Hegel was born in Stuttgart on August 27,(日期表示形式应为:月 日,年) 1770, the son of (将同样是形容Hegel的定语分成两部分,好)a revenue(responsible for collecting taxes ) officer with the civil service.

He was brought up in an atmosphere of Protestant Pietism 反对主义者, 这里指以西方基督教为信念,反对教皇为首的罗马天主教义

Stuttgart gymnasium(secondary school,usa in german)

Clergyman(usa in Christ church, as a priest, minister or rabbi)

他在这里与某人产生了友谊There he developed friendships with the poet Friedrich H?lderlin and the philosopher Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling.

Thelogy: courses in religious training

In 1797 hegel assumed ( get,bear. take on role) a private tutor in Frankfurt.

Legacy:sth received from ancestor.

Having exhausted(used up) the legacy

Three children were born to the Hegels

Hegel had fatheredact as a father an illegitimate son

Soon after

where he was to remain.

Hegel’s aim was to set forth a philosophical system

Engels and Marx were particularly influenced by Hegel’s idea that history moves dialectically, but they replaced Hegel’s philosophical idealism with materialism.



Charles Robert Darwin

Natural Selection initiated a violent controversy that still has not subsided(deminish in intensity, drop to a lower level)

Castigated: punish, criticize

Not all biologist believe Darwin’s Natural Selection, but they all think evolution is right.


Meticulous:precise and painstaking:care observer


Catastrophism: the earth were formed by a series of sudden violent catastrophes rather than a gradual evolutionary process.


Fei found himself fitting many of his observations into youdai’s general uniformitarian view.


These observations led him toward his masterwork, On the Origin of Species (1859).


Few books have rocked the world the way that On the Origin of Species did.



Christopher Columbus His name in Italian was Cristoforo Colombo


sailing west in an attempt to find a shorter route to India and China.

Columbus, Christopher (1451-1506), Italian Spanish navigator who sailed west across the Atlantic Ocean in search of a route to Asia but achieved fame by making landfall in the Americas instead.

They led directly to the opening of the western hemisphere to European colonization;


Understanding Christopher Columbus is difficult without understanding the world into which he was born.


the council denied the request on the grounds that it was too expensive