2002  66-70

    A typical imperative language contains an applicative sub-language which approximate the mathematical abstractions of “timeless” function applied to “spaceless” values, where the acture operation sequences and use of storage space during expression evaluation are organized behind the scenes.

    In this setting, values are data structures of low volume, typically a few computer words or less, which means that an illusion of spacelessness can be realized by having intermediate results during expression evaluation stored at the discretion of language implementation, and effecting parameter transmission and assignment operations through value copying.


imperative                         命令的, 强制的

approximate                      近似的,大约的

timeless                             永恒的,时间无限的

spaceless                           空间无限的

sequence                           次序,序列

scene                                场景,情景

illusion                              幻想,幻觉

evaluation                         估价,赋值

discretion                          判断力

at the discretion of sth/sb   当/任…自行处理

implementation                  执行,(coding)编码

assignment                        分配,委派,指定



    在这种情形下,数值一般组织成由几个或者更少的计算器字(computer word)组成的底层数据结构。通过在表达式求值过程中缓冲中间结果的办法,以及其它诸如在参数复制中采用值传递以及操作分割等办法,来实现在上层看来空间无限的幻觉。


2002        71-75

    Most computer systems are vulnerable to two different groups of attacks: Insider attacks and outsider attacks. A system that is known to be secure to an outsider attack by preventing access from outside can still be vulnerable to the insider attacks accomplished by abusive usage of authorized users. Detecting such abusive usage as well as attacks by outside not only provides information on damage assessment, but also helps to prevent future attacks. These attacks are usually detected by tools referred to as Intrusion Detection Systems.


vulnerable                     脆弱的,易受攻击的

insider                          内行,内部人员

outsider                        外行,外部人员

abusive                        滥用的,无节制的

authorized                    经认定的,经授权的

detect                          预防,察觉,检测出

assessment                  评估,估算

prevent                        预防

intrusion                      入侵,闯入


    大多数计算器系统在两种类型攻击下是脆弱的: 一种来自于内部人员,另一种来自于外部。尽管有些系统对于外部的攻击具有良好的防御能力,但是内部合法用户的非法操作同样会对系统造成破坏性攻击。


2001 29

    MIMD system can be classified into throughput-oriented systems, high-availability systems and response-oriented systems. The goal of throughput-oriented multiprocessing is to obtain high throughput at minimal computing cost. The techniques employed by multiprocessor operating systems to achieve this goal take advantage of an inherent processing versus input/output balance in the workload to produce balanced and uniform loading of system resources.


throughput                   生产量,吞吐量

orient                          定向

response                      响应,应答

employ                        雇用,安置

take advantage of        利用

inherent                       生来就有的,固有的

versus                         对比,比较(缩写为VS, exp China VS Costa Rica)

balance                      平衡,平稳,均衡

uniform                      统一的,制服

resource                     资源


    MIDM系统可以分类为面向生产量系统,面向高性能系统和面向响应系统。面向生产量多处理器系统的目的是耗费最小的处理成本来获取最高的生产量。多处理器系统利用这样的技术来达到上述目的: 用固定的过程替代I/O平衡机制,来使系统资源稳定和有组织。

2001 30

    Soon, more of the information we receive via the Internet could come packaged in digital wrappers.

    Wrappers are made up of software code that’s targeted to do specific things with the data enclosed within them, such as helping to define queries for search engines. They also keep outsiders from gaining access to that code.


via                          经由,通过,通路

digital                           数字式的,数字的

wrapper                       包装

digital wrapper             数字包裹

outsider                       外界的




2000 14

    Network managers have long awaited practical voice-over-IP(VOIP) solutions. VOIP promises ease network management and decreases costs by converging at a company’s telephony and data infrastructures into one network. And a VOIP solution implemented at a company’s headquarters with far-reaching branch offices can save tremendous amounts of money in long distance phone bill, provided that solution delivers POTS-like voice quality over the Internet.


practical                      实际的,实践的,实用的

converging                  聚集,聚会

infrastructure              底层设施,基础设施

implement                   贯彻,施行

branch                        分支,分枝