2009年03月25日

一.权限表
mysql数据库中的3个权限表:user 、db、 host
权限表的存取过程是:
1)先从user表中的host、 user、 password这3个字段中判断连接的IP、用户名、密码是否存在表中,存在则通过身份验证;
2)通过权限验证,进行权限分配时,按照userdbtables_privcolumns_priv的顺序进行分配。即先检查全局权限表user,如果user中对应的权限为Y,则此用户对所有数据库的权限都为Y,将不再检查db, tables_priv,columns_priv;如果为N,则到db表中检查此用户对应的具体数据库,并得到db中为Y的权限;如果db中为N,则检查tables_priv中此数据库对应的具体表,取得表中的权限Y,以此类推。
二.MySQL各种权限(共27个)
(以下操作都是以root身份登陆进行grant授权,以p1@localhost身份登陆执行各种命令。)
1. usage
连接(登陆)权限,建立一个用户,就会自动授予其usage权限(默认授予)。
mysql> grant usage on *.* to ‘p1′@’localhost’ identified by ‘123′;
该权限只能用于数据库登陆,不能执行任何操作;且usage权限不能被回收,也即REVOKE用户并不能删除用户。
2. select
必须有select的权限,才可以使用select table
mysql> grant select on pyt.* to ‘p1′@’localhost’;
mysql> select * from shop;
3. create
必须有create的权限,才可以使用create table
mysql> grant create on pyt.* to ‘p1′@’localhost’;

4. create routine
必须具有create routine的权限,才可以使用{create |alter|drop} {procedure|function}
mysql> grant create routine on pyt.* to ‘p1′@’localhost’;
当授予create routine时,自动授予EXECUTE, ALTER ROUTINE权限给它的创建者:
mysql> show grants for ‘p1′@’localhost’;
+—————————————————————————+
Grants for p1@localhost
+————————————————————————–+
| GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO ‘p1′@’localhost’ IDENTIFIED BY PASSWORD ‘*23AE809DDACAF96AF0FD78ED04B6A265E05AA257′ |
| GRANT SELECT, CREATE, CREATE ROUTINE ON `pyt`.* TO ‘p1′@’localhost’|
| GRANT EXECUTE, ALTER ROUTINE ON PROCEDURE `pyt`.`pro_shop1` TO ‘p1′@’localhost’ |
+————————————————————————————-+
5. create temporary tables(注意这里是tables,不是table)
必须有create temporary tables的权限,才可以使用create temporary tables.
mysql> grant create temporary tables on pyt.* to ‘p1′@’localhost’;
[mysql@mydev ~]$ mysql -h localhost -u p1 -p pyt
mysql> create temporary table tt1(id int);
6. create view
必须有create view的权限,才可以使用create view
mysql> grant create view on pyt.* to ‘p1′@’localhost’;
mysql> create view v_shop as select price from shop;
7. create user
要使用CREATE USER,必须拥有mysql数据库的全局CREATE USER权限,或拥有INSERT权限。
mysql> grant create user on *.* to ‘p1′@’localhost’;
或:mysql> grant insert on *.* to p1@localhost;
8. insert
必须有insert的权限,才可以使用insert into ….. values….
9. alter
必须有alter的权限,才可以使用alter table
alter table shop modify dealer char(15);
10. alter routine
必须具有alter routine的权限,才可以使用{alter |drop} {procedure|function}
mysql>grant alter routine on pyt.* to ‘p1′@’ localhost ‘;
mysql> drop procedure pro_shop;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> revoke alter routine on pyt.* from ‘p1′@’localhost’;
[mysql@mydev ~]$ mysql -h localhost -u p1 -p pyt
mysql> drop procedure pro_shop;
ERROR 1370 (42000): alter routine command denied to user ‘p1′@’localhost’ for routine ‘pyt.pro_shop’
11. update
必须有update的权限,才可以使用update table
mysql> update shop set price=3.5 where article=0001 and dealer=’A’;
12. delete
必须有delete的权限,才可以使用delete from ….where….(删除表中的记录)
13. drop
必须有drop的权限,才可以使用drop database db_name; drop table tab_name;
drop view vi_name; drop index in_name;
14. show database
通过show database只能看到你拥有的某些权限的数据库,除非你拥有全局SHOW DATABASES权限。
对于p1@localhost用户来说,没有对mysql数据库的权限,所以以此身份登陆查询时,无法看到mysql数据库:
mysql> show databases;
+——————–+
| Database |
+——————–+
| information_schema|
| pyt |
| test |
+——————–+
15. show view
必须拥有show view权限,才能执行show create view。
mysql> grant show view on pyt.* to p1@localhost;
mysql> show create view v_shop;
16. index
必须拥有index权限,才能执行[create |drop] index
mysql> grant index on pyt.* to p1@localhost;
mysql> create index ix_shop on shop(article);
mysql> drop index ix_shop on shop;
17. excute
执行存在的Functions,Procedures
mysql> call pro_shop1(0001,@a);
+———+
| article |
+———+
| 0001 |
| 0001 |
+———+
mysql> select @a;
+——+
| @a |
+——+
| 2 |
+——+
18. lock tables
必须拥有lock tables权限,才可以使用lock tables
mysql> grant lock tables on pyt.* to p1@localhost;
mysql> lock tables a1 read;
mysql> unlock tables;
19. references
有了REFERENCES权限,用户就可以将其它表的一个字段作为某一个表的外键约束。
20. reload
必须拥有reload权限,才可以执行flush [tables | logs | privileges]
mysql> grant reload on pyt.* to p1@localhost;
ERROR 1221 (HY000): Incorrect usage of DB GRANT and GLOBAL PRIVILEGES
mysql> grant reload on *.* to ‘p1′@’localhost’;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> flush tables;
21. replication client
拥有此权限可以查询master server、slave server状态。
mysql> show master status;
ERROR 1227 (42000): Access denied; you need the SUPER,REPLICATION CLIENT privilege for this operation
mysql> grant Replication client on *.* to p1@localhost;
或:mysql> grant super on *.* to p1@localhost;
mysql> show master status;
+——————+———-+————–+——————+
| File | Position | Binlog_Do_DB | Binlog_Ignore_DB |
+——————+———-+————–+——————+
| mysql-bin.000006 | 2111 | | |
+——————+———-+————–+——————+
mysql> show slave status;
22. replication slave
拥有此权限可以查看从服务器,从主服务器读取二进制日志。
mysql> show slave hosts;
ERROR 1227 (42000): Access denied; you need the REPLICATION SLAVE privilege for this operation
mysql> show binlog events;
ERROR 1227 (42000): Access denied; you need the REPLICATION SLAVE privilege for this operation
mysql> grant replication slave on *.* to p1@localhost;
mysql> show slave hosts;
Empty set (0.00 sec)
mysql>show binlog events;
+—————+——-+—————-+———–+————-+————–+
| Log_name | Pos | Event_type | Server_id| End_log_pos|Info | +—————+——-+————–+———–+————-+—————+
| mysql-bin.000005 | 4 | Format_desc | 1 | 98 | Server ver: 5.0.77-log, Binlog ver: 4 | |mysql-bin.000005|98|Query|1|197|use `mysql`; create table a1(i int)engine=myisam|
……………………………………
23. Shutdown
关闭MySQL:
[mysql@mydev ~]$ mysqladmin shutdown
重新连接:
[mysql@mydev ~]$ mysql
ERROR 2002 (HY000): Can’t connect to local MySQL server through socket ‘/tmp/mysql.sock’ (2)
[mysql@mydev ~]$ cd /u01/mysql/bin
[mysql@mydev bin]$ ./mysqld_safe &
[mysql@mydev bin]$ mysql
24. grant option
拥有grant option,就可以将自己拥有的权限授予其他用户(仅限于自己已经拥有的权限)
mysql> grant Grant option on pyt.* to p1@localhost;
mysql> grant select on pyt.* to p2@localhost;
25. file
拥有file权限才可以执行 select ..into outfile和load data infile…操作,但是不要把file, process, super权限授予管理员以外的账号,这样存在严重的安全隐患。
mysql> grant file on *.* to p1@localhost;
mysql> load data infile ‘/home/mysql/pet.txt’ into table pet;
26. super
这个权限允许用户终止任何查询;修改全局变量的SET语句;使用CHANGE MASTER,PURGE MASTER LOGS。
mysql> grant super on *.* to p1@localhost;
mysql> purge master logs before ‘mysql-bin.000006′;
27. process
通过这个权限,用户可以执行SHOW PROCESSLIST和KILL命令。默认情况下,每个用户都可以执行SHOW PROCESSLIST命令,但是只能查询本用户的进程。
mysql> show processlist;
+—-+——+———–+——+———+——+——-+——————+
| Id | User | Host | db | Command | Time | State | Info |
+—-+——+———–+——+———+——+——-+——————+
| 12 | p1 | localhost | pyt | Query | 0 | NULL | show processlist |
+—-+——+———–+——+———+——+——-+——————+
另外,
管理权限(如 super, process, file等)不能够指定某个数据库,on后面必须跟*.*
mysql> grant super on pyt.* to p1@localhost;
ERROR 1221 (HY000): Incorrect usage of DB GRANT and GLOBAL PRIVILEGES
mysql> grant super on *.* to p1@localhost;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

–EOF–

2009年03月23日

/etc/mysql/my.cnf

default-character-set=utf8
default-collation=utf8_general_ci

2009年03月17日

Are you using someone else’s backup solution for your MySQL data? Do you care a lot about your data? Are you sure you’re getting a reliable, recoverable backup that’ll work for your business and your application, and won’t impact your critical processes while it runs? Here are ten questions you need to be able to answer:

Does the backup require shutting down MySQL? If not, what is the impact on the running server? Blocking, I/O load, cache pollution, etc?
What technique is used for the backup? Is it mysqldump or a custom product that does something similar? Is it a filesystem copy?
Does the backup system understand that you cannot back up InnoDB by simply copying its files?
Does the backup use FLUSH TABLES, LOCK TABLES, or FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK? These all interrupt processing.
What other effects are there on MySQL? I’ve seen systems that do a RESET MASTER, which immediately breaks replication. Are there any FLUSH commands at all, like FLUSH LOGS?
How does the system guarantee that you can perform point-in-time recovery?
How does the system guarantee consistency with the binary log, InnoDB logs, and replication?
Can you use the system to set up new MySQL replication slaves? How?
Does the system verify that the backup is restorable, e.g. does it run InnoDB recovery before declaring success?
Does anyone stand behind it with support, and guarantee working, recoverable backups? How strong is the legal guarantee of this and how much insurance do they have?
There are a lot of other things a backup solution needs to provide, but these are some of the things I’d require specifically for MySQL, or more so for MySQL than for other types of backups.

Where is this post coming from? Well, I’ve had a couple of frustrating encounters with vendors who sell backup products with some kind of agent for MySQL backup. I am almost never able to get any significant technical detail on how their backups are implemented, and often I can’t even get the most basic information such as “dump or file copy.” Sometimes they tell me to register and download a whitepaper that just has a bullet point “Support for MySQL Databases”. Or “I have to transfer you to the salesperson who covers your region” and I never get to talk to anyone.

Some of them even use the word “proprietary” as if it’s a good thing. In reality, a proprietary, secret backup black-box is unacceptable. MySQL backups are complex and difficult to get right. It is very application-dependent and technology-dependent. Unless I know exactly how it works, I cannot tell the client whether it’ll work for them at all.

So I offer the above list as a way to evaluate your backup provider’s suitability for enterprise-ready backup uses. If you can’t answer these questions, it’s a system that you can’t evaluate seriously, in my opinion.

http://www.mysqlperformanceblog.com/2009/03/03/10-things-you-need-to-know-about-backup-solutions-for-mysql/

2008年06月05日

其实MySQL一直都是单进程、多线程的工作模式。只是,LinuxThreads并不是真正的线程,因此,这些进程其实还是采用系统调用 clone() 来共享同样的地址空间的。尽管采用 ps 查看的结果看起来是多进程,其实mysqld真正的工作方式还是多线程。