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个信互动杭州办公室的产品区,“刚需、高频、乐享”六个字赫然在目。个信互动的 CEO 方毅告诉我们,这是他做产品坚持的理念。事实上,回溯方毅的创业历程,一次又一次艰难的转型,无论是早年开发的硬件产品、之后的通讯软件“个信”,还是今天的信息推送方案“个推”,无不在这六个字的驱动之下。

连环创业者

浙江大学计算机硕士出身的方毅可谓一个“连环创业者”。在 2005 年,他曾经开发出一款备份手机通讯录数据的外设产品,可以兼做移动电源之用。据方毅介绍,这款配件支持当时市面上 70% 的手机。他认为,在当时的背景下,手机最重要的用途是通讯,在云同步服务尚未扎根于移动设备时,用户需要另寻方法备份通讯录,这对时常更换手机和丢手机的消费者尤甚。

然而,备份通讯录是个“重要不紧急”的事情,要满足高频,于是方毅增添了“重要又紧急”的充电功能。后来移动互联网兴起,2007 年,方毅卖掉了这个硬件项目,转而做云端备份服务,在此期间,他还与中国移动合作创建了第二家公司。

方毅告诉我们一个数据,当年他们将云端备份功能集成于 MTK 手机中并明确提示用户月费 3 元,3 个月后转化率高达 40%,而令人惊讶的是,这些用户手机通讯录平均条目数仅仅 27 个。

方毅认为这并不是刚需,因为“通讯录一个月备份一次足矣。”他希望做出一款真正活跃的应用,而这个应用可以基于通讯录做 SNS,从而挖掘人脉关系。

与微信撞车,“个信”先驱成先烈

“手机上什么最活跃?打电话发短信。”2010 年 10 月,在方毅的带领下,公司推出了基于通讯录的通讯“个信”,这是方毅亲手创建的第三家公司。

方毅最初的构想是“做免费的短信”。要替代短信,它必须满足两个需求,一是长连接,二是免费。个信采用了 IP 通道技术,可以将后台月流量消耗控制在 0.8 至 1.2M。

相对于如今微信类的通信应用,个信其实更像是 iMessage,它不存在用户系统,或者说它的唯一账户就是用户的手机号。只有当通信双方都安装个信才能发出基于流量的短信,否则依然走运营商短信。当用户收到个信或者短信,应用都会弹出,所以这个应用大有颠覆运营商短信的趋势。而当时,没有 Kik Messenger,没有 iMessage,更没有微信。

有意思的是,“个信”的 Slogan 是“没事来个信”,而英文名正是 Amessage。方毅自嘲说,就像 iMessage 意指 Message for iOS,Amessage 是 Message for Android。然而,公司首个进驻的平台不是 Android,却是 Symbian。方毅坦承自己没有看到当时区区 270 万 Android 设备的燎原之势。

先驱往往成为先烈。2010 年 Kik 的横空出世盘活了整个通信类应用市场, 借助腾讯的庞大资源,微信迅速成长起来,这艘航母所到之处几乎没有活口,个信就是其中之一。“到去年 10 月份开始,我们发现这个市场没法再打了。”

在反思个信这种“通用 iMessage”模式时,方毅认为它存在一个“非黑即白”的问题,像米聊和微信,用户安装了可以不使用,但是个信由于自安装起就开始接管系统短信应用,用户要么使用,要么卸载。此外,相对于具备用户系统的应用模式,许多用户不理解个信的产品逻辑。“你不是说短信免费么?为什么还有短信收费?他们没有看到我帮他省去的那部分。”方毅笑谈中透露着一丝无奈。这个问题加上对平台形势的误判造成了个信用户量难以有大的突破。

“产品必须让用户 100% 得到满足。”自此之后,方毅领悟到了这个真理。他提到之前备份通讯录的硬件产品,“虽然它支持 70% 的设备,但用户如果有两部手机,兼容概率就只有 49% 了。”

个推:开发商和用户的信息快递员

从去年三季度开始,全公司迎来了“最纠结、最焦躁”的时刻,裁员、转型……方毅说他当时也不知道自己应该如何抉择——是继续孤注一掷还是紧急刹车?

最终方毅选择了转型,而这次个信的角色是技术服务提供商。从去年 10 月开始,公司开始专注于移动应用的信息推送,是为“个推”。通俗地说,“个推”就好比是连接开发商和用户的“信息快递员”。

移动互联网时代,消息推送是智能手机上必备的信息交互方式。尽管 Android 设备上都集成了 Google 推送方案 GCM,但这套推送方案在国内却受到了极大限制。方毅看准了这个空间,认为这是“刚需”。

“个推”推出不久,新浪微博就成为其第一个重要合作伙伴。目前,新浪 Android 客户端全部采用“个推”的 SDK,从而实现微博私信、评论、转发等消息的实时推送。事实上,这个挑战非常大。方毅表示,新浪微博的并发量非常高,“我们一台服务器可以满足 100 到 200 万用户在线。”

目前,“个推”已经积累 1500 万自有用户,合作伙伴还包括“啪啪”、“51 信用卡管家”。

不忘老本

从硬件开发商、软件开发商到技术提供商,方毅的每一次转身,都是根植于对互联网浪潮和创业形势的判断,更是对自己核心竞争力的深度挖掘。

“‘个信’的后台其实就是个推,”方毅解释说,“转型时我们看看自己有什么干货,‘个信’抽取出来干货就是这个。”

“个推”采用的推送方式正是‘个信’的长连接 SDK,相对于定时向服务器查询的轮询,长连接能够对流量和耗电量进行有效的控制。接入“个推”的应用开放商,依然可以保持像个信 0.8 到 1.2M 的月流量,每日耗电量小于 2%。

方毅深谙用户体验之道,尽管“个推”仅承担推送技术,具体的推送主要仍由开发商自己管控,但他同样会担心信息推送对用户造成的打扰。他希望未来能够在合作伙伴中建立一种联盟或模式。“用户是需要保护的,一定要非常友好。”

面对行业激烈的竞争,方毅并不担心合作伙伴搭建自主平台,他认为,流量和耗电量是“个推”实打实的优势,除此之外考验的是后端并发能力,这使得“个推”在成本控制上具备较大优势,它们的费用通常只是开发商自己搭建的十分之一。

“你必须做好让用户轻易把你替换掉的准备,用户才会决定用你。”方毅向我们传达了一个“颠覆性”的理念。他说,只有自己随时保持一种忧患意识,才能够不断地优化自己的产品和服务。


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