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最近一段时间,每次在多贝网授课之后,都会有一些大学生来到微信公众平台上与我交流。有不少是请教一些学习方法,也有想创业的,更不乏一些对未来很困惑的孩子。我也知道,这是要赶上毕业季了,很多大学生要为将来做打算,还有一些是对未来忐忑不安的低年级学生。

有位计算机专业的大四学生,在这些与我交流的学生中颇为典型。他自认学习一般,资质一般,见识一般,家庭一般。在可见的未来,也很难找到一份能让他满意的工作,参加国考难度之大更让他望而却步,家庭的经济条件也不允许他出国深造。他很想自己创业,但又摸不着头绪,内心非常焦虑,希望能得到一些建议。从交谈中我得知,他非常崇拜一些科技英雄、如马云、周鸿祎、李彦宏和丁磊等,希望以后能取得和他们一样的成功。

我是个排斥并厌恶成功学的人,自己当然也不是个成功的人,没资格去教别人如何获得成功。但我想,成功的道路千百条,最终能走出来的也就是那么几个人,只要能在社会中找到自己的合适位置,走出一条适合自己的路,就算成功了。别人的成功与你关系不大,但确实可以对你有所启迪。作为一个大学生而言,不管是循规蹈矩平淡一生,还是轰轰烈烈挺立潮头,都是人生的一种正常状态,不必自惭形秽,也不值得炫耀。不过,成功者的思维方式和处理问题的方式,对新进社会的人还是有益的。思考良久之后,我给他讲了几个刘强东的小故事,希望能对他有所启发。

不抱怨而要尽力改变自己

京东商城创始人刘强东小时候的家庭条件,是非常差的,父亲在外面工程队打工,每月12元。他们一年到头吃不上一两次肉,难得外婆领着他去镇上割肉时,随身都要带几斤花生送给供销社的人,人家这一刀下去才能多切点肥的。肥肉拿回家炼成油,放在罐子里存着,能多吃一段时间。

他们村里有三种人,一种是村干部,可以经常吃肥肉,一种是普通人家,可以偶尔吃些瘦肉,还有一种是他们家这种穷人,只能去河里捉些鱼虾、青蛙、螃蟹来吃。夏天没事时,刘强东就下河抓鱼,连玩带抓,很快乐。

刘强东学习很好,考初中时全班60个人只能有5个录取,不是因为别的孩子都考不及格,而是只有这5个名额,要从差不多的孩子中择优录取。考高中时更为残酷,300个孩子里只有两个能上。最终,刘强东考上了中国人民大学。据他自述,这一路就是考过来的,每一次都堪比高考。他高中时一个学校里总共六个班,上北大的一个,上人大的就两个,其余没考上的同学,大部分回去当了农民。

刘强东的儿时梦想很单纯,就是希望能摆脱贫穷,让外婆过好一点,让常年咳嗽的外婆能有钱买药吃。考上大学,只能说距离实现这个梦想迈出了一小步。考上大学后,亲戚朋友会送一些彩礼祝贺,刘强东家收了500元钱,但他却对父母表示,这辈子不会再要他们一分钱。

刘强东上大学第一个月就开始打工,给人做家教,去机房给老师擦电脑,以换取免费用电脑的机会。当时还没有互联网,上电脑只是学习编程,陆陆续续给别人写一些程序,赚点钱。1993年时的中国,各行各业对计算机软件的需求很大,提供此项服务的公司却很少,而刘强东则恰好赶上了这一波供需失衡的机会。

上大学几年,他果然没再要过家里的钱,大三的时候,他光给人写程序大概就赚了好几十万,得到了人生中第一桶金。一个出自贫寒家庭的孩子,没有来自家庭的强力援助,缺乏社会关系的提携,通过自己的努力接受了高等教育,并实现了自食其力。

刘强东在清华对大学生讲述到这段人生经历时说:不要总对竞争环境有抱怨,不要对国家、社会有太多的抱怨,努力先把自己改变,然后影响周围的人,影响自己的家人,影响自己的孩子,影响自己的同事。千万不要因为对环境的不满,整天像怨妇一样,整天怨天尤人,这不好,那不好,这个影响我,那个影响我,这样会让自己活得很痛苦。

谨遵诚信与规则
刘强东从大三开始就决心今后不去当官,而是要去创业。当时的他已经是小有成绩的大学生,靠写程序赚了几十万,已经有一定资本去干自己想要做的事情了。于是,他就投资了一个餐厅。

这个餐厅在人大附近,海淀造纸厂旁边,是从前任老板手里接过来的,可以直接经营。他接手时花了24万,又投入一些钱搞了装修,添置了一些设备和桌椅。由于他当时还是学生,不能每天都去饭店盯着,于是就给做出了流程,希望员工们能按流程办事。但很快他就发现,由于监督机制缺乏,饭店亏损严重,仔细一调查,白菜竟然报到6元一斤,员工中存在着大量的贪污现象。半年时间,他每个月都要往里投个一两万,到最后亏得很惨。到结业的时候,员工的工资还没有结。

刘强东已为这个餐厅投入了几十万,基本把这几年编程赚来的钱赔完。于是他去找亲戚朋友借了12万元,把所有员工工资都付清了,之后一跺脚离开,发誓再也不回到那个餐厅。刘强东的第一次创业,就这样失败了。这对于他来说,是个很大的跟头,从学生中的小富翁,变为破产的学生毕业,只好去找个企业上了班。

上班不久后,他辞去工作,瞒着家里人,单枪匹马去中关村租了个房子,开始了第二次创业。刘强东一开始就是卖一些电脑器材,业务逐渐聚焦在空白碟片上。空白碟在中关村的价格落差很大,贵的有5元甚至10元,便宜的只要2元甚至1元。这里面的差距,就在于走私品和正品。有很多商家会花很低价格买来走私的低质白盘,再找印刷的地方印上商标图案,之后再以高价卖出。而刘强东的公司,却从来没有卖过这种印上别人商标的假冒碟片,一直坚持正品。这种坚持正品的经营思路,为刘强东的公司带来良好声誉,甚至在日后挽救了刘强东的事业。

刘强东在中关村的企业,一直发展得不错,一直到2003年之前,销售额已经做到了每年6000万,线下实体店已经开到了12家,一个IT业的苏宁或者国美,已经显出雏形。当时还处于创业阶段,虽然在中关村买了房子,但为了节省费用,刘强东就在公司地板上睡觉,这一住就是3年。

在大好形势下,非典的突然来袭,让刘强东的公司陷入了困境。北京城都空了,大街上见不到人,如果非典4到6个月不过去的话,公司就垮了。在生意惨淡的情况下,有人提出能否去网上销售产品,这样可以不接触用户,避免传染。

他们去了搜狐、新浪,搜狐的论坛,到处发帖,但效果很差,一个顾客也没有。电子商务在中国刚出现不久,大家都还持一种半信半疑的态度,指望留个账号就有人寄钱买东西,是不大现实的。偶然机会,他们来到了一个名为CDBS的论坛,这是一个光盘评测的专业论坛,聚集了很多发烧友。京东的帖子发出去之后,一开始仍然无人问津,但没过多久,CDBS的创始人在京东发出的帖子下面跟帖了,他说京东多媒体我知道,我最近三年的光盘都在他家公司买的,这是中关村唯一不卖假盘的商家。

这个帖子挽救了京东多媒体,也促成了日后京东商城的推出。有了CDBS站长的好评,有3个网友就抱着试试看的态度汇钱买光盘,第二周客户数量就达到了21个。就这样,通过口口相传的方式,京东多媒体的线上业务发展起来了。京东商城2004年1月1日正式推出,当年就做出1000万销售额,一直到2007年为止,京东商城已经做到了8000万元的销售额,一分钱广告费没花,完全是口碑式营销。

很多时候,诚信和规则这类东西在我们的生活中是很虚的,红灯时过马路,过去就过去了,向朋友做出个承诺后却不履行,似乎也没什么大碍。但在关键时刻,诚信和规则却很重要,重要到能成为改变命运的那个砝码。

对人的尊重

刘强东第一次创业干饭店时,装修之后他发现,原来的员工都住在地下室里,那里阴冷潮湿,每逢下雨都漏水,居住条件比较差。于是他租了两个小院子,把员工宿舍安置在地面,还给涨了工资。虽然这一片好心并没有得到好报,员工中出现很多贪污现象,饭店亏损严重,但刘强东仍借来钱给员工发了工资。

有的时候,对人的尊重所带来的效应,并非那么立竿见影的,而是要放在一个很长的时间内去看。当然,指望为员工做点好事,就能马上得到回报的想法也很不单纯,必然做不好。对人的尊重,并不完全体现在行动上,更在于内心中,价值观里,贯穿到一家公司和一个人的方方面面。

2003年非典时,中关村出现一片员工逃离潮,刘强东没有像别的老板一样,对员工采取要么上班,要么辞职的政策,而是坚定一个原则,不允许任何员工因为上班而感染非典。刘强东让所有员工都回家办公,并为他们买了大量火腿肠和方便面,用员工和老板间彼此不照面的方式运营一个在当时已经不算小的公司。

如今,京东商城已是一个年销售额600亿元的电子商务企业,2013年,禽流感疫情骤起,刘强东则又向全体员工发了一份邮件,除了部署了应对禽流感的具体措施以外,还向员工们表明了对这件事的态度。他在邮件中有两段话是这样说的:

有无数客户和民众需要我们!当然,如果疫情持续恶化,对我们配送兄弟们构成不可规避感染情况下,宁愿公司倒闭,也只能停止营业。

10年前我说过:如果因为任何一个员工去市场工作感染上非典,这是我终身的失败。一辈子都无法原谅我自己,所以立即关闭了所有门脸和柜台,停止营业,让所有同事回家休息,只有部门经理到办公室值班。我们很幸运的躲过了非典,同时诞生了京东电商业务。如果当初没有对员工的尊重,也不会有今天的成功。


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