapt

to any changing situation.”说明学生不但要受技术上的训练,还得要适应不断变化的情

况。因而那些只有技能的毕业生,不是今后教育要培养的。

SECTION C NEWS BROADCAST

11.答案: B

【问句译文】世界上下述哪个地区寿命缩短的最厉害?

【试题分析】细节题。

【详细解答】文中提到“Nations in every part of the world are suffering declinin

g life expectancies The impact is greatest in subSaharan Africa,即虽然世

界各地寿命都有所下降,但受影响最严重的地方是SubSaharan Africa,故答案为B.

12.答案: D

【问句译文】根据本新闻,哪个国家寿命下降率较小?

【试题分析】细节题。

【详细解答】文中提到“ Even in countries where the number of new infections is dro

pping, such as Thailand, Uganda, and Senegal, small life expectancy drop is fore

cast”,在上述几个国家中,选项中出现了Thailand,即D,故答案为D。

13 答案: B

【问句译文】预计将出现以人口负增长的国家主要在_______?

【试题分析】细节题。

【详细解答】文中提到“we expect that 5 countries will be experiencing negative po

pulation growth because of AIDS mortality, including South Africa, Mozambique, L

esotho, Botswana and Swaziland.”上文中提到的国家主要集中在非洲,故答案为B。

14.答案: B

【问句译文】欧盟和美国之间的贸易纠纷主要由什么引起?

【试题分析】主旨题。

【详细解答】新闻在一开始就对整篇内容做了概述:为报复美国对欧洲钢材征收的关税,欧盟

拟增加一系%8

2003年英语专业八级考试试题答案与详解

发布日期:[2004-11-22 10:43:45] 来源: 武汉外研所 阅读次数:1356



听力原文

PART LISTENING COMPREHENSION

 

SECTION A TALK

 

    When we talk about a modern company, we usually have managers, employees, products, research and development or marketing in mind. However, in reality, a company is not just made up of these elements. There are other things that make a company what it is. This morning, we are going to look at some other aspects of a company. Lets first take a look at the offices. The physical surroundings of most modern companies, especially offices are becoming more and more similar. Although there are some differences from country to country, one office looks much like another. Office furniture and equipment tends to be similar, desks, chairs, filing cabinets, computers, etc. What is important about offices?you may ask, What the atmosphere of the work place can often influence the effectiveness of a companys employees? Modern offices are more spacious and better laid, heated, ventilated and airconditioned than in the past. But of course, this is the feature that varies from firm to firm, and may be dependant on the size of the company and its cooperate philosophy. In some comanies, the employees work in large, open-plan offices without walls between the departments; in others, the staff members work more privately in individual offices. No matter what the offices law is like, modern companies pay special attention to the physical surroundings in order to create an atmosphere conducive to higher working efficiency. Another related point when talking about offices is the work relations with other people at the place of work. They include relationships with fellow employees, workers or colleagues. A great part of work or job satisfaction, some people say the major portion, comes from getting on with others at work. Work relations were also included those between management and employees. These relations are not always straightforward, particularly as the managements assessment of how your performing can be crucial to your future career.

    Now Id like to say a bit more about the relations between management and employees. There will also be matters about which employees will want to talk to the management. In small businesses, the boss will probably work alongside his or her workers. Anything that needs to be sorted out will be done face to face as soon as the problem arises. There will be no formal meetings for procedures. But the larger the business, the less direct contact there will be between employees and management. Special meetings have to be held and procedures set up to say when, where, how and what circumstances the employees can talk to the management. Some companies have specially organized consultive committees for this purpose. In many countries of the world today, particularly in large firms, employees join a trade union and ask the union to represent them to the management. Through the union all categories of employees can pass on the complaints they have and try to get things changed. The process, through which unions negotiate with management on behalf of their members is called, collective bargaining. Instead of each employee trying to bargain alone with the company, the employees join together and collectively put forward their views. Occasionally a firm will refuse to recognize the right of a union to negotiate for its members, and its dispute over union recognition will arise. Whether there is an agreement, bargaining or negotiation will take place. A compromise agreement may be reached. When this is not possible, the sides can go to arbitration and bring in a third party from outside to say what they think should happen.

    However, sometimes one of the sides decides to take industrial action. The management can lock out the employees and prevent them from coming to work. This used to be quite common, but its rarely used today. The main courses of action open to a trade union are strike, a ban on working overtime, working to rule, that is when employees work according to the company rule book, go slows, which means that employees may spend more time doing the same job, and picketing, which means the employees stand outside the entrance to the business location, hoarding outside to show that they are in conflict with the management. Every country has its own tradition of industrial relations, so its difficult to generalize. In some businesses, unions are not welcomed by the management, but it others, the unions play an important role both in the everyday working relations of individual companies, and also in the social and political life of the country.

 

SECTION B INTERVIEW

    If you are going to create a TV show that plays week after week, it needs an actor who can play a believer, you know, a person who tends to believe everything. Tonight in our show we have David Duchovney, who has starred in the popular TV series, The X·Files. Thanks to his brilliant performance in the TV series, David has become one of best-known figures in the country.

Interviewer:  Good evening, David, Im so glad to have you here.

David:  Its my pleasure. Thank you for inviting me on the show.

Interviewer:  David, have you often been on the radio shows?

David:  Oh, yes, quite often. To be frank, I love to be on the show.

Interviewer:  Why?

David:  You know, I want to know what people think about the TV series and about me, my acting, etc.

Interviewer:  OK, David, lets first talk about the character you played in The X·Files. The character, whose name is Mulder is supposed to be a believer. He deals with those unbelievable, wild and often disastrous events. He must be, I mean, Mulder, someone who really believes in the things he meets in order to keep on probing into those mysteries.

David:  Thats true. Remember those words said by Mulder: What is so hard to believe? Whose intensity makes even a most skeptical viewer believe the paranormal and our rigorous government consipiracies, without every reason to believe that life in the persistent survey is driving us out of our territorial sphere, etc., etc.? Interviewer:  I believe, I guess, David, your contribution to the hot series is quite aparent.  Now lets talk about your personal experience. From what I have read, I know that starting from your childhood, you were always a smart boy, went to the best private school, and were accepted at most of the Ivy League colleges. Not bad for a low middle class kid from a broken family on New Yorks Lower Eastside. Its even more surprising when you, who were on your way to a doctorate at Yale to took a few acting classes and got beaten by the book.
David:   You bet. My mother was really surprised when I decided to give up all that in order to become an actor.

Interviewer:  Sure. But talking about Mulder, the believer in The X·Files, what about you, David? Do you believe at all in real life, the aliens, people from outer space, you know, UFOs, government conspiracies, all the things that the TV series deal with?

David:  Well, government conspiracies, I think, are a little far fetched. Because I mean, its very hard for me to keep a secret with a friend of mine. And you can tell me that the entire government is going to come together and hide the aliens from us? I find that hard to believe. In terms of aliens, I think that they are real. They must be.

Interviewer:  So you could believe in aliens?

David:  Oh, yeah.

Interviewer:  The character you played in The X·Files, Fox Mulder, is so dark and moody. Are you dark and moody in life?

David:  I think so. I think what they wanted was somebody who could be this hearted, driven person, but not behave that way and therefore be hearted and driven but also appear to be normal and not crazy at the same time. And I think that I could, I can, I can afford that.

Interviewer:  What haunts you now? What drives you now?

David:  What drives me is failure and success and all those things, so …

Interviewer:  Where are you now? Are you haunted and driven, failed or successful, which?

David:  Yeah, both.

Interviewer:  All of the above?

David:  I always feel like a failure.

Interviewer:  Do you mean now you feel like a failure?

David:  Yeah, I mean, sometimes you know, like I come back to New York, so its like, everything is different. So I lie on bed and think, two years ago, three years ago, very different. Maybe Im doing well, but then I think, you know there are just so many other things that I want to do and …

Interviewer: Your father and mother divorced when you were eleven. Does that have effect on your life today that you recognize?

David:   Well, yeah, I think that the only way to think of it is that, you know, people are saying your wound is your goal, you know, wherever youre hurt, thats where youll become stronger. So, thats what, thats what its really about …

Interviewer: OK. Its time for short break. Well be back in a minute. David Duchovney in The X·Files, dont go away.

 

SECTION C NEWS BROADCAST

News Item 1 (For Question 11)

    The Bush administration is warning that continuing mid-east violence threatens to overwhelm US efforts to revise Israeli-Palestinian Peace talks, using the recommendations of the Mitchell commission to bring the two sides together. The administration officials are openly worried the violence and particularly the car bomb attack injured Isreali civilians could undermine what they see as a positive opening towards renewed peace talks presented by the Mitchell report. The US appeal came in the week of the bomb blast Wednesday in Israeli coastal town of Netanya that injured several Israelies. Responsibility for the bombing was claimed by the Palestinian group, Islamic Jihad. At the state department, sopkesman, Phillip Reeker said there can be no justification for terrorism and targeting its civilians, and he urged the Palestinian authority to do all they can to put an end to such incidents which is said to threaten to overtake the latest peace efforts.

 

News Item 2

    Voters in Peru head to the post today to cast their ballots in a runoff presidential election that many hope will mark the end of the nations political crisis. Opinion polls last week show the modern candidate Arhumdred Toledo with a narrow lead over a left-leaning former President Ellen Gaceya. Both candidates have campaigned on similar populous platforms. Meanwhile pre-election Service indicates that up to 25% of voters in Peru plan to spoil or leave their ballots blank to show their dissatisfaction with both candidates.

 

News Item 3 (For Questions 13-15)

    Canada for the seventh consecutive year ranks the best place to live in the world. But if you are a woman, you are better off in Scandinavia since the UN Human Development Report (2000) released yesterday. Norway is in second place you know for ranking followed by the United States, Australia, Iceland, Sweden, Belgium, the Netherlands Japan and Britain. Finland is in eleventh place followed by France, Switzerland, Germany, Denmark, Austria, Luxembourg, Ireland, Italy and New Zealand. At the other end of the scale, the ten least developed countries that provide the fewest service to their people, from the bottom up, a war-devastated Sierra Leone, Niger, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Brandi, Guinean Bissau, Mozambique, Chad, Central African Republic and Mali.

 

SECTION D NOTE-TAKING AND GAP-FILLING

    Good morning, everybody. Todays lecture is about Abraham Maslovs hierarchy of needs. This seems like a physiological topic. Actually it is something psychological. Abraham Maslov is a psychologist, and he is especially known for his theory of human needs.

    OK, first of all, what is the need? Here, we can simply define it as a personal requirement. Maslov believes that humans are wanting beings, who seek to fulfil a variety of needs. According to his theory, these needs can be arranged in an order according to their importance. It is this order that has become known as Maslovs hierarchy of needs. In this hierarchy of needs, at the most basic level are physiological needs. Fundamentally, humans are just one species of animal. We need to keep ourselves alive. Physiological needs are what we require for survival. These needs include food and water, shelter and sleep. At this level for us humans, Maslov also includes the need for clothing. How are these needs usually satisfied? It is mainly through adequate wages.

    Then what is the next level of needs? At the next level are safety needs, the things we require for physical and emotional security. Physical security is easy to understand. Everybody needs to keep his body safe from injury, illness, etc. Then what is emotional security? Well, that may be the point in this hierarchy of needs, where humans begin to differ from other animals. We are thinking animals. We have worries, what we fear may be losing a job, or being struck down by a severe disease. Besides physical Security, we need to think we are safe from misfortunes both now and in a forseeable future. How can these needs be met then? According to Maslov, safety needs may be satisfied through job security, health insurance, pension plans and safe working conditions.

    After this stage come the levels of needs that are particular to human beings. The immediate following level are the social needs. Under this category, Maslov puts our requirements for love and affection and the sense of belonging. We need to be loved, we need to belong to a group not just the family in which we can share with others in common interest. In Maslovs view, this need can be satisfied through the work environment and some informal organizations. Certainly, we also need social relationships beyond the work place, for example, with family and friends. Next, the level of esteem needs. What are esteem needs then? They include both the needs of self-esteem and the need of esteem of others. Self-esteem is a sense of our own achievements and worth. We need to believe that we are successful, we are no worse if no better than others. The esteem of people is the respect and recognition we gain from other people, by or through our work or our activities in other social groups. The ways to satisfy esteem needs include personal achievements, promotion to more resposible jobs, various honors and awards and other forms of recognition.

    What follows is the top level of this hierarchy of needs. These are the self-realization needs. In other words, they are the needs to grow and develop as people, the needs to become all that we are capable of being. These are the most difficult needs to satisfy. Whether one can achieve this level or not, perhaps determines whether one can be a great man or just an ordinary man. Of course, it depends on different people. The means of satisfying them tend to vary greatly with the individual. For some people, learning a new skill, starting a new career after retirement could quite well satisfy their self-realization needs. While for other people, it could be becoming the best in certain areas. It could be becoming the president of IBM, anyway, being great or ordinary is what others think, while self-realization is largely individual. Maslov suggested that people work to satisfy their physiological needs first, then their safety needs and so on up the needs ladder. In general, they are motivated by the needs at the lowest level that remain unsatisfied. However, needs at one level do not have to be completely satisfied before needs at the next higher level come into play. If the majority of a persons physiological and safety needs are satisfied, that person will be motivated primarily by social needs. But any physiological and safety needs that remain Unsatisfied will keep playing an important role.

OK, thats the general picture of Maslovs hierarchy of needs. Just to sum up, I briefly introduce to you Maslovs theory. Maslov thinks there are five kinds of human needs with each one being more important than the preceding one. I hope that you find his ideas interesting and in our next lecture, we will mainly discuss the practical implications of his theory.

    Now, you have 2 minutes to check your notes, then please complete the 15-minute gap-filling task on Answer Sheet One. This is the end of Part One.

 

答案与详解

PAPER ONE

PART LISTENING COMPREHENSION

SECTION A TALK

1  答案: B

【问句译文】根据该谈话内容,关于办公室的下列哪一种说法是不正确的?

【试题分析】本题为细节题,可用排除法解答。

【详细解答】由谈话中提到的“Lets first take a look of the officesthe physical surroundings of most modern companiesespecially offices are becoming more and more similar.”可知“全球的办公室基本上是一样的”故可排除选项A;根据听到的“this is the feature that...,may be dependent on the size of the company”和“...modem companies pay special attention to the physical surroundingin order to create an atmosphere conducive to higher working efficiency.”可知,办公环境设置与公司规模有一定联系并影响着工作人员的办公效率,可排除选项CD。只有选项B不合题意,故为正确答案。

 

2  答案: A

 【问句译文】 由谈话可以推知,和谐的工作关系对你的什么产生直接的影响?

 【试题分析】 本题为细节题。

 【详细解答】 由谈话中提到的“...particularly as the managements assessment of how are you performing can be crucial to your future career.”可知,工作表现会直接影响到未来的事业,故选项A promotion(提升,晋级)为正确答案。 

 

3  答案: D

 【问句译文】 假设你在一家小公司工作,有什么不满时会怎么做?

 【试题分析】 本题为细节题。

 【详细解答】 由谈话中提到的“In small businessesthe boss will probably work along side hisher workersAnything that needs to be sorted out will be done face to face as soon as the problem arises.”可知,在小的公司里,有问题应尽快与老板直接面谈。故选项D为正确答案。

 

4.  答案: B

问句译文:根据该谈话内容,工会在下列哪一方面不起作用?

 【试题分析】 本题为细节题。

 【详细解答】 由谈话中提到的 “When this is not possiblethe sides can go to arbitration and bring in a third party from outside to say what they think should happen.”可知,当工会与公司自身不能调节问题时,就会请第三者进行仲裁,所以工会不具备仲裁的职能,故选项B为正确答案。 

 

5.  答案: C

问句译文:谈话不包含下列那一项内容?

 【试题分析】 本题为细节题,可用排除法解答。

 【详细解答】 由谈话可知,其内容先后涉及工作关系(work relations)、工会角色(role of the union)和办公室设置(office layout)。故可分别排除选项ABD,正确答案为选项C。

 SECTION B INTERVIEW

 
6
. 答案:

 【问句译文】 关于David的个人背景,下列那一种说法是错误的?

 【试题分析】 本题为细节题。

 【详细解答】 由对话中主持人提到的“...took a few acting classes...”,可知David只是参加了几次表演班,并没有接受过专门的职业培训,故选项C的说法是错误的。 

 

7. 答案: D

 【问句译文】 David倾向于相信什么?

 【试题分析】 本题为细节题。

 【详细解答】 在对话中,David提到“Wellgovernment conspiraciesI thinkare a little far fetched...”由此可知,他倾向于相信政府阴谋,故选项D为正确答案。

 

8. 答案:

 【问句译文】 David为何认为他适合电视角色?

 【试题分析】 本题为细节推理题。

 【详细解答】 在谈到David对电视的贡献时,主持人说“I believeI guessDavidyour contribution to the heat series is quite abilityNow lets talk about your personal experience...”,由此可知David的个人经验帮助了他的演艺事业的成功。故选项C为正确答案。 

 

9. 答案: A

 【问句译文】 由谈话可知,David目前的感觉怎样?

 【试题分析】 本题为细节题。

 【详细解答】 当主持人问到David的现状时,他回答“I always feel like a failure.”由此可见,他总是有一种“挫败感”,故选项A 为正确答案。 


10
. 答案:

 【问句译文】 对于父母离婚一事,David的感想是什么?

 【试题分析】 本题为细节题。

 【详细解答】 在提到父母离婚一事时,David说 “...whenever you are hurtthats where youll become stronger.”由此可见,他认为父母的离异促进了他的成长。故选项C为正确答案。

    

SECTION C NEWS BROADCAST

 News Item 1

11. 答案:

 【问句译文】 该新闻的主题是什么?

 【试题分析】 本题为综合题。

 【详细解答】 新闻的第二句话提到“The administration officials are openly worried the violence …could under mine what they see as a positive opening…”,新闻中还多次提到相关人员担心巴以和平进程,故选项A为正确答案。 

 

 News Item 2  

12. 答案: A

 【问句译文】 为何有些选民会浪费他们的选票?

 【试题分析】 本题为细节题。

 【详细解答】 由新闻中提到的“…plan to spoil or leave their ballots blank to show their dissatisfaction with both candidates.”可知,有些选民对两个候选人都不满意,故选项A为正确答案。 

 

News Item 3

13. 答案:

 【问句译文】 根据联合国人类发展报告,世上哪儿的妇女的地位最高?

 【试题分析】 本题为细节题。

 【详细解答】 新闻的第二句话说“But if you are a womanyou are better off in Scandinavia since the UN Human Development(2000) released yesterday.”由此可知,选项D为正确答案。 

14. 答案: B

 【问句译文】 哪个国家位居第十二位?

 【试题分析】 本题为细节题。

 【详细解答】 由新闻中提及的“Finland is the eleventh place followed by France…”可知,法国紧随其后,位居第十二位。答案选B。 

15. 答案:

 【问句译文】 根据联合国的报告,最不发达的国家是哪一国?

 【试题分析】 本题为细节题。

 【详细解答】 新闻的最后一句话提到“...from the bottom up war-deviatedSierra Leone...,”由此可知,选项C为正确答案。 

 

SECTION D NOTE-TAKING AND GAP-FILLING

1. 答案:basic ( fundamental)   

 【详细解答】 在谈到Physiological needs时,录音中说“In this hierarchy of needs, at the most basic level physiological needs”,由此可知,此处应填写basic fundamental。 

2.  答案:safety

 【详细解答】 当录音中说到“Then what is the next level of needs?”我们就应集中注意力听下文,“ At the next level are safety needs,...”由此可知,此处应填写safety。 

3.  答案:emotional

 【详细解答】 紧接上题,录音解释了safety needs所包含的内容“...the things we require for physical and emotional security.” 

4.  答案:worries

 【详细解答】 根据录音中提到的“We have worries, what we find may lost my job, what we find ...”,此处应填写worries。 

5.  答案:pension 

 【详细解答】 在谈到解决safety needs的方法时,录音中说到“...safety needs may be satisfied through job security, health insurance, pension plan and safe working conditions.” 故此处应填写pension。 

6.  答案:work

 【详细解答】 在谈到esteem needs时,录音中说“The esteem of others is the respect and recognition we gain from other people, by or through our work or our achievements and worth.” 故此处应填写work。 

7.  答案:variable

 【详细解答】 在谈到self-realization needs时,录音中说“The means of satisfying them tend to vary greatly with the individual.” 故此处应填写variable。 

8.  答案:human

详细解答:由上下文可知,socialesteem and self-realization needs 应该是 human needs。 

9.  答案:motivation

 【详细解答】 根据录音中提到的“In general, they are motivated by the needs at the lowest level that remain unsatisfied ...”,此处应填写motivation。 

10.  答案:coexist

 【详细解答】 根据录音中提到的“But any physiological and safety needs that remain unsatisfied will keep playing an important role.”,此处应填写coexist。 

 

PART PROOFREADING AND ERROR CORRECTION

1.  答案: heighthigh

 【详细解答】 height为不可数名词,意为“高度,身高,海拔,顶点”等,故此处应改为可数名词high。

2. 答案:a

 【详细解答】 此处steady decline指稳定下降的行为、过程而不是其结果,为不可数名词,故应去掉定冠词a。 

3. 答案:went∧→on

 【详细解答】 go on为固定搭配,意为“持续”。 

4. 答案:highhigher

 【详细解答】 根据上下文,此处应为比较级。 

5. 答案:EuropeEuropean

 【详细解答】 根据上下文,此处应用形容词作定语修饰名词counterparts。 

6. 答案: more

 【详细解答】 由上下文可知,moreequally矛盾,故应去掉。 

7. 答案:neverthelessalso

 【详细解答】 由上下文可知,此处讲的内容与前部分内容之间为递进关系,而非转折关系。

8. 答案: thatthose

 【详细解答】 由上下文可知,此处所指代的应为前面复数形式的marriages,故指示代词也应该用复数形式。 

9. 答案: SinceAlthough(或While)

 【详细解答】 从逻辑上讲,此处应表达让步关系,而非因果关系。

10. 答案:into

 【详细解答】  to...extent为固定搭配,意为“到……程度”。 

 

PART READING COMPREHENSION

SECTION A

 TEXT A

短文大意 :这篇短文介绍的是吉卜赛人在欧洲受敌视的状况。

16. 答案:

 【参考译文】 只有在什么时候吉卜赛人才会联合起来?

 【试题分析】 本题为细节理解题。

 【详细解答】  短文第一段中有这么一句话:“only really unifying in the face of enmity from non-Gypsies”即“只有面对非吉卜赛人的威胁时才联合起来”,由此可知选项D为正确答案。 

 

17. 答案:A

 【参考译文】 历史上,除了下列哪类人,在欧洲对吉卜赛人的仇视导致了各种人对他们的迫害?

 【试题分析】 本题为综合理解题。

 【详细解答】 短文第二段中有这么两句话“In Europe their persecution by gadje began quicklywith the church seeing heresy in their fortune-telling and the state seeing anti-social behaviour in their nomadism.”即“在欧洲gadje人对他们的迫害迅速开始,教堂认为他们的算命是异教行为,政府认为他们的游牧生活是反社会行为”。 “In more recent times the Gypsies were caught up in Nazi ethnic hysteriaand perhaps half a million perished in the holocaust.”即“在更近期的历史中,吉卜赛人被卷入了纳粹党的歇斯底里的种族迫害中,大约有50万人死于这次大屠杀”。由此可知选项BCD都对吉卜赛人造成了迫害。所以答案应选A。 

 

18.  答案:C

 【参考译文】 根据文章内容,吉卜赛人和犹太人的主要区别在于他们对于什么的观念不同?

 【试题分析】 本题为细节理解题。

 【详细解答】 短文最后一句说“with very few exceptions Gypsies have expressed no great desire for a country to call their own–unlike the Jews”即“绝大部分吉卜赛人对建立一个自己民族的国家没有多大欲望,不像犹太人那样”,由此可知,他们的主要区别在于他们对他们的身份所持的不同观点上,所以答案应为C。文中未将吉卜赛人与犹太人的语言、文化或习俗进行比较,故ABD项都不符合题意。 

 

 TEXT B  

 短文大意 :在这篇短文中,作者以自身经历讲述了哈莱姆市(Harlem)的变化,表达了他的怀念之情。

19.  答案:

 【参考译文】 在文章开头,作者似乎在暗示哈莱姆市怎么样?

 【试题分析】 本题为推断题。

 【详细解答】 文章第一段讲述了作者还是个小男孩时去哈莱姆市的情景。当时住在Theresa旅店,它是一幢雄伟的砖头建筑。在旅店餐馆里,父亲指出乔·路易斯(一位美国职业拳击运动员)。在第二段开头,作者指出Much has changed since then.接着说,Business and real estate are booming(商业和房地产繁荣起来。)由此可见,作者在开头想指出哈莱姆市经历了剧烈的变化,故选项B为正确答案。

 

20.  答案:

 【参考译文】 当作者回忆旧时的哈莱姆市时,他有怎样的感情?

 【试题分析】 本题为细节理解题。

 【详细解答】  由短文的第四、五段“I miss MrMichauxs bookstore...,I miss speaker like Carlos Cooks...”,可以推断出作者是很怀念过去的时光的,故选项D为正确答案。 

 

21.  答案:A

 【参考译文】 在20世纪2030年代,哈莱姆市被称作为美国黑人的首都主要是因为它的什么?

 【试题分析】 本题为细节理解题。

 【详细解答】  短文第六段开头说“...in the l920s and 30swhen Harlem renaissance artistswritersand intellectuals gave it a glitter and renown that made it capital of black America.”即“在20世纪2030年代Harlem新兴的艺术家、作家和知识分子给Harlem带来了光明和名望,使得其成为美国黑人的首都”,由此可知,在20世纪2030年代Harlem被称为首都主要是因为它的艺术和文化,所以答案应为A。 

 

22.  答案:C

 【参考译文】 从这篇文章我们可以推断出,从总体上来说,作者的态度怎么样?

 【试题分析】 本题为综合理解题。

 【详细解答】 文章说作者首次来到Harlem大约在20世纪4050年代,而那时由于2030年代艺术和文化的发展,Harlem成为美国黑人的首都,但随着经济的发展和商业的繁荣,美国正经历另一次的rebirth,尽管随之而来的也有一些社会问题,如毒品和犯罪等。第八段还另外提到:“Nowyou want to shoutLookingood!at this place that has been neglected for so long,”所以作者对Harlem的变化大体上是持肯定态度的。

 

TEXT C  

     短文大意 :这篇文章详细描绘的是某律师事务所的几位工作人员在对应聘者进行面试前的准备工作以及他们的心理状况。

23. 答案:

 【参考译文】 下列哪一项不是公司的招聘要求?

 【试题分析】 本题为细节题,可用排除法解答。

 【详细解答】  短文第一段提到了公司招聘的要求。由“He was marriedand that was mandatory.”可知Amarriage在要求之内。由“He had a degree in accountingpassed the CPA exam the first time he took it and wanted to be a tax lawyerwhich of course was a requirement with a tax firm.”可知Crelevant degree也在要求之内。由“McDeere was a maleand there were no women in the firm.”可知Dmale也是正确选项,所以只有B不符合题意。 

 

24.  答案:D

 【参考译文】 秘密调查的详细内容表明公司怎么样?

 【试题分析】 本题为推断题。

 【详细解答】 根据文章第三段的描述,该公司派人调查了McDeere在校的表现甚至是一些琐碎的私人生活细节,可以推断出该公司对McDeere的任何个人细节都感兴趣。

 

25.  答案:A

 【参考译文】 根据文章内容,Lama Quin在面试现场的主要原因是什么?

 【试题分析】 本题为细节理解题。

 【详细解答】 根据文中第五段中的“Lamar Quin was thirty-two and not yet a partnerHe had been brought along to look young and act young and project a youthful image for BendiniLambert & Locke which in fact was a young firm...”可知Lamar Quin出现在此次面试中的主要原因应为A项,即“他的形象可以给McDeere留下印象”。 

 

26.  答案:C

 【参考译文】 读这篇文章,我们会有这种印象,即该公司在招募人员时不怎么样?

 【试题分析】 本题为综合理解题。

 【详细解答】 根据文中第一段及第二段中的内容可知该公司在招聘人员时是精挑细选的(selective)。该公司还派私人侦探去调查McDeere的个人情况,可知他们的招聘是秘密的(secretive)。该公司在工作招聘中对应聘人员的要求是有种族偏见的(racially biased),这由第一段中“He was whiteand the firm had never hired a black.”可得出结论。所以只有Cperfunctory(敷衍了事,马马虎虎)不合题意。 

 

 TEXT D  

 短文大意 :这篇短文论述的是当过CEO的政府官员政绩不佳的原因。

27. 答案:D

 【参考译文】  一位CEO要想在政府部门成功,他必须怎样做?

 【试题分析】 本题为细节题,可用排除法解答。

 【详细解答】  A项是视总统为CEO,这与原文第四段中“But even the president is not really the CEO.”是不符的;B项也不合题意,因为“Power in Washington is diffuse and horizontally spread out.”(政府权力是分散的,是水平分布的。)所以他对其负责部门不必绝对控制,而是要扮演好总统顾问(adviser to President)的角色;C项在文中并未提及。故正确答案为D。 

 

28. 答案:A

 【参考译文】 文章在评论ONeill当财政部长的经历时,似乎指明什么?

 【试题分析】 本题为推断题。

 【详细解答】 短文第六段以ONeill当财政部长为例,论述了必须小心行使权力。接着在第七段指出ONeill公开批评国际货币基金组织给予发展中国家紧急援助的建议,与此同时却赞同针对土尔其、阿根廷和巴西的这类建议,结果两边都不讨好。可见,ONeill没有行使好自己的权力。故选项A为正确答案。 

 

29. 答案:C

 【参考译文】 根据文章内容,政府和企业的不同之处不包括下列哪一项?

 【试题分析】 本题为综合理解题。

 【详细解答】 短文倒数第二段第二句说“Business functions around one predominate organizing principleprofitability...Governmenton the other handdeals with a vast number of equally legitimate and often potentially competing objectives...”可以看出两者的行为性质是不同的,所以A项是区别之一。短文倒数第三段第二句说“...you cant just quitJack Welchs famous law for re-engineering General Electric was to be first or second in any given product categoryor else get out of that businessBut if the government isnt doing a particular job at peak levelit doesnt always have the option of relieving itself of that function.”可以看出商业部门有其自由撤出的权力而政府部门一般不可,所以B项也是区别之一。此外两者权力分布也是不同的,正如文中第四段所述“Power in a corporation is concentrated and vertically structuredPower in Washington is diffuse and horizontally spread out.”由此看来只有C项不是两者的区别,故为正确答案。 

 

30.  答案:B

 【参考译文】 作者似乎在暗指由CEO转变过来的政府官员怎样?

 【试题分析】 本题为推断题。

 【详细解答】  在短文的最后一段,作者指出,CEO长期习染崇拜、奉承的文化,因而他们很难相信自己有必要去听取别人的意见或学习他人的优点,特别是那些为人们所不齿的政客、官僚和媒体,而他们即使清楚地认识有这个必要,也不会那样做,故选B。 

 

SECTION B

TEXT E  

 短文大意 :本文介绍的是有关美国网吧的状况。

31.  答案:C

 【参考译文】 文章主要是关于美国的什么?

 【试题分析】 本题为综合判断题。

 【详细解答】  从文中大量有关美国网吧的数字,就可判断本文主要是关于美国网吧的。

 TEXT F  

 短文大意 :这篇短文介绍了有关瑜珈的情况。

32.  答案:A

 【参考译文】 在这篇短文中,作者试图做什么?

 【试题分析】 本题为综合判断题。

 【详细解答】 快速浏览全文可知,第一段第一句话直接道出西方练瑜珈的人只注重形体修塑,没注意意识修炼。第二段的开头介绍了瑜珈功的正确、本来的原理,指出瑜珈功重在内心修炼。第三段指出瑜珈由外部瑜珈与内部瑜珈组成,并详细介绍了内部瑜珈的境界感受,这是为了体现内心修炼的重要性,从而批评了西方练瑜珈的人的不当之处,故选项A为正确答案。 

 

TEXT G  

 短文大意 :这是一篇有关基辛格的新书Does American Need a Foreign Policy的书评。

33.  答案:D

 【参考译文】 评论者对亨利·基辛格的新书的评价基本上怎么样?

 【试题分析】 本题为细节题。

 【详细解答】 根据短文第2段和第3段的第1句、第6段的第2句可知,作者对基辛格的新书还是持赞扬态度,故正确答案为D。 

 

 TEXT H   

 短文大意 :本文论述的是有关小语种逐渐消失的问题。

34.  答案:A

 【参考译文】 在这篇文章中,作者表达了对什么的关心?

 【试题分析】 本题为细节题。

 【详细解答】 由文章第一段可知,小语种在逐渐消失。接着浏览各段开头或文中词语可知,文章主要围绕languagelinguistic extinction进行论述。而且从文中倒数第六段和倒数第三段可知,文中还谈及了如何挽救小语种。故本题选A项。 

 

TEXT I  

 短文大意 :这是一份招聘工程管理员的广告。

35.  答案:B

 【参考译文】 工程管理员的工作主要与什么有关?

 【试题分析】 本题为细节题。

 【详细解答】 从招聘启事的副标题AGRICULTURAL REHABILITATION PROJECT可知正确答案为选项B。

 

36.  答案:D

 【参考译文】 工作合同多久签一次?

 【试题分析】 本题为细节题。

 【详细解答】 由短文倒数第三段中的“a twelve-month contract with a salary”可知正确选项为D。 

 

 TEXT J  

 短文大意 :这是一篇有关感冒的医学文章。

37.  答案:A

 【参考译文】 谁发现了名为M2的蛋白质?

 【试题分析】 本题为细节题。

 【详细解答】 在文中迅速找寻M2一词。从第二段第二句可得出    是比利时的一所大学里的科学家发现了M2,故正确答案为选项A。 

 

38.  答案:C

 【参考译文】 文章引证了导致口气不清新的几条原因?

 【试题分析】 本题为细节题。

 【详细解答】 在标题为BAD BREATH的三段文字中,分别给出了导致口气不清新的三个原因:an illnessfoods like onions or garlicfood molecules,故正确答案为选项C。 

 

 TEXT K  

 短文大意 :这是一篇介绍Moore生平的文章。

39.  答案:D

 【参考译文】 Moore第一次受委托办事是在何时?

 【试题分析】 本题为细节题。

 【详细解答】 在文中寻找first commission。从第三段第二句可知His first commissionreceived in l928…,故正确答案为选项D。 

 

40.  答案:B

 【参考译文】 Moore在哪儿第一次获得国际性奖项?

 【试题分析】 本题为细节题。

 【详细解答】 在文中寻找international prize。从第四段第二句可知“…won the International Sculpture Prize at the 24th Venice Biennalethe first of countless international accolades…,由此可知,正确答案为选项B。 

 

PAPER TWO

 PART TRANSLATION

SECTION A CHINESE TO ENGLISH

  【参考译文】 

Before I fell ill, my parents doted on me a lot. I could have my way at home. Once I was isolated and confined in a chamber on the hillside of the garden, I suddenly felt I was neglected and became very depressed. One spring evening, my parents held a Banquet in the garden, where all sorts of flowers were in full bloom. In no time, a crowd of their guests collected and laughter was heard all over there. I, without being noticed, lifted the curtain in my small room, only to spy the bustle of a kaleidoscopic world down in the garden, and my elder sisters, brothers and my cousins, each full of the joys of spring, were shuttling among the guests. Quickly enough, I was thrown into a fist of sorrowful anger at being forgotten and discarded by the rest and could not help crying my heart out.

 

SECTION B ENGLISH TO CHINESE

【参考译文】

在其经典小说《开拓者》中,詹姆士·菲尼摩尔·库珀让主人公,一个土地开发商,带他的表妹参观正在由他承建的一座城市。他描述了宽阔的街道,林立的房屋,热闹的都市。他的表妹环顾四周,大惑不解。她所看见的只是一片树林。“你想让我看的那些美景和改造了的地方在哪儿啊?”她问道。他见表妹看不到那些东西,感到很惊讶。“哪儿?到处都是啊!”他答道。虽然那些东西还未建成在大地上,但他已在心中将它们建好了。对他来说,它们都是实实在在的,宛如已建成竣工一样。

库珀这里阐明的是一种典型的美国人特性:着眼于未来,即能够从未来的角度看待现在;可以自由地不为过去所羁绊,而在情感上更多地依附于未来的事物。正如阿尔伯特·爱因斯坦曾经说过的那样:“对美国人来说,生活总是在发展变化中,从来不会静止不变。”

 

PART WRITING

【参考范文】 

Love, and Then Be Loved

In recent years, more and more teachers complain that their students are indifferent to others. Some even worry that the young generation might ruin the future of China.  To be sure, many of our young people cannot see eye to eye with this view.  However, as a university student, I myself would like to content that we young people today are in general more self-centered and unsympathetic than our previous generations.

To start with, most, if not all, young people choose to attend exclusively to their own needs. In their eyes, It is all too natural to seek satisfaction from what they do, even if it may mean inconvenience to others.  Take my dormitory for example.  It is a common scene here that a roommate cheerfully talks to his girlfriend on the phone at midnight when others are struggling for a sound sleep. One may complain now and then, but to no avail. In fact, the others, to the exclusion of me, live their dormitory life much in the same way. When I take a nap at noon, they often play cards.  They have no regard for others.  Life is a joy to them, yet they often enjoy it to the neglect of others feelings. In sharp contrast, our caring parents always pay heed to our needs and those of others. Whenever my father comes back home late in the night, he tiptoes In for fear that he might awake me.

Moreover, our young people tend to be insensitive to others difficulty.  When a classmate falls ill, few people offer to help, but regard it as none of their business.  Some students in my class come from poor families. Yet, they are active mobile phone users, who may spend twice as much as what their parents earn from arduous labor.  When asked why they behave so, they answer that their parents have the obligation to accommodate their expenses. Personally, I detest their answer, for I know my parents never thought that way when they were young.  Being aware of their parents financial difficulty, they managed to save every penny they could.

For the above reasons and those not mentioned here, I subscribe to the view that young people in todays China are more self-centered and unsympathetic than were our previous generations. It is high time that we learned from older generations so that a harmonious and splendid future can be anticipated.

本套真题测试的语言重点:

重点单词:

 confound 挫败,使落空

mercenary 外国雇佣兵

nomadism游牧生活,流浪生活

burgeon迅速增长,发展繁荣

venerated受尊敬的

founder失败,崩溃

holster  维持

 

重点词组:

 fragmented and fractious分裂而且难以驾驭的

downplay their profile贬低他们的形象或影响

decry...as 谴责...

runride roughshod over  残暴地(或盛气凌人地)对待,对……横行霸道

at peak level处于最好的水平

2003年英语专业八级考试试题

发布日期:[2004-11-19 16:48:15] 来源: 武汉外研所 阅读次数:1120


PART I LISTENING COMPREHENSION (40 MIN)
  In Sections A, B and C you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on your coloured answer sheet

  SECTION A TALK
  Questions I to 5 refer to the talk in this section. At the end of the talk you will be given 15 seconds to answer each of the following five questions.
  Now listen to the talk.

  1. Which of the following statements about offices is NOT true according to the talk?
  A. Offices throughout the world are basically alike.
  B. There are primarily two kinds of office layout.
  C. Office surroundings used to depend on company size.
  D. Office atmosphere influences workers’ performance.

  2. We can infer from the talk that harmonious work relations may have a direct impact on your
  A. promotion.
  B. colleagues.
  C. management.
  D. union.

  3. Supposing you were working in a small firm, which of the following would you do when you had some grievances?
  A. Request a formal special meeting with the boss.
  B. Draft a formal agenda for a special meeting.
  C. Contact a consultative committee first.
  D. Ask to see the boss for a talk immediately.

  4. According to the talk, the union plays the following roles EXCEPT
  A. mediation.
  B. arbitration.
  C. negotiation.
  D. representation.

  5. Which topic is NOT covered in the talk?
  A. Role of the union.
  B. Work relations.
  C. Company structure.
  D. Office layout.

  SECTION B INTERVIEW

  Questions 6 to 10 are based on an interview. At the end of the interview you will be given 15seconds to answer each of the following five questions.

  Now listen to the interview.

  6. Which of the following statements is INCORRECT about David’s personal background?
  A. He had excellent academic records at school and university.
  B. He was once on a PHD programme at Yale University.
  C. He received professional training in acting.
  D. He came from a single-parent family.

  7. David is inclined to believe in
  A. aliens.
  B. UFOs.
  C. the TV character.
  D. government conspiracies.

  8. David thinks he is fit for the TV role because of his
  A. professional training.
  B. personality.
  C. life experience.
  D. appearance.

  9. From the interview, we know that at present David feels
  A. a sense of frustration.
  B. haunted by the unknown things
  C. confident but moody.
  D. successful yet unsatisfied.

  10. How does David feel about the divorce of his parents?
  A. He feels a sense of anger.
  B. He has a sense of sadness.
  C. It helped him grow up.
  D. It left no effect on him.

  SECTION C NEWS BROADCAST

  Question 11 is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 15seconds to answer the question.

  Now listen to the news.

  11. What is the main idea of the news item?
  A. US concern over th6 forthcoming peace talks.
  B. Peace efforts by the Palestinian Authority.
  C. Recommendations by the Mitchell Commission.
  D. Bomb attacks aimed at Israeli civilians.

  Question 12 is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 15 seconds to answer the question.

  Now listen to the news.

  12. Some voters will waste their ballots because
  A. they like neither candidate.
  B. they are all ill-informed.
  C. the candidates do not differ much.
  D. they do not want to vote twice.

  Questions 13 to 15 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given15 seconds to answer each of the questions.

  Now listen to the news.

  13. According to the UN Human Development Report, which is the best place for women in the world?
  A. Canada.
  B. The US.
  C. Australia.
  D. Scandinavia.

  14. _______ is in the 12th place in overall ranking.
  A. Britain
  B. France
  C. Finland
  D. Switzerland

  15. According to the UN report, the least developed country is
  A. Ethiopia.
  B. Mali.
  C. Sierra Leon.
  D. Central African Republic.

  SECTION D NOTE-TAKING AND GAP-FILLING

  In this section you will hear a mini-lecture. You will hear the lecture ONCE ONLY. While listening, take notes on the important points. Your notes will not be marked, but you will need them to complete a 15-minute gap-filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE after the mini-lecture. Use the blank sheet for note-taking.

  PART II PROOFREADING & ERROR CORRECTION (15 MIN)
  Proofread the given passage on ANSWER SHEET TWO as instructed.

  PART III READING COMPREHENSIOS (40MIN)

  SECTION A READING COMPREHENSION (30 MIN)

  In this section there are four reading passages followed by a total of fifteen multiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on your coloured answer sheet~

  TEXT A
  Hostility to Gypsies has existed almost from the time they first appeared in Europe in the 14th century. The origins of the Gypsies, with little written history, were shrouded in mystery. What is known now from clues in the various dialects of their language, Romany, is that they came from northern India to the Middle East a thousand years ago, working as minstrels and mercenaries, metal-smiths and servants. Europeans misnamed them Egyptians, soon shortened to Gypsies. A clan system, based mostly on their traditional crafts and geography, has made them a deeply fragmented and fractious people, only really unifying in the face of enmity from non-Gypsies, whom they call gadje. Today many Gypsy activists prefer to be called Roma, which comes from the Romany word for “man”. But on my travels among them most still referred to themselves as Gypsies.
  In Europe their persecution by the gadje began quickly, with the church seeing heresy in their fortune-telling and the state seeing anti-social behaviour in their nomadism. At various times they have been forbidden to wear their distinctive bright clothes, to speak their own language, to travel, to marry one another, or to ply their traditional crafts. In some countries they were reduced to slavery it wasn’t until the mid-1800s that Gypsy slaves were freed in Romania. In more recent times the Gypsies were caught up in Nazi ethnic hysteria, and perhaps half a million perished in the Holocaust. Their horses have been shot and the wheels removed from their wagons, their names have been changed, their women have been sterilized, and their children have been forcibly given for adoption to non-Gypsy families.
  But the Gypsies have confounded predictions of their disappearance as a distinct ethnic group and their numbers have burgeoned. Today there are an estimated 8 to 12 million Gypsies scattered across Europe, making them the continent’s largest minority. The exact number is hard to pin down. Gypsies have regularly been undercounted, both by regimes anxious to downplay their profile and by Gypsies themselves, seeking to avoid bureaucracies. Attempting to remedy past inequities, activist groups may overcount. Hundreds of thousands more have emigrated to the Americas and elsewhere. With very few exceptions Gypsies have expressed no great desire for a country to call their own -unlike the Jews, to whom the Gypsy experience is often compared. “Romanestan” said Ronald Lee, the Canadian Gypsy writer, “is where my two feet stand.”
  16. Gypsies are united only when they
  A are engaged in traditional crafts.
  B. call themselves Roma.
  C. live under a clan system.
  D. face external threats.

  17. In history hostility to Gypsies in Europe resulted in their persecution by all the following
  EXCEPT
  A. the Egyptians.
  B the state.
  C. the church.
  D. the Nazis.

  18. According to the passage, the main difference between the Gypsies and the Jews lies in their concepts of
  A. language.
  B. culture.
  C. identity.
  D. custom.

  TEXT B

  I was just a boy when my father brought me to Harlem for the first time, almost 50 years ago. We stayed at the Hotel Theresa, a grand brick structure at 125th Street and Seventh Avenue. Once, in the hotel restaurant, my father pointed out Joe Louis. He even got Mr. Brown, the hotel manager, to introduce me to him, a bit paunchy but still the champ as far as I was concerned.
  Much has changed since then. Business and real estate are booming. Some say a new renaissance is under way. Others decry what they see as outside forces running roughshod over the old Harlem.
  New York meant Harlem to me, and as a young man I visited it whenever I could. But many of my old haunts are gone. The Theresa shut down in 1966. National chains that once ignored Harlem now anticipate yuppie money and want pieces of this prime Manhattan real estate. So here I am on a hot August afternoon, sitting in a Starbucks that two years ago opened a block away from the Theresa, snatching at memories between sips of high-priced coffee. I am about to open up a piece of the old Harlem- the New York Amsterdam News—when a tourist asking directions to Sylvia’s, a prominent Harlem restaurant, penetrates my daydreaming. He’s carrying a book: Touring Historic Harlem.
  History. I miss Mr. Michaux’s bookstore, his House of Common Sense, which was across from the Theresa. He had a big billboard out front with brown and black faces painted on it that said in large letters: “World History Book Outlet on 2,000,000,000 Africans and Nonwhite Peoples.” An ugly state office building has swallowed that space.
  I miss speaker like Carlos Cooks, who was always on the southwest comer of 125th and Seventh, urging listeners to support Africa. Harlem’s powerful political electricity seems unplugged-although the sweets are still energized, especially by West African immigrants.
  Hardworking southern newcomers formed the bulk of the community back in the 1920s and’30s, when Harlem renaissance artists, writers, and intellectuals gave it a glitter and renown that made it the capital of black America. From Harlem, W.E.B. DuBois, Langston Hughes, Paul Robeson, Zora Neal Hurston, and others helped power America’s cultural influence around the world.
  By the 1970s and ’80s drugs and crime had ravaged parts of the community. And the life expectancy for men in Harlem was less than that of men in Bangladesh. Harlem had become a symbol of the dangers of inner-city life.
  Now, you want to shout “Lookin’ good!” at this place that has been neglected for so long. Crowds push into Harlem USA, a new shopping centre on 125th, where a Disney store shares space with HMV Records, the New York Sports Club, and a nine-screen Magic Johnson theatre complex. Nearby, a Rite Aid drugstore also opened. Maybe part of the reason Harlem seems to be undergoing a rebirth is that it is finally getting what most people take for granted.
  Harlem is also part of an “empowerment zone”—a federal designation aimed at fostering economic growth that will bring over half a billion in federal, state, and local dollars. Just the shells of once elegant old brownstones now can cost several hundred thousand dollars. Rents are skyrocketing. An improved economy, tougher law enforcement, and community efforts against drugs have contributed to a 60 percent drop in crime since 1993.

  19. At the beginning the author seems to indicate that Harlem
  A. has remained unchanged all these years.
  B. has undergone drastic changes.
  C. has become the capital of Black America.
  D. has remained a symbol of dangers of inner-city life.

  20. When the author recalls Harlem in the old days, he has a feeling of
  A. indifference.
  B, discomfort.
  C. delight.
  D. nostalgia.

  21. Harlem was called the capital of Black America in the 1920s and ’30s mainly because of its
  A. art and culture.
  B. immigrant population.
  C. political enthusiasm.’
  D. distinctive architecture.

  22. From the passage we can infer that, generally speaking, the author
  A. has strong reservations about the changes.
  B. has slight reservations about the changes,
  C. welcomes the changes in Harlem.
  D. is completely opposed to the changes.

  TEXT C
  The senior partner, Oliver Lambert, studied the resume for the hundredth time and again found nothing he disliked about Mitchell Y. McDeere, at least not on paper. He had the brains, the ambition, the good looks. And he was hungry; with his background, he had to be. He was married, and that was mandatory. The firm had never hired an unmarried lawyer, and it frowned heavily on divorce, as well as womanizing and drinking. Drug testing was in the contract. He had a degree in accounting, passed the CPA exam the first time he took it and wanted to be a tax lawyer, which of course was a requirement with a tax firm. He was white, and the firm had never hired a black. They managed this by being secretive and clubbish and never soliciting job applications. Other firms solicited, and hired blacks. This firm recruited, and remained lily white. Plus, the firm was in Memphis, and the top blacks wanted New York or Washington or Chicago. McDeere was a male, and there were no women in the firm. That mistake had been made in the mid-seventies when they recruited the number one grad from Harvard, who happened to be a she and a wizard at taxation. She lasted four turbulent years and was killed in a car wreck.
  He looked good, on paper. He was their top choice. In fact, for this year there were no other prospects. The list was very short. It was McDeere, or no one.
  The managing partner, Royce McKnight, studied a dossier labeled “Mitchell Y. McDeere-Harvard.” An inch thick with small print and a few photographs; it had been prepared by some ex-CIA agents in a private intelligence outfit in Bethesda. They were clients of the firm and each year did the investigating for no fee. It was easy work, they said, checking out unsuspecting law students. They learned, for instance, that he preferred to leave the Northeast, that he was holding three job offers, two in New York and one in Chicago, and that the highest offer was $76,000 and the lowest was $68,000. He was in demand. He had been given the opportunity to cheat on a securities exam during his second year. He declined, and made the highest grade in the class. Two months ago he had been offered cocaine at a law school party. He said no and left when everyone began snorting. He drank an occasional beer, but drinking was expensive and he had no money. He owed close to $23,000 in student loans. He was hungry.
  Royce McKnight flipped through the dossier and smiled. McDeere was their man.
  Lamar Quin was thirty-two and not yet a partner. He had been brought along to look young and act young and project a youthful image for Bendini, Lambert & Locke, which in fact was a young firm, since most of the partners retired in their late forties or early fifties with money to bum. He would make partner in this firm. With a six-figure income guaranteed for the rest of his life, Lamar could enjoy the twelve-hundred-dollar tailored suits that hung so comfortably from his tall, athletic frame. He strolled nonchalantly across the thousand-dollar-a-day suite and poured another cup of decaf. He checked his watch. He glanced at the two partners sitting at the small conference table near the windows.
  Precisely at two-thirty someone knocked on the door. Lamar looked at the parmers, who slid the resume and dossier into an open briefcase. All three reached for their jackets. Immar buttoned his top button and opened the door.

  23. Which of the following is NOT the firm’s recruitment requirement?
  A. Marriage.
  B. Background.
  C. Relevant degree.
  D. Male.

  24. The details of the private investigation show that the firm
  A. was interested in his family background.
  B. intended to check out his other job offers.
  C. wanted to know something about his preference.
  D. was interested in any personal detail of the man.

  25. According to the passage, the main reason Lama Quin was there at the interview was that
  A. his image could help impress McDereer.
  B. he would soon become a partner himself.
  C. he was good at interviewing applicants.
  D. his background was similar to MeDereer’s.

  26. We get the impression from the passage that in job recruitment the firm was NOT
A. selective.
  B. secretive.
  C. perfunctory.
  D. racially biased.
TEXT K

  First read the questions.

  39. When did Moore receive his first commission?
  A. In 1948.
  B. In 1946.
  C. In 1931.
  D. In 1928.
  40. Where did Moore win his first international prize?
  A. In London.
  B. In Venice.
  C. In New York.
  D. In Hamburg.
  Now go through TEXT K quickly to answer questions 39 and 40.

  Henry Moore, the seventh of eight children of Raymond Spencer Moore and his wife Mary, was born in Yorkshire on 30 July 1898. After graduating from secondary school, Moore taught for a short while. Then the First World War began and he enlisted in the army at the age of eighteen. After the war he applied for and received an ex-serviceman’s grant to attend Leeds School of Art. At the end of his second year he won a scholarship to the Royal College of Art in London.
  In 1928 Moore met Irina Radetsky, a painting student at the college, whom he married a year later. The couple then moved into a house which consisted of a small ground-floor studio with an equally small flat above. This remained their London home for ten years.
  Throughout the 1920’s Moore was involved in the art life of London. His first commission, received in 1928, was to produce a sculpture relief for the newly opened headquarters of London Transport. His first one-man exhibition opened at the Warren Gallery in 1928; it was followed by a show at the Leicester Galleries in 1931 and his first sale to a gallery abroad- the Museum fur Kunst und Gewerbe in Hamburg. His success continued.
  In 1946 Moore had his first foreign retrospective exhibition at the Museum of Modem Art, New York. In 1948 he won the International Sculpture Prize at the 24th Venice Biennale, the first of countless international accolades acquired in succeeding years. At the same time sales of Moore’s work around the world increased, as did the demand for his exhibitions. By the end of 1970’s the number of exhibitions had grown to an average of forty a year, ranging from the very small to major international retrospectives taking years of detailed planning and preparation.
  The main themes in Moore’s work included the mother and child, the earliest work created in 1922, and the reclining figure dating from 1926. At the end of the 1960’s came stringed figures based on mathematical models observed in the Science Museum, and the first helmet head, a subject that later developed into the internal-external theme- variously interpreted as a hard form coveting a soft, like a mother protecting her child or a foetus inside a womb.
  A few years before his death in 1986 Moore gave the estate at Perry Green with its studios, houses and cottages to the Trustees of the Henry Moore Foundation to promote sculpture and the fine arts within the cultural life of the country and in particular the works of Henry Moore.

  - THE END -


  ANSWER SHEET ONE

  PART I LISTENING COMPREHENSION
  SECTION D NOTE-TAKING & GAPFILING (15 MIN)
  Fill in each of the gaps with ONE word You may refer to your notes. Make sure the word you fill in is both grammatically and semantically acceptable.
  Marslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  Abraham Maslow has developed a famous theory of human needs, which can be arranged
  In order of importance.
  Physiological needs: the most (1)______________ones for survival.They include such needs as food, water, etc. And there is usually one way to satisfy these needs. (2)______________needs: needs for a) physical security;b)(3)_______________security.
  The former means no illness or injury, while the latter is concerned with freedom from (4)______________, misfortunes, etc. These needs can be met through a variety of means, e.g. job security, (5)______________________plans, and safe working conditions.Social needs: human requirements for a) love and affection;b) a sense of belonging.There are two ways to satisfy these needs: a) formation of relationships at workplace;b) formation of relationships outside workplace.Esteem needs: a) self-esteem, i.e. one’s sense of achievement;b) esteem of others, i.e. others’ respect as a result of one’s (6__________.These needs can be fulfilled by achievement, promotion, honours, etc.Self-realization needs: need to realize one’s potential.Ways to realize these needs are individually (7)______________________ Features of the hierarchy of needs:a) Social, esteem and self-realization needs are exclusively(8)______________ needs.b) Needs are satisfied in a fixed order from the bottom up.c) (9)_____________for needs comes from the lowest un-met level.d) Different levels of needs may (10)_______________when they come into play.


  ANSWER SHEET TWO
  TEST FOR ENGLISH MAJORS [2003]
  -GRADE EIGIHT-
  PART II PROOFREADING & ERROR CORRECTION (15 MIN)
  The passage contains TEN errors. Each indicated line contains a maximum of ONE error. In each case, only ONE word is involved You should proof, read the passage and correct it in the following way:

  For a wrong word, underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank pro-vided at the end of the line.
  For a missing word, mark the position of the missing word with a “^” sign and write the word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the line.

  For an unnecessary word, cross the unnecessary word with a slash “/” and put the word in the blank provided at the end of the line.

  EXAMPLE
  When ^ art museum wants a new exhibit, it never buys things in finished form and hangs them on the wall. When a natural history museum wants an exhibition, it must often build it.

  Demographic indicators show that Americans in the postwar
  period were more eager than ever to establish families. They quickly
  brought down the age at marriage for both men and women and brought
  the birth rate to a twentieth century height after more than a hundred (1)__
  years of a steady decline, producing the “baby boom.” These young (2)__
  adults established a trend of early marriage and relatively large
  families that Went for more than two decades and caused a major (3)__
  but temporary reversal of long-term demographic patterns. From
  the 1940S through the early 1960s, Americans married at a high rate (4)__
  and at a younger age than their Europe counterparts.(5)__
  Less noted but equally more significant, the men and women on who (6)__
  formed families between 1940 and 1960 nevertheless reduced the (7)__
  divorce rate after a postwar peak; their marriages remained intact to
  a greater extent than did that of couples who married in earlier as well (8)__
  as later decades. Since the United States maintained its dubious (9)__
  distinction of having the highest divorce rate in the world, the
  temporary decline in divorce did not occur in the same extent in (10)__
  Europe. Contrary to fears of the experts, the role of breadwinner and
  homemaker was not abandoned.

  TEST FOR ENGLISH MAJORS (2003)
  -GRADE EIGHT-

  PAPER TWO

  TIME LIMIT: 120 MIN

  PART IV TRANSLATION (60 MIN)

  SECTION A CHINESE TO ENGLISH

  Translate the following text into English. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.

  得病以前,我受父母宠爱,在家中横行霸道,一旦隔离,拘禁在花园山坡上一幢小房子里,我顿觉打入冷宫,十分郁郁不得志起来。 一个春天的傍晚,园中百花怒放,父母在园中设宴,一时宾客云集,笑语四溢。我在山坡的小屋里,悄悄掀起窗帘,窥见园中大千世界,一片繁华,自己的哥姐,堂表弟兄,也穿插其间,个个喜气洋洋。一霎时,一阵被人摈弃,为世所遗的悲愤兜上心头,禁不住痛哭起来。

  SECTION B ENGLISH TO CHINESE

  Translate the following text into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.

  In his classic novel, “The Pioneers”, James Fenimore Cooper has his hero, a land developer, take his cousin on a tour of the city he is building. He describes the broad streets, rows of houses, a teeming metropolis. But his cousin looks around bewildered. All she sees is a forest. “Where are the beauties and improvements which you were to show me?” she asks. He’s astonished she can’t see them. “Where! Why everywhere,” he replies. For thought they are not yet built on earth, he has built them in his mind, and they are as concrete to him as if they were already constructed and finished.
  Cooper was illustrating a distinctly American trait, future-mindedness: the ability to see the present from the vantage point of the future; the freedom to feel unencumbered by the past and more emotionally attached to things to come. As Albert Einstein once said, “Life for the American is always becoming, never being.”


  PART V WRITING (60 MIN)

  An English newspaper is currently running a discussion on whether young people in China today are (not) more self-centered and unsympathetic than were previous generations. And the paper is inviting contributions from university students. You have been asked to write a short article for the newspaper to air your views.

  Your article should be about 300 words in length. In the first part of your article you should state clearly your main argument, and in the second part you should support your argument with appropriate details. In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or a summary.

  You should supply a title for your article.

  Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriacy. Failure to following the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.

  Write your composition on ANSWER SHEET FOUR.

英语专业八级考试试卷(2002)— 翻译+作文

发布日期:[2004-12-15 14:59:36] 来源: 武汉外研所 阅读次数:883


试卷二 (120  min)

Part Ⅳ  Translation  (60  min)

SECTION A CHINESE TO ENGLISH

Translate the following text into English. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.

    大自然对人的恩赐,无论贫富,一律平等。所以人们对于大自然,全都一致并深深地依赖着。尤其在乡间,上千年来人们一直以不变的方式生活着。种植庄稼和葡萄,酿酒和饮酒,喂牛和挤奶,锄草和栽花;在周末去教堂祈祷和做礼拜,在节日到广场拉琴、跳舞和唱歌;往日的田园依旧是今日的温馨家园。这样,每个地方都有自己的传说,风俗也就衍传了下来。

SECTION B ENGLISH TO CHINESE

Translate the following underlined part of the text into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.

      The word winner and loser have many meanings. When we refer to a person as a winner, we do not mean one who makes someone else lose. To us, a winner is one who responds authentic any by being credible, trustworthy, responsive, and genuine, both as an individual and as a member of a society.

      Winners do not dedicate their lives to a concept of what they imagine they should be; rather, they are themselves and as such do not use their energy putting on a performance, maintaining pretence and manipulating others. They are aware that there is a difference between being loving and acting loving, between being stupid and acting stupid, between being knowledgeable and acting knowledgeable. Winners do not need to hide behind a mask.

      Winners are not afraid to do their own thinking and to use their own knowledge. They can separate facts from opinions and dont pretend to have all the answers. They listen to others, evaluate what they say, but come to their own conclusions. Although winners can admire and respect other people, they are not totally defined, demolished, bound, or awed by them.

     Winners do not play helpless, nor do they play the blaming game. Instead, they assume responsibility for their own lives.

Part  Writing  (60  min)

  All of us would agree that in order to be successful in the present-day society, we university graduates have to possess certain personal qualities that can enable us to realize our aim. What do you think is the most important personal quality of a university graduate? Write a composition of about 300 words on the

 following topic:

THE MOST IMPORTANT PERSONAL QUALITY OF A UNIVERSITY STUDENT

      In the first part of your writing you should present your thesis statement, and in the second part you should support the thesis statement with appropriate details. In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or a summary.

      Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriacy. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.

      Write your composition on ANSWER SHEET FOUR.

 

PAPER TWO

PART TRANSLATION

SECTION A CHINESE TO ENGLISH

【参考译文】

     Nature does the same favour to every human being, whether rich or poor. So all the humans put on the nature deep dependence, especially in the countryside, where the people have been living the same life for thousands of years. They plant crops and grapes, make wine to drink, feed the cattle and milk the cows, weed and plant flowers. They go to church at weekends, and play music instruments on the plaza in the festivals, dancing and singing. The previous rural farms remain todays sweet home. In this way each area has legends of its own and the customs pass down.

SECTION B ENGLISH TO CHINESE

【参考译文】

    想象中自己应该是什么样的,成功者没将生命消耗在这种信念上。相反,他们活得有自我,因此不绞尽脑汁矫揉造作,不试图将他人玩弄于股掌之中。他们知道,真心关爱和虚情假意之间、真傻和装傻之间、真才实学和佯装有才之间界线分明。成功者无需面具掩藏自我。

    成功者勇于独立思考,敢于展示才华。他们能将事实和观点区分开来,不假装全懂。他们听人进言,并权衡利弊,从而得出自己的结论。尽管会钦佩他人,但他们从不为其所羁绊。

    成功者不会表现出无助,也不怨天尤人。相反,他们对生活尽职尽责。

PART WRITING

【参考范文】

 The Most Important Personal Quality of a University Student

      Everyone has one or more dreams. But it is much easier to set an aim than to realise it. In the course of obtaining success, we need a number of helps, either external or internal, and the personal qualities are of superior importance. Among the qualifies, such as smartness, honesty, confidence, the most important one, in my opinion, is diligence.

     We are sure to encounter a number of difficulties on the way to success. On one hand, we must hold on. On the other hand, we should make efforts to find the best solutions as soon as possible. We have to force ourselves to know more, do more, and sweat more. Only working industriously can assure us of a good result.

      Being industrious means more work and less relaxation. So diligent people will complete their tasks in a shorter time than others. They will get more information and experience in their work. In the long run they will do their job better and better. Diligence also means broad knowledge and good public relationship. No one will look down upon an industrious person, and no employer will promote an idle one.

      In addition, industry is a merit of our Chinese people, it is also a stimulus to Japans recovery from the disaster of World War II. It is needed to realize our aims and to make our country more prosperous.

 

本套真题测试的语言重点:

重点单词:

potent  有力的,有效的

encompass  包围;包含或包括某事物

irrelevant  不相关的,不切题的

ambiguous  不明确的,暧昧的

downturn  低迷时期

ecosystem  生态系统

lingering  延迟的

adolescence  青春期(一般指1315岁的时期)

hegemony  霸权

gimmick  暗机关

重点词组:

hedge ones bets  为避免损失两面下注

immerse oneself in  沉浸于,沉溺于

pay out  付出;报复

be adequate for  适合,足够

英语专业八级考试试卷(2001)— 听力

发布日期:[2004-12-23 10:47:23] 来源: 武汉外研所 阅读次数:587


Part Listening Comprehension  (40  min)

In Sections A, B and C you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct response to each question on your Coloured Answer Sheet.

SECTION A TALK

 

Questions 1 to 5 refer to the talk in this section. At the end of the talk you will be given 15 seconds to answer each of the following five questions. Now listen to the talk.

1. Changes in the size of the World Bank s operations refer to ___.

A. the expansion of its loan programme

B. the inclusion of its hard loans

C. the inclusion of its soft loans

D. the previous lending policies

2. What actually made the Bank change its overall lending strategy?

A. Reluctance of people in poor countries to have small families.

B. Lack of basic health services and inequality in income distribution.

C. The discovery that a low fertility rate would lead to economic development.

D. Poor nutrition and low literacy in many poor countries of the world.

3. The change in emphasis of the Banks lending policies meant that the Bank would ___.

A. be more involved in big infrastructure projects

B. adopt similar investment strategies in poor and rich countries

C. embark upon a review of the investment in huge dams and steel mills

D.invest in projects that would benefit the low-income sector of society

4. Which of the following is NOT a criticism of the bank?

A. Colossal travel expenses of its staff.

B. Fixed annual loans to certain countries.

C. Limited impact of the Banks projects.

D. Role as a financial deal maker.

5. Throughout the talk, the speaker is ___ while introducing the World Bank.

 A. biased      B. unfriendly      C. objective      D. sensational

 

SECTION B CONVERSATION

 

Questions 6 to 10 are based on a conversation. At the end of the conversation you will be given 15 seconds to answer the question. Now listen to the conversation.

6. The man sounds surprised at the fact that ___.

 A. many Australians are taking time off to travel

 B. the woman worked for some time in New Zealand

 C. the woman raised enough money for travel

 D. Australians prefer to work in New Zealand

7. We learn that the woman liked Singapore mainly because of its  ___.

   A. cleanness               B. multi-ethnicity

   C. modern characteristics         D. shopping opportunities

8. From the conversation we can infer that Kaifeng and Yinchuan impressed the woman with their ___.

   A. respective locations      B. historic interests    

C. ancient tombs                 D. Jewish descendants

9. Which of the following words can best describe the womans feelings about Tibet?

   A. Amusement.       B. Disbelief.  C. Ecstasy.   D. Delight

10. According to the conversation, it was   that made the woman readyto stop traveling.

A. the unsettledness of travel

B. the difficulties of trekking

C. the loneliness of travel

D. the unfamiliar environment

SECTION C NEWS BROADCAST

Questions 11 and 12 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 30 seconds to answer the questions. Now listen to the news.

11. Mike Tyson was put in prison last August because he  ___.

A. violated the traffic law

B. illegally attacked a boxer

C. attacked sb. after a traffic accident

D. failed to finish his contract

12. The license granted to Tyson to fight will be terminated ___.

A. by the end of the year         B. in over a year

C. in August                         D. in a few weeks


Question 13 is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 15 seconds to answer the question. Now listen to the news.

13. The Russian documents are expected to draw great attention because  ___.

 A. they cover the whole story of the former US president

 B. the assassin used to live in the former Soviet Union

 C. they are the only official documents released about Kennedy

 D. they solved the mystery surrounding Kennedys assassination


Question 14 and 15 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be   given 30 seconds to answer the questions. New listen to the news.

14. In the recent three months, Hong Kongs unemployment rate has ____.

A. increased slowly           B. decreased gradually

C. stayed steady                 D. become unpredictable

15. According to the news, which of the following statements is TRUE?

A. Business conditions have worsened in the past three months.

B. The past three months have seen a declining trend in job offers.

C. The rise of unemployment rate in some sectors equals the fall in others.

D. The unemployment rate in all sectors of the economy remains unchanged.

SECTION D NOTE-TAKING AND GAP-FILLING

Fill each of gaps with ONE word. You may refer to your notes. Make sure the word

 you fill in is both grammatically and semantically acceptable.

The Press Conference

The press conference has certain advantages. The first advantage lies with the

(1)___ nature of the event itself; public officials are supposed to  1.___

submit to scrutiny by responding to various questions at a press conference.

Secondly, statements previously made at a press conference can be used as a

(2)___ in judging following statements or policies. Moreover, in case  2.___

of important events, press conferences are an effective way to break the news

to groups of reporters.

However, from the point of view of (3)___, the press conference  3.___

possesses some disadvantages, mainly in its(4)___ and news source.  4.___

The provider virtually determines the manner in which a press conference

proceeds. This, sometimes, puts news reporters at a(n)(5)___ , as can  5.___

be seen on live broadcasts of news conferences.

Factors in getting valuable information preparation: a need to keep up to date on journalistic subject matter;

(6)___ of the news source:  6.___

1 ) news source s (7)___ to  7.___

   provide information;

2)news-gathering methods.

Conditions under which news reporters cannot trust the information

provided by a news source

not knowing the required information;

knowing and willing to share the information, but without

       (8)___ skills;  8.___

knowing the information, but unwilling to share;

willing to share, but unable to recall.

(9)___ of questions asked  9.___

Ways of improving the questions:

       no words with double meanings;

       no long questions;

 

specific time, place, etc.;

(10)      questions;  10.___

clear alternatives, or no alternatives in answers.


听力原文

PART LISTENING COMPREHENSION

SECTION A TALK

     The World Bank is one of the major channels through which development aid is passed from industrial west to the poor and developing nations of the world. Its scale of operations is vast, which is why its lending program exceeds 7 billion a year, and its work force numbers about 4500. In the last decade important changes have taken place in the size of the banks operations and in the emphasis of its lending policies. What immediately strikes anyone looking at the lending figures over the last 10 years is the tremendous expansion in the banks loan program. This has increased from 1 billion to nearly 7 billion. The figure includes hard loans, which are made at the current rate of interest, and soft loans, which are allocated to poor countries at concessionary rates, and usually channelled through the banks affiliatethe International Development Association.

      In deciding the emphasis of its lending policy, the bank has had to take into account the population explosion which is occuring in many poor countries of the world. It is a fact that the fertility rate of the poor countries is often very high. This is one of the main reasons for these countries remaining poor. Unfortunately, wide-ranging country section programs do not usually reduce this rate because this was a strong and deeply rooted tradition among people in these countries to have big families. What the bank discovered was that there was a link between economic and social development on the one hand, and reduction of fertility rate on the other. Thus by improving basic health services, by introducing better nutrition, by increasing literacy, and by promoting more even income distribution in a poor country, a lower and more acceptable fertility rate will be achieved. This advanced thinking persuaded the bank to change its overall lending strategy, where previously it concentrated on the big infrastructure projects, such as dams, roads and bridges. It begun to switch to projects which directly improve the basic services of the country. There was a shift, if you like, from building dams to digging water holes to provide clear water.

      A second reason for the change of approach was that the bank has learned a big lesson from projects financed in the 1960s. Many of its major capital investment had scarcely touched the lives of urban and rural poor, nor have they created much employment. The project did not have the trigger-down effect they have in industrialized countries. Instead the huge dams, steel-mills, and so on were left as monuments to themselves. This redirection of its lending has meant that the bank has tended to support labour intensive activities, rather than capital intensive ones. Both rural and urban areas, there is a better chance in the first case, that its funds will benefit the bottom 40% of the countrys population.

     The bank is also looking for ways of stimulating the growth of the small businesses in many developing countries since this would create employment opportunities for people with lower incomes. Being such a big, obvious target, the bank has often come under fire. For example, its officials have been taken to task for using Concord supersonic aircraft so frequently, about 500 times in one year. Also, the large growth of the organizations personnel has not pleased some critics. A more substantial criticism has concerned the banks policy of setting annual target for lending to specified countries. This could lead to the deterioration in quality of loans, some say. One former bank official has said, rather than encourage growth for its own sake, the bank should begin to think of itself less as a foreign aid agency and more of a financial deal-maker, combining official with the private resources for specific purposes.

     Finally, some people maintain that the impact of the projects funded by the bank has been modest.  When one looks around the world at regions or countries that have successfully transformed to industrial status, it seems that one should be aware of over-estimating the banks impact. Take Hong Kong for example. Its changes have come about as a result of trade offensive. The purpose has been to flood western market with low price goods made by capitalist methods of production. The example seems to indicate that some regions can prosper without the banks aid as well.

 

SECTION B CONVERSATION

W: Well, it seems quite common actually. A lot of people in Australia no

w are travelling and taking time off. And when I was actually travelling, I met so many people doing the same thing.

M: Yeah, yeah, so where did you start off?

W: Well, I went to New Zealand first. Eh, and got a job in a computer company as a secretary. And I worked there for 4 months.

M: Really? You can do that, can you? I mean its possible for anyone to get a job in New Zealand, without being a New Zealander?

W: No, not everybody, only Australians and New Zealanders can exchange either. You know you can work in either country.’

M: Right, yeah.

W: So that was easy. So I worked there for 4 months and raised enough money for the rest of travels really. So from there I went to Indonesia, and travelled around the different islands around Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, China, Nepal and India.

M: What about Indonesia? What did you do? Did you fly mostly between the Islands?

W: Eh, I did a bit of that, and boats, mainly local boats between the Islands.

M: What about Singapore? People said its very very modern. But because it is so modern, its      rather boring. Did you find that?

W: Well, its difficult to say really. It has different attractions. You know the Chinese, Malay, and Hindu communities are there. Each has his own culture and custom, very different from the others. And its a great big shopping center and I really enjoy it from that point of view. And it was very clean.

M: And after, you said you went what, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, and then China? Thats a great country to travel in, isnt it?

W: Eh, it was. Yeah, it was fabulous. It really was. You have been there then?

M: No, I havent. No, I mean its very big. What did you do?

W: Yeah. Well, I had only one month to travel in China, and that was too short for such a vast country as China. I felt I didnt have enough time, so I sacrificed a lot of places and did the main tourist throughout really. I went to Beijing, the capital, Kaifeng, Yinchuan, and Tibet.

M: Well, how exciting! You said after Beijing, you went to?

W: That was Kaifeng in central Chinas Henan province. Its a charming city, and has got a lot to look around, like temples and pagodas, very traditional.

M: Eh, eh.

W: What fascinated me when I was there was that some Jews went to live in Kaifeng many years ago. As early as 16th century, there were Jewish families there. They have their synagogue and five books of Masses. Even today several hundred descendants of the original Jews still live in Kaifeng.

M: Really, Ive never heard of that. And where did you go after Kaifeng?

W: I went to northwest to Yinchuan, the provincial city of Ningxia Hui autonomous region.

M: Is this the place where there always is a shortage of water?

W: No, no, on the contrary, it has got abundant supply of water, because it is near the Yellow River. In this sense, Yinchuan has a favorable geographical position in otherwise harsh surroundings.

M: What did you see there then?

W: Ningxia was once the capital of Western Xia during the 11th century. So outside Yinchuan,  you can still see the Western Xia mausoleum, where the Kings and their Kingdoms were buried. The tombs were scattered in a pretty big area at the foot of the Henan Mountain, and inside the city there are famous mosques in the architectural style of Middle East. Its really a place worth visiting. You got

 to know something about Chinese Moslems.

M: And that sounds really interesting. Where did you travel after that?

W: I was lucky enough to get into Tibet, and that was brilliant.

M: Yeah. What was the most interesting place you visited, do you think?

W: Well, I think actually Tibet is the most fascinating and exciting. Ive never been anywhere so different. The people there are wonderful, the clothes .they wear, the food they eat.

M: And you said you went to Nepal as well?

W: Yeah, eh, thats a sort of easier passion of Tibetans really and there are a lot of Tibetans       there as well as other tribes and Nepalese, so that was good because I went trekking in Nepal, you should do that.

M: How long did you trek for?

W: Oh, I only did a short one, only for a week. I was lazy.

M: Was it very tiring?

W: No, it wasnt actually. I mean you just set your own pace, and dont pace yourself too hard, that was a stupid thing to do. Eh, you dont have to walk very far, so that was great.

M: So how did you feel after all this travelling? How did you feel to stop travelling? I mean you were on the move alone for months and months ,and suddenly youre here ,and not traveling any more. How does it feel?

W: I was ready to stop anyway. You get pretty sick, wearing the same clothes, and washing them in the different hotels. I never stay in the same place for longer than two days. And since I was ready to stop, I dont think I could keep doing it. I mean Ive met people whove been travelling for 2 or 3 years. I couldn

t do it.

M: Yeah, yeah. Maybe its something I should try after this.

W: I think you really should.

SECTION C    NEWS BROADCAST

News Item 1(For Questions 11-12)

     Mike Tyson could sign a deal by Friday to face either Germanys Axo Shos or Denmarks Brian Nielsen here on August 21 in the heavy weights first fight since his release from jail. The former World Heavy Weight champion was released on Monday after 4 months behind bars for an assault in the wake of  a traffic accident last August. His deal with Showtime makes an August come back likely. August 21st is certainly a day were looking at, Showtime board director, James Lockens said , Hopefully in the next few days well have something concrete. Nevada boxing officials revoked Tysons license for more than a year after he bit Evander Holyfields ear off in June 1997. But they plan no action on Tyson because the license

 they granted him to fight doesnt expire until the end of the year. That came before the assault charge had been heard, and with the victims support.

News Item 2(For Question 13)

     The United States has begun to review Russians documents about the life and death of former president John F. Kennedy, and is expected to release them once the review is complete, the White House said on Monday. The documents which the Russians gave the United States on Sunday would be of particular interest because Kennedys assassin Lee Harvey Oswald lived in the former Soviet Union for sever

al years before he returned to the United States, and was arrested for killing the former president on November 22, 1963. Russian President Boris Yeltsin surprised US president Bill Clinton on Sunday when he turned over what was described as the result of exhaustive search of Russian government, military and private archives for papers about Kennedy and his assassination.

News Item 3(For Questions 14-15)

     Hong Kongs unemployment rate has remained stable at 6.3% in the past 3 months, as business conditions have improved in the last month Figures indicate that from March to May this year, the size of the labor force was provisionally at 3,469,000, while the number of the unemployed people stood at 216,000. The number of cases of insolvency, sensational businesses and retrenchment, and numbers of workers affected these cases as recorded by the Labor Department have shown a declining trend in recent months. From March to May 1999, 78 such cases involving 3,882 workers were recorded as compared 93 cases affecting 5,220 workers for

the 3 months from December 1998 to February 1999. Figures for the period from March to May 1999 when compared with those from February to April 1999 show an increase in the unemployment rate, mainly in renovation, maintenance, whole sale, and retail and transport sectors, which offset the decrease in construction, import and export and financing sectors 


SECTION D NOTE-TAKING AND GAP-FILLING

The Press Conference

      Press conferences are an all too familiar phenomena around us. However, when people start thinking about its advantages, it sometimes seems difficult to think of any that press conference provides for the competent news reporter. Use of the press conference by public officials and private entrepreneurs help give

rise to the phrase pseudo-event, and the event contrived to create news coverage, where none has considered wanted. However, having said that, one value of news conference by a public official is

the symbolic nature of the event. And perhaps this is reasoned enough to continue the practice. At a press conference, a public official supposedly submits to examination by responding to unsolicited and perhaps hostile questions. A related advantage to the reporter is that press conference offers an opportunity to get the public official on the record, with regard to the government policies. Statements from the press conference can serve as criteria against subsequent statements and policies are measured. In that regard, press conference information may be used as reference point, more so than comments reported by single news medium. Also, when there is a single issue or topic to address, such as a new government program, an earthquake, or the nomination of a new government minister, the press conference offers benefits of efficiency in that officials can speak to a number of reporters at once on the issue of public concern and interest. The press conference may be at its best in this almost one-way format.

     Now lets move on to the disadvantages. And there are serious ones. Generally speaking, the press conference format, as it stands, makes it difficult for the reporters to get worthwhile information. At press conference, particularly a large one, the well-prepared reporter may never get asked question and certainly

 is unlikely to have chance to ask follow-up questions. Another disadvantage in the press conference comes from the news source, that is, the news provider. The news source generally decides who asks the questions, determines the length of the answers, and can avoid any follow-up question and rephrase tough questions to his or her liking, and sets the time, place and duration of the interview. Press conferences televise live for the news audience, sometimes only highlights the disadvantages for the news reporters since there is little or no time to challenge, clarify or place context materials provided by the news source. Despite these disadvantages and others inherent how reporters get information, the dews reporter can help assure the worthwhile information from a news source in share with the news audience. One way to reduce the likely heard of errors is to use multiple forms of interviewing by telephone, in person, and press conferences as well as multiple sources, common to the success of these approaches, however, are such interrelated ingredient as the preparation of the news reporter, the component of the news source and nature of the questions asked.

      Lets look at the preparation first.  The nature of much news coverage requires news reporters to be well-read on contemporary events. Like other professionals and craftsmen, the reporter must keep up to date on journalistic subject matter, that is the human condition. Although the subject is broad, it offers the

 advantages that there is a little a reporter can read or witness. That will not help in covering the news at one time or another. Next, being prepared for an interview includes giving some thought to the competence of the news source. The relationships between news reporters and news sources would benefit the news audience more, if reporters would frequently ask themselves: What is this news resource competent to talk about? What can this person tell the news audience that few others can?

    Towards the caution regarding the issue of competence, first, the reporter should not take for granted that, because of position or experience, the news source should know, does know, and can provide information. Second, the competence of the news source needs to be linked with the news-gathering-methods. Lets just spend a few minutes on the first point. There are generally 4 conditions under which the reporter should not give prints to the news source information. One, the source may not know the information the reporter wants. Two, the source may have the information and want to share it, but may lack the verbal skills or concepts to do so. Three, the source may have the desired information but not to want to share it, or worse, may lie to avoid sharing information. Last, the source may be willing to share this information but unable to recall it.    Now in addition to preparation of the reporter and competence of the news source, there is one more important ingredient in successful news coverage, that is ,the nature of questions asked. It is generally agreed that the nature of the question can shape the nature of the answer. General questions like Are you

for market economy may lead to the respondent saying virtually anything, and still being rather vague. On the other hand, a too narrow question may limit the respondent to one particular answer only.

In order to gather information from news sources as accurately as possible, reporters can improve the question in the following 5 ways. Firstly, avoid words with double meanings. Secondly, avoid long questions. Thirdly, specify the time, place and context you want the respondent to assume, and number 4, it is often helpful to ask questions in terms of the respondents own immediate and recent experience rather than in generalities. Finally, either make explicit all the alternative the respondent should have in mind when answering the question or make none of them explicit. Do not leave the news resource by suggesting a desired answer and not mentioning other alternatives.

      OK, to sum up, todays lecture has covered some of the advantages and disadvantages of the press conference, and three important factors and successful news coverage. In our next lecture, we will continue to discuss how to become a competent news reporter.

 

答案与详解

PART LISTENING COMPREHENSION

SECTION A TALK

1.答案:A

【问句译文】世界银行运行系统变大系统的变化指的是什么?

【试题分析】本题为细节题。

【详细解答】解答本题的关键句是“What immediately strikes anyone looking at the lending figures over the last 10 years is the tremendous expansion in the banks loan program.”由此可知,选项A为正确答案。

2.答案:C

【问句译文】是什么使得银行改变其借贷政策?

【试题分析】本题为细节题。

【详细解答】录音在提及银行借贷政策的改变时说“Thus by improving basic health services, by introducing better nutrition, by increasing literacy, and by promoting more even income distribution in a poor country, a lower and more acceptable fertility rate will be achieved. This advancing thinking persuaded the bank to change its overall lending strategy.”这里提到了一些改变贫穷国家现状的措施,由“a lower and more acceptable”可知,从根本上促使政策改革的原因应为选项C。

3.答案:D

【问句译文】银行借贷政策重点的变化意味者银行将会怎样?

【试题分析】本题为细节题。

【详细解答】在提到投资对象时,谈话者说“Many of its major capital investment had scarcely touched the lives of urban and rural poor, nor have they created much employment.”因此银行决定加大对劳动密集型活动的援助,故答案选D。

4.答案:D

【问句译文】下列哪一项不是对银行的批评?

【试题分析】本题为细节题。

【详细解答】谈话者说“…the bank should begin to think of itself less as a foreign aid agency and more of financial deal-maker,…”即世界银行应该作为财政的决策者,这一点应得到肯定,而不是批评,故选项D为正确答案。

5.答案:C

【问句译文】在整个谈话中,作者在介绍世界银行时是什么态度?

【试题分析】本题为推理题。

【详细解答】谈话者对世界银行的职能、现状、改进作了客观评论,并未表达出自己的个人感情。因此选项C“客观的”为正确答案。

 

SECTION B CONVERSATION

6.答案:B

【问句译文】男士对什么事实感到吃惊?

【试题分析】本题为细节题。

【详细解答】当女士说她在新西兰找了一份在计算机公司做秘书的工作时,男士说“Really? You can do that, can you? I mean its possible for anyone to get a job in New Zealand, without being a New Zealander?”不是新西兰本土人也可以找到一份工作,因此他感到惊奇,故选项B为正确答案。

7.答案:D

【问句译文】那位女土喜欢新加坡的主要原因是什么?

【试题分析】本题为细节题。

【详细解答】当男士提出由于新加坡过于的现代化,所以人们觉得它很乏味,接着他问女士的感受。女士回答说:“And its a great big shopping center and I really enjoy it from that point of view.”由此可知吸引女士的是购物机遇,故答案选D。

8.答案:B

【问句译文】从对话中我们可得知开封和银川留给这位女士的怎样印象?

【试题分析】本题为概括题。

【详细解答】对话中提到了开封和银川的地理位置,犹太人的后代,古老的宝塔,归纳起来便是历史情趣吸引了她,答案选B。

9.答案:C

【问句译文】下列哪一项最能形容女士对西藏的感受?

【试题分析】本题为推理题。

【详细解答】当男士问到她游历过的最有趣的地方时,女士回答说“I think actually Tibet is the most fascinating and exciting. Ive never been anywhere so different.”,由此可知,选项C“狂喜”最能体现她的感受。

10.答案:A

【问句译文】根据谈话内容,是什么使得她暂停了旅行?

【试题分析】本题为概括题。

【详细解答】在谈到准备暂停旅行时,女士说“You get pretty sick, wearing the same clothes, and washing them in the different hotels. I never stay in the same place for longer than two days.”穿着同样的衣服,在不同的旅馆里去洗它们使她感到厌烦,在同一个地方呆的时间从没有超过两天,由此可推知:她想停下居无定所的生活,故答案选A。

SECTION C NEWS BROADCAST

News Item 1

11.答案:C

【问句译文】泰森为何于去年八月被关入监狱?

【试题分析】本题为主旨题。

【详细解答】新闻中提到“…for an assault in the wake of traffic accident last August.”由此可知,泰森是因为在一次交通事故中动手打人而被捕入狱。

12.答案:A

【问句译文】泰森在什么日期前得不到拳击比赛的许可证?

【试题分析】本题为细节题。

【详细解答】解答本题的关键句是“But they plan no action on Tyson because the license they granted him to fight doesnt expire until the end of the year.”由此可知,答案选A。

News Item 2

13.答案:B

【问句译文】为何俄罗斯的档案应受到重视?

【试题分析】本题为细节题。

【详细解答】新闻第二句说“The documents which the Russian gave the United States on Sunday would be of particular interest because Kennedys assassin Lee Harvey Oswald lived in the former Soviet Union for several years …”,由于刺杀肯尼迪的凶手逃至前苏联生活了好几年,因此俄罗斯的档案应受到重视。

News Item 3

14.答案:C

【问句译文】在近三个月里,香港的失业率情况如何?

【试题分析】本题为主旨题。

【详细解答】新闻开头就说“Hong Kongs unemployment rate has remained stable at 6.3% in the past 3 months,…”由此可知,在过去的三个月里,香港失业率稳定在6.3%,因此答案选C。

15.答案:C

【问句译文】根据该新闻,下列哪一选项是正确的?

【试题分析】本题为推理题。

【详细解答】新闻中提到各部门失业率有不同幅度地上涨或下降,但新闻首句就告诉我们说失业率保持在6.3%不变。由此可推断出一些部门失业率上升,另外一些部门失业率下降,从而保持总的失业率稳定不变,故答案选C。

SECTION D NOTE-TAKING AND GAP-FILLING

1.答案:symbolic 

【详细解答】在提到新闻发布会的第一个优点时说“…one value of news conference by a public official is the symbolic nature of the event.”由此可直接填写“symbolic”。

2.答案:reference 

【详细解答】在提到新闻发布会的另一个优点时说“In that regard, press conference information may be used as reference point,…” 由此可直接填写“reference”。

3.答案:reporters 

【详细解答】由录音“…the press conference offers benefits of efficiency in that officials can speak to a number of reporters at once on the issue of public concern and interest.”可知,这里说的是从“记者们”(reporters)的观点来看问题。

4.答案:format 

【详细解答】本段录音的最后一句说“The press conference may be at its best in this almost one-way format.” 由此可直接填写“format”。

5.答案:disadvantage

【详细解答】前面讲的是新闻发布会的优点(advantage),下面接着就要转入谈它的缺点了(disadvantage)。

6.答案:component 

【详细解答】由录音“…the component of the news source and nature of the questions asked.”可直接填写“component”。

7.答案:competence 

【详细解答】由关键句“…the competence of the news source needs to be linked with the news-gathering-methods.”可知,此处应填写“competence”。

8.答案:verbal   

【详细解答】由关键句“…but may lack the verbal skills or concepts to do so.”可知,这里说的是“口头表达”(verbal)技能。

9.答案:nature   

【详细解答】由录音“…that is, the nature of questions asked.” 可知,此处应填写“nature”。

10.答案:asking

【详细解答】这里提到了五条改进提问的方法,第四条是“it is often helpful to ask questions in terms of the respondents own immediate”,根据上下文,此处应该用它的动名词形式,故填写“asking”。

人文知识样题及详解—2005年英语专八大纲

发布日期:[2005-1-24 14:26:18] 来源: 王迈迈英语教学网 阅读次数:955


1.测试要求:
a.能基本了解主要英语国家的地理、历史、现状、文化传统等
b.能初步具备英语文学知识
c.能初步具备英语语言学知识
d.考试时间10分钟


2.测试形式:
本部分采用多项选择题形式,要求学生从每题的四个选择项中选出一个最佳答案,共10题。


3.测试目的:
人文知识部分测试学生对主要英语国家社会与文化、英语文学与英语语言学基本知识的掌握。


4.测试范围:
主要英语国家社会与文化知识
英语文学知识
英语语言学知识


[Sample Test]
31.Where is Edinburgh?
A. In wales
B. In Scotland
C. In Northern Ireland
D. In Ireland
[题解]B wales的首府为Cardiff,
Scotland的首府为Edinburgh,
Northern Ireland的首府为Belfast,
Ireland的首府为Dublin


32.Which of the following is Not a U.S. news and cable network?
A. ABC
B. CNN
C. CBS
D. BBC
[题解]D


33.The capital of Australia is ____
A. Sydney
B. Melbourne
C. Canberra
D. Perth
[题解]C
Sydney第一大城市,位于New South Wales州;
Melbourne第二大城市,位于victoria州;
Canberra位于Sydney与Melbourne之间;
Perth位于Australia州


34.Which degree is offered in community colleges in the United States?
A. Master’’s degree
B. Docter’’s degree
c. Bachelor’’s degree
D. Associate’’s degree
[题解]D



35.George Bernard Shaw was a(n) ____
A. playwright
B. poet
C. novelist
D. essayist
[题解]A
(英)萧伯纳,爱尔兰裔,剧作家、批评家、社会评论家。著有Man and Superman,Back to Methuselah, Saint Joan圣女贞德, Arms and the Man,Pygmalion茶花女,获得1925年诺贝尔文学奖


36.John Galsworthy was most famous for ____
A. Heart of Darkness
B. Ulysses
C. The Forsyte Saga
D. A Passage to India
[题解]C
(英)高尔斯华绥,小说家、剧作家。著有The Forsyte Saga福赛特家史,于1993年获得了诺贝尔文学奖;
Heart of Darkness,作者Joseph Conrad,波兰裔英国小说家,另著有Lord Jim吉姆老爷;
Ulysses,作者James Joyce,爱尔兰作家,另著有Finnegans Wake为芬尼根守灵;
A Passage to India,作者E.M.Forster,英国小说家,另著有Howards End霍华德别业


37.The novel The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was witten by ____
A. Henry James
B. O. Henry
C. Harriet Beecher Stower
D. Mark Twain
[题解]D
(美)Henry James,著有Ambassadors, The Golden Bowl;
(美)O. Henry,短篇小说家, 真实姓名为William Sydney Porter,著有Cabbages and Kings,The Four Million;
(美)Harriet Beecher Stower,其反奴隶制小说Uncle Tom’’s Cabin,促进了废奴运动发展;
(美)Mark Twain,真实姓名为Samnel Langhorne clemens,另著有The Adventures of Tom Samyer


38.The study of how sounds are put together and used to convey meaning in communication is _______
A. morphology
B. general linguistics
C. phonology
D. semantics
[题解]C
Linguistics语言学,the study of human language。包括Theoretical linguistics,Applied linguistics,Sociolinguistics,Cognitive linguistics和Historical linguistics。
这里主要考Theoretical linguistics,包括:
1.Lexis词汇学, the study of what is a word and where words come from
2.Semantics语义学,the study of meaning in a language
3.Phonetics语音学,the study of speech sounds (voice).
4.Phonology音位学/音系学,the study of how sounds are put together and used to convey meaning in communication
5.Morphology形态学,the study of the structure and form of words and phrases
6.Syntax句法学,the study of the rules, or “patterned relations” that govern the way the words in a sentence come together,与morphology形态学并称grammer语法学
7.Stylistics文体学,the study of style used in literary, and verbal language and the effect the writer/speaker wishes to communicate to the reader/hearer.
8.Pragmatics语用学,generally the study of natural language understanding, and specifically the study of how context influences the interpretation of meanings.
补充:general linguistics, the study of the structure and development of language in general


39.Which of the folowing is NOT a compound word?
A. Landlady
B. Greenhouse
C. Uplift
D. Unacceptable
[题解]D 属derivation


40.The word holiday originally meant holy day; but now the word signifies any day on which we don”t have to work. This is an example of ____
A. meanng shift
B. widening of meaning
C. narrowing of meaning
D. loss of meaning
[题解]B 关键字any