2006年06月28日

下面这些句子虽然简单,却是最地道的美语精华,绝对是"学一句顶十句",说出一句话就让外国人无比惊讶!快来用"三最法"疯狂操练吧!

1. Do it yourself, then.
既然如此,你自己来吧。【疯狂想像:别人抱怨你没做好的时候说!】
A: That’s not the way I wanted it done.
这可不是我想要的方式。
B: Do it yourself, then.
那你自己来呗。
2. That’s more like it.
这才像话。【疯狂想像:像个长者一样地说!】
A: Don’t talk to your brother that way!
别跟你哥哥那么说话!
B: I’m sorry I insulted you, Jimmy.
对不起,我侮辱了你,吉米。
A: That’s more like it.
那这像话。
3. That’s going too far.
太过分了!
A: Should I buy my girlfriend a car?
我是不是该给我女朋友买部车呢?
B: That’s going too far.
那太过分了!
4. See. / I told you (so).
我老早告诉过你。【疯狂想像:洋洋得意地、有先见之明地说!】
A: It was stupid of me to go bungee jumping.
我居然去蹦极,真是太蠢了。
B: See, I told you so.
看,我早就这么说。
5. So what?
那又怎样?【疯狂想像:毫不在乎地说!】
A: You’re not wearing your seatbelt.
你没系安全带。
B: So what?
那又怎样?
6. I’m counting on you. / You’re my only hope.
就指望你了。【疯狂想像:可怜兮兮地说!】
A: Sure, I’ll come watch you give your speech.
当然,我会来看你演讲的。
B: Great, I’m counting on you!
太好了,我就指望你了。
7. Do something (about it) ! / Don’t just sit there!
想想办法吧!(别闲坐着!)
A: Honey, the garbage needs to be taken out.
亲爱的,垃圾该拿出去了。
B: So, don’t just sit there, go do something about it!
那你就别光坐在那儿了,去做点事吧!
8. Who do you think you are?
你以为你是谁啊?!【疯狂想像:毫不客气地说!】
A: You shouldn’t talk to your children that way.
你不该这么跟你的孩子们说话。
B: Who do you think you are? Mind your own business.
你以为你是谁啊?管好自己的事吧。
9. Stop playing the fool. / Don’t act stupid.
别装傻了。
A: Honey, would you please put the dishes in the dishwasher?
亲爱的,你能把碗碟放进洗碗机里吗?
B: I don’t know how to run it.
我不知道怎么操作。
A: Stop playing the fool!
别装傻了!
10. Any complaints? / Do you have something to say?
你有何不满?/你有什么话要说吗?
A: Can I see the work schedule for next week?
我能看看下星期的日程表吗?
B: Here it is. Do you have something to say?
这就是。你有什么要说吗?

听是人们言语交际能力的重要方面,也是英语学习的重要途径之一。通过听

觉领悟语言是一个复杂的过程 ,它包括接受信息、识别、判断和理解声音信号

等几个层次的心理活动。人们接受信息后,通过大脑来识别和 理解每个声音信

号的意义,然后作出适当的反馈。反馈的快慢、判断的正确与否,同一个人的识

别和理解能力 及个人的知识、经验都有着密切的联系。然而,在实际学习中,

由于听者往往难以甚至无法控制所听材料的语 速、言语的清晰度以及说话者的

表达特点,要做到在有限的时间内准确地理解并掌握说话人的意思是一项具有

相当难度的学习任务。

    初学者要真正掌握一门外语,必须尽快提高自己的听力水平。只有听得正确,

才能读得流畅,说得流利。 语言首先是有声的,口语能体现言语的交际功能。

在言语交际过程中由于有语调、节奏、重音等手段,交际双 方能更好地交流思

想。学习语言的一个十分重要的目的就是同活生生的人进行交际。而听力水平的

高低与听的 方法和熟练程度直接有关。对初学者来说,常用的听力方法是:预

期、猜测、抓住要点和连贯记忆等。

    1.预期:预期是对将要听的材料作出判断,是听者理解并掌握将要听的材料

的首要条件。预期可帮助听者 积极地想象、推理和判断,并主动地发挥个人的

能动性,有助于听者理解所听的内容。如材料的题目是At the

    Restaurant, 听者应预先想象着自己也在某一个餐馆里同别人一道吃西餐,

先喝点饮料和甜汤,然后吃烧鸡 、牛排、三明治,最后又喝咖啡或吃甜点心等。

在听的过程中看你的想法同所听的材料有哪些异同,达到理解 的效果。有人做

过这样的实验:把程度基本相同的人分成两组,A组听写一篇短文,而B组听写

那篇短文打乱后 不成文的词汇堆砌,结果不难想象:B组比A组差了很多。因

B组完全依赖语言信号, 而A组是根据已知信息对 未知的语言材料有了预期。

同样道理把一个较难的句子挑出来听比在原文中听更难理解。若遇到较长的句子

时 ,也可根据前半部的音调及内容对后半部进行预期。预期不一定都是线性的,

也可以利用后面的已知语言材料 回头对前面不清楚的地方进行判断。

    2.猜测:猜测就是对听过而又一时不理解的语言信号进行合理的推理。由于

听者听到的是一现即逝的、一 连串的语流,有的地方含糊不清,有些地方轻微,

还有些地方夹杂着许多噪音;同时,说话者的口音不同,文 化背景和语言表达

方式也不一样,这些都给听者带来极大困难,若想把它们都听得清清楚楚是不容

易的。因此 ,听者要善于运用自己所获的信息进行快速判断和猜测。猜的方法

有两种:①根据读音猜测。英语的读音有升 降调、重读、非重读、连读和失去

爆破等,这些特点都会使初学者在听到英语时感到极不适应。 如I’ve oft en

heard aboutyou[aiv

    附图{图}in the United States. 可根据读音猜出单词为 agricultural

publications。②根据前 后文猜测。 如一篇文章的题目是Dislexia,这个词

是什么意思呢? 当听完Doctors say as many as 20 % of

    all children in the United States suffer from some form of learning

disorder called dis lexia时,便可猜出 dislexia就是 learning disorder

的意思。

    3.抓住要点:听的主要目的就是弄懂所听材料的基本思想,在听的过程中尽

力地去理解全文的主要内容是 很关键的。因此,听者应时刻想着这个问题,

"What does it mainly talk about? "边听边寻找答案。如听 一篇小故事,

就要听明白主人公是谁,主要有哪些情节;若听新闻报道,只要了解事件的时间、

地点及主要过 程就行了。多数初学者都有这样的心理:力求把每个词、每一句

话都听懂。结果怎么样呢?由于他们把注意力 放在词句上,获得的是零零碎碎

的信息,听完后不知道自己听的是什么内容,抓不住中心思想。战胜这种心理 的

唯一办法是尽力发现材料的内在联系,找出其主干,这是决定一个人的听力水平

能否尽快提高的关键所在。

    4.连贯记忆:只注意抓主要信息而不善于把它们连续不断地记在大脑里,也

是不可取的。研究表明:大脑 的储存能力是任何一台高级精密的计算机都无法

比拟的。在学习中,若担心材料太长而大脑记不下那么多东西 是毫无道理的,

重要的是能否调动大脑的各个细胞并使它们发挥自己的效力。同时,心理学家发

现:人的记忆 力是一个从不稳定到相对稳定的过程,即:"遗忘发展的速度是

先快后慢。"也就是说,最初所获得的信息只 有在大脑中停留一段时间并转几

个圈后,才不至于很快忘却。听音时既要使大脑不断吸收、判断和储存信息, 又

要使听的过程不致中断,既要注意用心记又要集中精力听,只有这样才能更好地

理解全文。

    综上所述,一个英语学习者可以通过回答下列几个问题来了解自己是否掌握

了听力技巧:

    ①在听某个材料前,你是拿来就听还是根据已知信息尽力预期将要听的内

容?

    ②听不清时,你是尽力去猜呢还是马上去查资料?

    ③你是力求听懂每个词、每句话还是理解材料的主要内容?

    ④听完后你能从头到尾复述一遍吗?

    然而,学过英语的人都知道,听的过程也是个极其复杂的心理过程,听者应

始终保持一个良好的心理状态 。初学者在学习中总会遇到许多难题,如语速太

快,噪音太多;有时听得模模糊糊,不知所云。其实,这些都 是正常的现象。

以往很多人只注意记单词,学语法,听的机会很少,现在要弥补自己的不足就要

有信心,坚信 任何困难都是可以克服的,切不可半途而废,前功尽弃。因此,

在练习听力的过程中,还应注意以下几个问题 。

    1.了解口语表达特点

    英语口语的一个明显特点是非正规化。 比如口语中常说we’ll,there’s,

而很少说we shall或there is 。人们见面时,常说:Hi! 或Morning!只有

在正式场合才说:How do you do?另外,人们在学习中希望别人 一个词一个词

地讲英语。然而,口头英语的特点是意群之间不可分开说。同时,口语中的连续、

失爆、非重读 及音变等都造成了听力方面的极大困难。了解这些,为听懂英语

做好了思想准备。

    2.听、说并进,反复练习

    "听、说"包括两层意思,听为了理解,说为了表达。按照唯物辩证原理,

听和说是对立的统一,它们既 相互制约,又相互促进和提高。听的能力增强了,

为流利而准确地表达创造了良好的条件,而说的能力的提高 ,又会反过来促进

听力水平的提高。因此,在练习听力时,也要多讲多说,反复实践。正如布龙菲

尔德所说: "学习语言就是实践,再实践,其它方法是没有用的。"

    3.放下书本,聚精会神地听

    有的学习者在初级阶段总是离不开书本,或是听前浏览一遍,或是边听边看,

认为这样有助于理解。事实 上,这样的理解是靠视觉的帮助,而不是靠语音、

语调等信号,这样做不利于听力水平的提高。结果,离开文 字,寸步难行,妨

碍了信号与意义建立直接联系。因此,听者不要有看书的念头,集中精力去听懂

材料的意义 。

    4.摆脱母语的干扰

    英美口语的语速是很快的,所以听者必须有很快的反应能力,直接用英语分

析、理解材料的意义。若先把 英语译成本族语再理解,很难跟上原有的语速,

顾此失彼,减慢学习进程,不利于听力水平的尽快提高。

    总之,要学好一门外语就必须加强听力训练,把它作为学习其他技能的首要

任务。在学习中除不断改进学 习方法外,还要有锲而不舍的精神,这些都是提

高听力技能的必要条件。

2006年06月23日

第一要诀:收听英语气象报告 

  有些教学录音带为配合初学者的学习,故意放慢语速,这对英语听力的训练是不够的。如果听语速正常的英语,初学者又会感到力不从心。英语气象报告的速度虽快,但词汇简单固定,内容单纯,重复的可能性大,而且在生活中随时都可以印证,是听力入门的好教材。

  第二要诀:收听中国国际广播电台的英语广播

  中国国际广播电台(China Radio International)每天早上7:00–8:00,中午11:00–12:00各有一小时的英语节目。内容包括国内外新闻,剪报集锦和各类系列的专题报道。除了英语标准流利的国内播音员担任广播之外,也有向外侨或访客就某一话题而做的录音访问。内容广泛,但词汇较简单,语速亦适中,可以藉此训练或增进英语的听力。

  第三要诀:善用录音带锻炼听说能力

  有些学习者总是习惯于一边看书一边听磁带,把磁带当成阅读的辅助工具,这样打不到锻炼听力的目的。录音带应该是以听说能力的训练为主。学习者要选用与自己能力相适应的听力磁带,不要急于求成,以免产生受挫心理。先反复聆听磁带内容,起先只要抓住梗概,多听几次后,对细节的了解便越来越多。听力较差的人,可先阅读课文,然后再集中精力领会每段每句的意思。这样练习有助于培养倾听时注意力的集中,使您的听力迅速进步。

  第四要诀:听正常语速的英语,才能加速听力的进步

  很多广播教学和听力教材总是为了配合听众或学习者的程度而故意放慢语速,这虽是无可厚非的变通方法,但也会产生一些不良的副作用。例如:1.听惯了语速放慢的英语,在与外国人的实际交往中,就很难适应,甚至听不懂他们用正常语速讲的英语。2.故意放慢语速时,通常会把一句中每个词都清楚的读出来,但在正常的会话中会出现很多同化(assimilation),减弱(reduction),连音(liaision)的现象。所以,听语速正常的英语对于听力和会话极为重要。

  第五要诀:从电视,电影中学习英语

  看英文电视,电影不仅能了解西方人的文化和生活,而且也是学习地道英语和提高英语听力的好机会。选取的影片最好是以现代生活为背景的文艺片或喜剧片。如果您的听力不错,要养成不看字幕的习惯。程度稍差的就不要勉强自己,否则英语没学成反倒破坏了欣赏电影的好心情。这种情况下,您可以先看字幕了解剧情(如果是电视节目那就要先录下来),再重新看一至数遍,您的听力就可在轻松的心情下,随着您对剧情了解的增多而迅速提高。

  第六要诀:和朋友表演影片情节

  在英语学习中,我们经常会与朋友或同学相约用英语交谈来提高英语会话能力,但经常感到自己的语言贫乏,所谈内容有限。现在不妨试试这种方法:配合前节所讲的“从电视,电影中学习英语”,先依据电影情节节选一个或多个片段,个人选定一个角色,然后在影片看熟之后试着把台词誊录成文字并背下来,最后进行排练表演。经常做这种练习,不仅对英语会话和听力大有好处,而且对语法和写作也是很好的锻炼。

  第七要诀:朗诵英文诗

  英语是否流利取决于对节奏的正确掌握。英语是按单词和句子的重音来分节奏的。英文诗是练习英语节奏的最好材料之一。例如 Worsworth 著名的“The Daffodils”(水仙花):“I wandered lonely as a cloud/That floats

  on high o’er vales and hills…”(我象一片白云孤独的游荡,飘越过溪谷和群山……)便是典型的弱强节奏。读熟之后,大声朗诵,一定获益非浅。

  第八要诀:唱歌学英语

  比朗诵英文诗更有效的是唱英文歌曲。唱英文歌可以帮您练习发音(pronunciation),语调(intonation)和节奏(rhythm),又可以让您在很愉快的心情下背会很多单词和句型,真是一举数得。所选的英文歌曲最好语言优美,语法正规。起先可以从童谣入手,再渐渐的学唱抒情歌曲。学唱之前先要将歌词朗读几遍再跟着磁带学唱,唱熟后能背更好。

  第九要诀:特别注意英文没有的发音

  英语中有些读音是中文中没有的,这些也是我们英语学习者最困惑的读音,例如“th”的发音,发这种音时要特别注意口型的正确。

  第十要诀:背诵名人演说词,找机会复诵出来

  好的演说在用字遣辞上不但求其优美而且特别注重沟通力和说服力,是练习英语表达的最佳教材。学习者不必将演说词从头到尾的背诵,只要选择自己喜欢的段落或句子来背即可。例如:肯尼迪总统的名言“Ask not

  what your country can do for you,ask what you can do for your country.”(不要问你的国家能为你做什么,要问你能为你的国家做什么。)这类的妙言嘉句背多了之后,对于说话,写作都会有不少的帮助。

  第十一要诀:用英语绕口令克服发音的缺点

  绕口令(tongue twisters)常把容易混淆或念错的音放在一起。但因他们常以歌谣或押韵的形式出现,因此读熟之后也会觉得顺口好听。所以英语绕口令可以作为练习英语发音和会话的辅助教材。

  第十二要诀:多记一些幽默笑话,准备随时应用

  爱听笑话是人的天性,在社交场合中随时的插上几句笑话,可以使气氛轻松活泼,更容易赢得友谊。使用英语的场合,更可利用笑话来消除自己讲话的不自在,增强自己对英语会话能力的信心。

  听,讲和研究英语笑话的好处还远不止如此。更重要的是,您可以藉着幽默或笑话中精简的文字或语言增加对西方国家文化和社会的了解。请看下面两个例子:

  1.Teenager:”I’m off to the party.”

   (少年:“我要去参加聚会了”。)

  Father:”Well,have a good time.”

  (父亲:“祝你玩的高兴。”)

  Teenager:”Look Dad,don’t tell me what to do!”

  (少年:“哎,爸爸,不要告诉我应该做什么。”)

  讽刺美国一些青少年过于强调独立自主,不受管束的性格。)

  2.The policeman stopped the driver and said,”I’m afraid your wife fell out your car about one kilometer back.”

  ”Thank godness,”said the driver,”I thought I had gone deaf.”(警察让司机停下车来,对他说:“你的妻子从你的车上掉下来恐怕已有一公里的路程了”。“感谢上帝”司机说“我还以为我已经聋了呢”。)讽刺美国太太们的长舌唠叨。

  第十三要诀:听英语时,口中跟着复诵

  听英语演讲,看英语电视和电影时,要耳朵一边听,口中一边复诵。这样既有利于注意力的集中,增进对内容的了解,又可同时模仿母语是英语的人们(native speakers)的发音和语调。做这种练习时,如果句子长而复杂难以复诵,不必勉强,可以先从较短或较简单的句子开始。练习多了,就会养成习惯。另外一种有益的练习是逐句口译(consecutive interpretation)。把听到的句子逐一译成汉语,这对于听力,正确的理解及反应能力也是很好的锻炼。

  第十四要诀:练习朗读,好处多多

  英语学习者往往对朗读不太重视。事实上朗读的妙用大矣!1.锻炼英语的发音,语调与节奏;2.使口腔各发音部位灵活,增进说英语时的流利程度;3.使耳朵增加听英语的机会,从而提高英语听力;4.充分应用读书四到:眼到,口到,耳到,心到——比默读时更能记住所读的教材。我们也可以说朗读是会话的基本练习,没有朗读习惯的人是很难学成会话的。

  第十五要诀:练习朗读时要从后面往前推演

  练习朗读时,我们有时会觉得很难将一个长句朗读的流利顺口。例如里根总统第二任就职演说词:“So we go forward today,a nation still mighty in its youth and powerful in its purpose.”(因此我们今天要前进。我们的民族仍因年轻而有力量,因目标确定而强大。)遇到这种情况,我们建议您从最后的一个单词读起,每次向前加一个单词。例如:“…purpose”“…it’s purpose”“…in it’s purpose”“powerful in its purpose”。这种从后向前推的朗读联系法旨在帮助您把握正确的语调。我们知道,语调的上扬或下降在句尾表现的最明显。这样的练习可让您在每次的朗读时都能顾及正确的语调。

  第十六要诀:朗读长句时,可在“词组”之间稍做停顿

  在朗读中可能出现的另一个问题就是断句。由于句子长,无法一口气读完,往往有急促或断续的现象,句子被读的支离破碎,非常不自然。也有人在句中随意停顿,或停顿的地方不当,自己读起来极不通顺悦耳,听的人也会觉得不知所云。例如里根总统第二任就职演说词:“We must do what we know is right,and do it with all our might.”(我们必须做我们知道是正确的事,而且要全力去做。)决不能读成“We/must/do what/we/know/is right,/and do/it with all/out might.”

  长句中有短暂的停顿,藉以调和呼吸,这是自然的现象,但停顿的地方必须恰到好处。通常在:1. 有标点符号的地方;2.词组或思想单元之间。短语,从句等思想单元必须各自成一单位,但它们之间可以短暂停顿。例如:“We must do/what we know is right,/and do it/with all your might.(斜线为可以稍做停顿之处)。

  第十七要诀:为了兴趣而阅读

  寒窗苦读式的学习方法不但枯燥无味,而且效果往往不佳。如果是为了兴趣甚至“消遣”而阅读的话,一定会趣味盎然,并能在无形之中进步。例如:喜欢爵士乐的人读起爵士乐方面的英文书刊会比看英文教科书效率高的多。同样的,喜欢汽车的人看介绍汽车的英文书刊,喜欢烹饪的人看介绍汽车的英文书刊,不仅能满足自己的爱好,而且又可以提高英语能力,真是一举两得。

  假如没有特别的兴趣,那不妨阅读故事,小说尤其是侦探小说更能使人全神贯注,而且有一气呵成之感。这可算是一种愉快的学习方法。

  第十八要诀:精读和泛读并行

  精读的教材不必贪多,最好选择短小精悍的文章,把里面的词汇,语法结构等全部弄清楚,然后大声朗读,再加背诵,最后能够默写几遍更好。

  有一个可以兼顾精读和泛读的方法,是从返读的材料中选择一些最优美,读来最顺口的句子加以精读。

  应该尽量将背诵,默写过的段落和句子在会话或写作时应用出来。应用也有助于对他们的理解和记忆。

  第十九要诀:阅读英文报刊杂志

  报刊杂志上登载的最新消息,所用的词汇也是最现代,最实用的。常常阅读英文报刊杂志能够通过生活化,实用性的学习,迅速提高您的英文能力。

  现在国内最常见的英文报纸是中国日报(China Daily) 和21世纪英语(21st Century)。如果您抱着增大词汇量,提高英语阅读能力的目的看报纸,那么就不要局限于您所感兴趣的部分。最好通读报纸的每个栏目和版面。包括新闻,社论甚至广告等。值得一提的是刊登在报纸上的英文连环画,它不仅能培养您的幽默感,而且让您在会心一笑之余还能了解一个国家的文化和社会信息。英文程度稍差的人可以在阅读英文报纸之前先看看当天的中文报纸,这对理解英文报纸很有帮助。

  此外,您还可以借助报纸来提高写作能力。选取一篇社论(或其中的一段或数段)把它译成中文,测验自己对社论理解的精确程度。然后将这篇译文倒译回英文,再于原文比较,找出那些在语法和修辞方面有待改进的地方。通过这种练习,您一定会受益非浅。

  第二十要诀:暂时忘掉字典

  我们在阅读英文小说或报刊时,不免会遇到一些生词。如果总是停下来查字典会很令人扫兴,读书的兴趣也会被消磨掉。因此我们建议您,有时可以暂时忘掉字典。

  首先,选择的读物要与您的英文水平相当,令您感兴趣。随便翻阅数页,浏览一下,如果每页您可以看懂八成以上,便可认定这本书适合您。

  其次,在阅读中遇到生词,不要急着查字典。先联系上下文猜猜看,做到这一点就够了。等从头到尾看完之后,再去查字典深入研究。

  看这类读物,贵在多读,速读。同学或朋友之间不妨相互借阅,即可省钱,又可以养成快速阅读的习惯。

  第二十一要诀:查字典之前,要猜猜看

  学习一种语言一定要查字典,但一定要讲究方法。在这里先说两件事:第一:不要盲目的查;第二:不要查的太快;换句话说,在查字典以前要先想一想,甚至猜一猜。

  很多学习英语的人,在文章中一看到生词抓起字典就查,结果往往是每个生词都查过了,却看不懂整句或整段的意思。假如在查字典以前,先根据上下文的意思猜猜看,再翻开字典,就不会感到无所适从了。例如在(A)句:“Will this small car negotiate that steep hill?”(这辆小汽车能翻过那个陡峭的山丘吗?)和(B)句:“I’m sorry.Our bank doesn’t negotiate foreign checks.”(对不起,我们银行不兑现外国支票。)中出现的negotiate,我们不能选取多数字典对它下的第一个定义“交涉”。如果不假思索翻开字典就抄下“交涉”这个定义,这句话就无法看懂了。所以,遇到生词先不要忙着查字典,应该先结合上下文,前后句,整个段落来推敲它的意思,再查字典证实一下,有时甚至用不着查字典意思就清楚了。这种查字典的方法还有一个好处,由于先经过猜,想的过程,对于这个生词有了观察和分析,印象已很深刻,查字典之后就很容易就记住这个词了。

  第二十二要诀:查字典不要只看词义

  很多人查字典只为了了解词义,这充其量只能弄懂生词在那句话里的意思,根本无法积极掌握那个词汇,更谈不上活用了。

  查字典除了要找出适当的定义,还要查1)读音:读的出音的词才能记得牢,也才能用的出来。2)相关的定义:一个单词可能会有几个或几十个定义。浏览一下相关的定义可更广泛的了解这个单词。3)用法和例句:您可以从字典中的例句中学到该词的正确用法。4)反义词,近义词和词类变化。查字典时兼顾这许多方面才能增进您对该生词的理解,增强对该生词的记忆和活用该生词的能力。

  第二十三要诀:多查几本字典,互相印证,互为补充

  从上面要诀我们可以看出,查字典不能只看字义,还要注意发音,用法,例句,词类变化(衍生词),近义词,反义词,辨义以及相关词汇等,一本小小的英汉字典是远远不够的。

  内容不同的较大字典最好准备两本以上,以便互相印证,互为补充。例如有的字典收录的词汇特别多,有的字典偏重例句,有的偏重短语,也有的字典对句型的分类和说明特别清楚,有的详细列出近义词,反义词和同义词的分辨等。多查一本字典往往就多一分收获。

  第二十四要诀:读的出,才能记得牢

  记单词的第一个步骤是把它大声的读出来。先将整句话读几遍,然后把单词单独的读几遍。读的时候,脑海中要根据它的发音来“描绘”它的字型。经常做这种练习的人,只要口中朗读单词的读音,心里就会浮现出这个单词的形貌。要注意您看到的是整个字,而不是个别的字母。在这个阶段,即使错漏了一两个字母也没关系,千万不要一个字母一个字母的背。

  接着,眼睛离开书本,把整个句子复诵一两遍,然后复诵您要背的单词。这样记忆单词才能记得牢。

  第二十五要诀:字典查过之后,暂时别合起来

  查过的字典不要马上合起来。下次再查另一个单词时,可以先把摊开的这页再看一看,这对于上次所查的字是一种很有效的复习,往往使您印象深刻,永志不忘。

  有的人喜欢把查过的单词抄在本子上一个一个的背,作为复习这是可以的,但效果恐怕不如从文章中,字典中记忆单词那么明显。因为大部分单词只能在句子里才有确定的意思,把它孤立起来,一来是很难记住,二来是即使记住了往往也不会应用。

  第二十六要诀:要培养英语的语感,请用英英字典

  完全依赖英汉字典的人,有时无法查到一个单词精确的定义。在模糊概念的影响下,说出的话或写出的句子往往模棱两可,语焉不详甚至造成人家的误会。

  克服这个缺点的方法之一是使用英英字典。英英字典常给出比较详尽而确切的定义。有时在字面意义(denotation)之外还给出它的涵义(connotation)。请看下面这个例子:sofa:英汉字典解释为“沙发”。但无法告诉我们“sofa”是什么东西。查查英英字典就会得到比较清楚的印象:“a comfortable seat wide enough for two or three people to sit on ”原来沙发上可供二或三人并排坐的舒适坐椅。

  当然我们也不能说英英字典一定比英汉字典好。英汉字典也有它方便的地方,尤其当我们查动植物或某些物品名称的时候,例如:“cockroach”这个单词查英英字典得“a large black insect which lives in dark wet placesand likes dirty houses”(是一种体形偏大,喜欢生活在阴暗潮湿的地方和脏屋子里的黑色昆虫)。这就不如英汉字典里的“蟑螂”一目了然了。

  第二十七要诀:利用前缀和后缀扩充词汇

  大部分的英语单词是由前缀,后缀与词根组合而成。对前缀,后缀的了解可帮助我们记忆单词,从而扩大我们的词汇量。

  例如:respond(反应)这个单词,加上后缀ent形成形容词或名词:respondent反应的或回答者。加上ence或er成为名词respondence反应和responder回答者。加上前缀co成为correspondence符合,通讯等。从上面例子可以看出,学习前缀和后缀对增加词汇量极有帮助。

  第二十八要诀:留心英文的词汇搭配

  每种语言都有它的个性,往往不能靠着单纯的翻译来套用。英文学习者要特别注意词汇搭配(collocation),才不至画虎类犬例如常用词open,中文翻译是“开”,但是中文要表达的“开”却不能一律用open来表达。“开门,开窗”是open the door/window,“开灯,开收音机”却是turn on the light/radio,“开会”变成hold a meeting,“开支票”是write a check,但“银行开户”则又能用open an account。这些搭配虽然有点让初学者眼花缭乱,但却体现了语言文字的特性,也是它灵活而有趣的地方。

  第二十九要诀:把被动词汇转变为主动词汇

  被动词汇(passive vocabulary)是您看的懂,认得出的词汇,而主动词汇(active vocabulary)则是您在说话写作中用的出来的词汇。英文程度越好,说明他的主动词汇越多,在实际应用中越能得心应手所以学习英语的人要尽快把他所拥有的被动词汇转变成主动词汇。

  转变的原则就是要常用(You must learn to use a word by using it )。光认识字义是不够的,您一定要熟读例句,然后利用适当的时机(会话,写信,甚至自言自语,胡思乱想时)使用它,多用几次,您就掌握这个词汇了。

  第三十要诀:用自由联想法复习学过的单词

  在等车,等人的无聊时刻,复习英语单词也许是很好的消遣。您可以靠周围事物来触发灵感发挥您的“自由联想”。这样做既可以锻炼脑力,温习英语单词,又可以打发时间,真是一举数得。

  例如:您看到穿蓝色衣服的女孩,从蓝色(blue)想到blues(布鲁斯:蓝调),bluebird(知更鸟)blue-bl

  ooded(贵族的);或从blue想到red(红色)pink(粉红色),crimson(深红色),scarlet(猩红色)等等。可以说是“上穹碧落下黄泉”,让您觉得其乐无穷。

  第三十一要诀:利用生活中的小插曲或社会上的偶发事件学习英文

  我们也可以将“联想”运用到一些生活的小插曲中。例如:您在马路上走着,不小心扭伤了脚踝。您就可以想象如何用英语把它表达出来。首先,您会查汉英字典德知扭伤是sprain,脚踝是ankle。可是您还需要查一下英汉字典或英英字典关于这些单词的用法,以避免误用。最后您会写出这个句子“I sprained my ankle this morning.”

  从生活中学习会得到一些立即的成就感,不信你就试试看!

  第三十二要诀:累积实用的佳句,整理制作成卡片

  提高英语会话能力,同时又增加词汇量的有效方法之一是将您从书本上,报刊杂志上看到的精彩文句抄录下来,制成卡片。视需要可以分成政治,经济,文学,艺术,体育等类。平时随身带着几张,空闲时就拿出来背背。在会话和写作时往往能真的派上用场。这是增加词汇的有效方法,更是练习英语表达能力的良方。收录的句子不一定要长,有时短句更能言简意赅。

  第三十三要诀:把当天发生的事情,用英语写成日记

  既然说是日记(diary),最好能够每天写。英文能否写的通顺还是次要的问题,能够持续的每天用英文记日记(keep a diary in English)才是最重要的。

  日记主要是给自己看的,因此体裁可以较为自由。例如(I got)up at six.((我)早上六点钟起床。)(I)went to the zoo this afternoon.((我)今天下午去了动物园。)(I was)bitten by a dog around noon.(大约中午时候(我)被一条狗咬了。)这些句子中括号内的单词都是在记日记时可以省略的。若因时间关系或其他原因无法写出句子或段落,即使只列出一些单词也总比完全不写的好。下面是一篇写的比较完整的日记:

  It was already eight o’clock,and I was still on the bus to school.I was sure to get into trouble with the teacher.I suddenly remembered she was going to test us.I didn’t study at all since I slept too well last night.Now what should I do?

  When I walked into the classroom,I looked out of the window.The bees were busy making honey from flowers.The birds also were busy making nets.The sun was shining brightly.As I saw this,a thought struck me:I wished to leave the

  school at once,to throw my books aside,and to hide in the beautiful world of nature.But I realized I could not do so.If even the bees and birds were so busy at work,then I,a human being,should be ashamed of being idle.I therefore changed my mind and faced the music.

  (已经八点钟了,但我还坐在开往学校的汽车上。我知道一定会挨老师批评。突然我想了起来,她今天要测验我们。昨天晚上我睡的很香,根本就没有复习。那现在该怎么办呢?

   我走进教室后,向窗外望去。蜜蜂正在花丛间忙着采蜜,小鸟们也在忙着筑巢,阳光一片明媚。看到这一切,我突然有个念头。我但愿能马上逃离教室,把书本扔到一边,躲藏到美丽的大自然中。但我意识到,我不能这样做。甚至连小鸟和蜜蜂都在忙着工作,我,作为一个人,应该为无所事事而感到羞耻。因此,我改变了注意,准备接受批评。)

  第三十四要诀:用英文写阅读摘要

  在当今这种国际化的社会里,用英文写报告,札记,备忘录的机会越来越多,尤其是从事国际贸易或其他国际事务的人士更需要培养这种能力。

  这种英文写作能力的培养,要靠平时一点一滴努力的积累。我们可以把在工作和休闲时阅读到的外国文献,小说故事,或英文报刊杂志报道,评论的内容作成摘要。尽可能不要照抄原文,而是要用自己的英文把已理解的内容简要的整理出来,然后念给家长,老师,朋友们听。这样做可以发现摘要的内容是否正确,自己的发音是否清晰,是一种可以立即见效的练习方式,对于思绪的整理和文字的锻炼帮助很大。

  第三十五要诀:把生活体验写成英文作文,或做口头发表

  每星期一至二次,每次用一两个小时的时间将一星期来生活或工作上的心得和感想写成三五百字的英文作文。斟酌修改之后,再背诵,然后在适当的时候象做演讲一样复诵给同学,同事或朋友听。

  说给别人听的目的一方面是训练自己的胆量,另一方面是试试自己的表达能力,看能否让别人充分了解自己的意思。为了要说出来,自然要留意发音,语调,节奏等各方面的问题。

  您也可以把积极学习英语的同学,同事或朋友组织起来轮流主讲,轮流做听众。讲完之后,彼此用英语进行讨论。有个主题做中心可以使会话练习的内容具体而充实,远胜于空洞不着边际的自由讨论(free talk)。每周坚持做这样的练习,一年之后在说,写方面一定会进步神速。

  第三十六要诀:随时用英文思考,用英文记录

  英文程度的好坏,是看您能否在日常生活或工作中随心所欲的运用英文听,说,读,写的四种技能。而这四种技能的总根源便是用英文思考的能力。

  作到用英文思考不是一蹴可及的事。最重要的养成用英语思考的习惯。我们必须从生活中的点点滴滴作起。比如我们在走路时,或排队买票时把所看到的事物,所听到的谈话或想到的生活琐事在脑海中用英文表达出来。即使不是完整的句子,用单词或短语也可以。环境许可的话,把它们记入笔记本里。

  这种练习最需要注意的,是尽量避免经过中文翻译的程序。要把看到,听到,想到的用英文直接记录下来。这是锻炼英文思考习惯的第一个步骤。

  第三十七要诀:作个吹毛求疵的人

  为了自己学好英文,有时甚至是为了帮助别人学好英文,不得不做个吹毛求疵的人。在路旁的广告牌上,在日用品的说明书上,在出版商的广告传单上,只要是用英文书写的都可以留意一下,看能不能挑出错误。这样做有助于训练您细心和精确的习惯。碰到有疑问的地方不妨抄录下来,和老师,朋友讨论一番。当然如果能使出错的人改正了错误,则是额外的收获了。

  第三十八要诀:随时记得从听,读,过渡到说,写

  中国人大都比较沉默含蓄,普遍都有喜欢听,不喜欢说,喜欢读,不喜欢写的心理。即使在口语课上也常常是少数几个学生在讲话,多数只是默默的听。这种心理如果不突破,是难以让英语更上一层楼的。

  所以在心理上要抱有积极进取的态度,随时提醒自己,听和读是为了说和写作准备。在听录音带,广播,或听人谈话时,要抱着高度的兴趣和好奇的心理,随时找出有疑问的地方,用英语提出问题,然后设想一些可能的答案。如果听到自己不同意的意见,也要试着用英语表达自己的观点。

  读完一篇文章,试着用英文记下要点,有可能的话,写几句对这篇文章的看法。这样练习,就能将被动(passive)转变成主动(active),把输入(input)转换成输出(output)了。

  第三十九要诀:从洋迷信里找题材

  学习英语必须和英美人士的生活和文化相结合,才能学的有深度。了解英语国家的迷信和传说也是使英语能活学活用的有效又有趣的方法。

  就象中国迷信一样,洋迷信对外国人的宗教和生活方式都有根深蒂固的影响。例如老美看到朋友打喷嚏会连忙说“Gesundheit”或“(God)bless you.”,这都是“上帝保佑”的意思。因为根据西方人的古老传说,打喷嚏会喷出气息,连魂魄都会一起跑掉,当然需要上天保佑一命了。

  又象英国人常会对拙于言辞的人说“You should’ve kissed the Blarney Stone”(您早该亲一下布拉芮城那块石头了)。原来在爱尔兰的Blarney城有块怪石,据说只要在这石头上亲一下,笨嘴笨舌的人就会变的口齿伶俐。

  英美人一说“My ears are buring.”(我的两耳发热了。)就表示有人在背后造谣。“He has an itching hand

  /palm)(他手掌发痒。)则意味着这人贪得无厌。

  他们抽烟点火时,往往两个人点燃烟后就把火熄掉,第三个人重新再点,因为有“Three on a match is bad luck.”(三人共用一根火柴会有霉运。)的迷信。还有很多迷信不胜枚举。

  收集并研究这些迷信或传说不但能增加对英语了解的深度,同时也能提高学习英语的兴趣。

  第四十要诀:熟悉有关运动的术语,有助于和老外沟通

  美国人不但喜爱运动,也爱看各种体育比赛,象American football(美式橄榄球),baseball(棒球),tennis(网球),basketball(篮球),boxing(拳击)都是热门的运动项目。各种比赛的胜负消息也常成为老美们茶余饭后的话题,例如每年元旦在全国几个地区举行的大学足球比赛(bowl games,如德州Dallas的棉花杯Cotton Bowl,加洲Pasadena的玫瑰杯Rose Bowl等,几乎是全国瞩目的新闻)。有些原是运动的术语,如“hit and run”(打带跑,现引申为驾车撞人后逃跑),“go to bat”(代打,现引申为帮人度过难关)等现在都成了一般常用语。

  多留意运动发面的术语能够增加谈话的材料,尤其有志留学美国的男士更有需要。

  第四十一要诀:不必对自己苛求完美

  追求完美,本是值得嘉许的。学习英语的人总是希望自己能够达到正确无误的地步。但就学习英语的过程来讲,应该把“完美”当作一个将来追求的目标,而不必让它成为套在自己头上的枷锁。

  自己练习时,虽然要尽可能作到正确无误,但也要容忍自己和别人犯错误。有些学生抱怨说,他们的老师因为求好心切,他们一开口练习就被纠正的体无完肤让他们越学越没信心。对自己或别人矫枉过正可能反而会产生反效果的,语言的学习尤其如此,因为语言的表达能力受心理的影响很大。

  在语言的应用上,不妨以沟通为第一目标。能听懂对方的话,也能让对方了解自己要表达的意思,就有了初步的成就。即使讲的结结巴巴,用的句子零零碎碎也总比开不了口好的多。突破了心理障碍,建立用英语沟通的信心,再继续不断追求雅致。当您为自己说的不好,写的不好而气馁时,请记得:“Every learner is entitled to make mistakes.”学习的人都有犯错误的权利。

  第四十二要诀:发挥创意,多做尝试

  上面所说的四十一要诀,可说是很生活化,实用化的学习方法。有志学好英文的人,可以因时制宜,因地制宜的选择其中几项来锻炼自己。也可以发挥创意,另做尝试,找到适合自己的学习方法。学习语言是一种艺术,也是一种不断自我超越的过程,在任何一点上都能起步,在任何一点上都能突破。只要您抱着热忱,毅力和尝试的勇气,再加上良好教材的指引,必定会有成功的一天!!

2006年06月22日

Standard usage includes those words and expressions understood, used, and accepted by a majority of the speakers of a language in any situation regardless of the level of formality. As such, these words and expressions are well defined and listed in standard dictionaries. Colloquialisms, on the other hand, are familiar words and idioms that are understood by almost all speakers of a language and used in informal speech or writing, but not considered appropriate for more formal situations. Almost all idiomatic expressions are colloquial language. Slang, however, refers to words and expressions understood by a large number of speakers but not accepted as good, formal usage by the majority. Colloquial expressions and even slang may be found in standard dictionaries but will be so identified. Both colloquial usage and slang are more common in speech than in writing.

Colloquial speech often passes into standard speech. Some slang also passes into standard speech, but other slang expressions enjoy momentary popularity followed by obscurity. In some cases, the majority never accepts certain slang phrases but nevertheless retains them in their collective memories. Every generation seems to require its own set of words to describe familiar objects and events. It has been pointed out by a number of linguists that three cultural conditions are necessary for the creation of a large body of slang expressions. First, the introduction and acceptance of new objects and situations in the society; second, a diverse population with a large number of subgroups; third, association among the subgroups and the majority population.

Finally, it is worth noting that the terms "standard" "colloquial" and "slang" exist only as abstract labels for scholars who study language. Only a tiny number of the speakers of any language will be aware that they are using colloquial or slang expressions. Most speakers of English will, during appropriate situations, select and use all three types of expressions.

If by "suburb" is meant an urban margin that grows more rapidly than its already developed interior, the process of suburbanization began during the emergence of the industrial city in the second quarter of the nineteenth century. Before that period the city was a small highly compact cluster in which people moved about on foot and goods were conveyed by horse and cart. But the early factories built in the 1840’s were located along waterways and near railheads at the edges of cities, and housing was needed for the thousands of people drawn by the prospect of employment. In time, the factories were surrounded by proliferating mill towns of apartments and row houses that abutted the older, main cities. As a defense against this encroachment and to enlarge their tax bases, the cities appropriated their industrial neighbors. In 1854, for example, the city of Philadelphia annexed most of Philadelphia County. Similar municipal maneuvers took place in Chicago and in New York. Indeed, most great cities of the United States achieved such status only by incorporating the communities along their borders.

With the acceleration of industrial growth came acute urban crowding and accompanying social stress-conditions that began to approach disastrous proportions when, in 1888, the first commercially successful electric traction line was developed. Within a few years the horse-drawn trolleys were retired and electric streetcar networks crisscrossed and connected every major urban area, fostering a wave of suburbanization that transformed the compact industrial city into a dispersed metropolis. This first phase of mass-scale suburbanization was reinforced by the simultaneous emergence of the urban Middle Class, whose desires for homeownership in neighborhoods far from the aging inner city were satisfied by the developers of single-family housing tracts.

The American Revolution was not a sudden and violent overturning of the political and social framework, such as later occurred in France and Russia, when both were already independent nations. Significant changes were ushered in, but they were not breathtaking. What happened was accelerated evolution rather than outright revolution. During the conflict itself people went on working and praying, marrying and playing. Most of them were not seriously disturbed by the actual fighting, and many of the more isolated communities scarcely knew that a war was on.

America’s War of Independence heralded the birth of three modern nations. One was Canada, which received its first large influx of English-speaking population from the thousands of loyalists who fled there from the United States. Another was Australia, which became a penal colony now that America was no longer available for prisoners and debtors. The third newcomer-the United States-based itself squarely on republican principles.

Yet even the political overturn was not so revolutionary as one might suppose. In some states, notably Connecticut and Rhode Island, the war largely ratified a colonial self-rule already existing. British officials, everywhere ousted, were replaced by a home-grown governing class, which promptly sought a local substitute for king and Parliament.

Andrew Carnegie, known as the King of Steel, built the steel industry in the United States, and , in the process, became one of the wealthiest men in America. His success resulted in part from his ability to sell the product and in part from his policy of expanding during periods of economic decline, when most of his competitors were reducing their investments.

Carnegie believed that individuals should progress through hard work, but he also felt strongly that the wealthy should use their fortunes for the benefit of society. He opposed charity, preferring instead to provide educational opportunities that would allow others to help themselves. "He who dies rich, dies disgraced," he often said.

Among his more noteworthy contributions to society are those that bear his name, including the Carnegie Institute of Pittsburgh, which has a library, a museum of fine arts, and a museum of national history. He also founded a school of technology that is now part of Carnegie-Mellon University. Other philanthrophic gifts are the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace to promote understanding between nations, the Carnegie Institute of Washington to fund scientific research, and Carnegie Hall to provide a center for the arts.

Few Americans have been left untouched by Andrew Carnegie’s generosity. His contributions of more than five million dollars established 2,500 libraries in small communities throughout the country and formed the nucleus of the public library system that we all enjoy today.

Television—–the most pervasive and persuasive of modern technologies, marked by rapid change and growth-is moving into a new era, an era of extraordinary sophistication and versatility, which promises to reshape our lives and our world. It is an electronic revolution of sorts, made possible by the marriage of television and computer technologies.

The word "television", derived from its Greek (tele: distant) and Latin (visio: sight) roots, can literally be interpreted as sight from a distance. Very simply put, it works in this way: through a sophisticated system of electronics, television provides the capability of converting an image (focused on a special photoconductive plate within a camera) into electronic impulses, which can be sent through a wire or cable. These impulses, when fed into a receiver (television set), can then be electronically reconstituted into that same image.

Television is more than just an electronic system, however. It is a means of expression, as well as a vehicle for communication, and as such becomes a powerful tool for reaching other human beings.

The field of television can be divided into two categories determined by its means of transmission. First, there is broadcast television, which reaches the masses through broad-based airwave transmission of television signals. Second, there is nonbroadcast television, which provides for the needs of individuals or specific interest groups through controlled transmission techniques.

Traditionally, television has been a medium of the masses. We are most familiar with broadcast television because it has been with us for about thirty-seven years in a form similar to what exists today. During those years, it has been controlled, for the most part, by the broadcast networks, ABC, NBC, and CBS, who have been the major purveyors of news, information, and entertainment. These giants of broadcasting have actually shaped not only television but our perception of it as well. We have come to look upon the picture tube as a source of entertainment, placing our role in this dynamic medium as the passive viewer.

There are many theories about the beginning of drama in ancient Greece. The on most widely accepted today is based on the assumption that drama evolved from ritual. The argument for this view goes as follows. In the beginning, human beings viewed the natural forces of the world-even the seasonal changes-as unpredictable, and they sought through various means to control these unknown and feared powers. Those measures which appeared to bring the desired results were then retained and repeated until they hardened into fixed rituals. Eventually stories arose which explained or veiled the mysteries of the rites. As time passed some rituals were abandoned, but the stories, later called myths, persisted and provided material for art and drama.

Those who believe that drama evolved out of ritual also argue that those rites contained the seed of theater because music, dance, masks, and costumes were almost always used, Furthermore, a suitable site had to be provided for performances and when the entire community did not participate, a clear division was usually made between the "acting area" and the "auditorium." In addition, there were performers, and, since considerable importance was attached to avoiding mistakes in the enactment of rites, religious leaders usually assumed that task. Wearing masks and costumes, they often impersonated other people, animals, or supernatural beings, and mimed the desired effect-success in hunt or battle, the coming rain, the revival of the Sun-as an actor might. Eventually such dramatic representations were separated from religious activities.

Another theory traces the theater’s origin from the human interest in storytelling. According to this vies tales (about the hunt, war, or other feats) are gradually elaborated, at first through the use of impersonation, action, and dialogue by a narrator and then through the assumption of each of the roles by a different person. A closely related theory traces theater to those dances that are primarily rhythmical and gymnastic or that are imitations of animal movements and sounds.

The modern age is an age of electricity. People are so used to electric lights, radio, televisions, and telephones that it is hard to imagine what life would be like without them. When there is a power failure, people grope about in flickering candlelight, cars hesitate in the streets because there are no traffic lights to guide them, and food spoils in silent refrigerators.

Yet, people began to understand how electricity works only a little more than two centuries ago. Nature has apparently been experimenting in this field for million of years. Scientists are discovering more and more that the living world may hold many interesting secrets of electricity that could benefit humanity.

All living cell send out tiny pulses of electricity. As the heart beats, it sends out pulses of record; they form an electrocardiogram, which a doctor can study to determine how well the heart is working. The brain, too, sends out brain waves of electricity, which can be recorded in an electroencephalogram. The electric currents generated by most living cells are extremely small – often so small that sensitive instruments are needed to record them. But in some animals, certain muscle cells have become so specialized as electrical generators that they do not work as muscle cells at all. When large numbers of these cell are linked together, the effects can be astonishing.

The electric eel is an amazing storage battery. It can seed a jolt of as much as eight hundred volts of electricity through the water in which it live. ( An electric house current is only one hundred twenty volts.) As many as four-fifths of all the cells in the electric eel’s body are specialized for generating electricity, and the strength of the shock it can deliver corresponds roughly to length of its body.