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文/DoNews博客作家 miss2010

6月正是京东的店庆月,然而却引发了电商巨头对京东的围堵。学生党一个,非专业人士,认识免不了仍有局限性,抛砖引玉,欢迎大家发表高见。

以“价格战”迅速崛起的京东,如今正面临苏宁、国美的低价围攻;而与此同时,京东正极力通过提高毛利率来平衡高企的运营成本,这个任务将如何完成?

过去八年,京东商城年平均增长率超过200%但至今一直亏损。它过去的价格战主要还是针对传统的B2C企业如当当、天猫等,虽然京东在国内电商如此混战的情形下还能够顺利转型,并保持一个生猛的发展势头,但是在如今的环境下,苏宁易购的崛起、国美的转变、加上传统电商的围攻,京东的处境不太乐观,靠资本驱动的京东要在当前的夹缝中求发展,面临巨大挑战。

虚弱的采购者

采购的渠道与形式,直接决定了商品的价格,虽然京东现有的影响力,已经于很多厂家有了较为深入的合作,但是与国美、苏宁两大千亿集团比价,京东商城缺乏的是强势的采购能力。何况国美、苏宁还有强大的线下渠道。同时京东商城由于涉足品类、品牌众多,导致其单一品牌的采购量有限,因此,大部分产品只能通过代理商拿货。

看到一个数据说,京东商城的采购体系中,60%多的产品品类是通过各级代理商拿货,而不足40%的是厂商直供。因此尤其在大家电等领域,京东的采购价格是不占优势的。

采购方面,目前京东抓住个别品牌进行深入合作是一个很好的形式,之前京东和京东方在液晶电视上的合作,还有一些品牌做了京东专供,都是一个合作的先例。在采购渠道上的弱势,不知京东会以什么样的形式来弥补。

物流难占优

京东的自建物流无疑是京东服务总体提升一个台阶的重要手段。在过去的发展过程中,物流、仓储等方面的投资于建设也一直是京东的一个重要的战略,然而和国美、苏宁这些传统的巨头相比,京东很大的一个短板就是门店。

前两年苏宁、国美做线上B2C一直处在一个左右手互博的处境,即线上销售和门店的销售相冲突,所以一直没有铁了心来做B2C。但在面临京东强势的进攻之后,特别是在大家电领域咄咄逼人的攻势,让苏宁、国美铁了心要做好线上平台了,因此和线下门店的整合是大势所趋。国美、苏宁全国的门店网络在1000家以上,覆盖城市达到700座,而京东的服务网络目前还只能覆盖100座城市,因此,如果这两家在下定决心充分整合线下平台,对京东的物流以及服务体系将是一个沉重的打击。

目前,在传统门店的整合方面,国美和苏宁在进行着各自的部署。刚刚完成对库巴全资控股的国美电器,全力推动其旗下两大平台库巴网以及新锐美(国美电器网上商城)供应链系统和物流系统的对接。而苏宁电器董事长张近东向全国苏宁做出了明确部署:有苏宁电器的地方就要有苏宁易购!
在国美、苏宁对物流进行整合调整的同时,京东却无法再忍受巨大的物流成本。2011年11月,京东商城宣布对39 元以下订单收取5元运费,结束了多年来“全场免运费”的政策。因此京东前期投入巨大的物流战略相对于国美、苏宁的优势并不是很明显。如何整合前期投入巨大的物流和仓储服务,进一步提升服务水平,是京东非常大的一个挑战。

全网低价不再可能

从价格上,京东想要在全部商品实现“全网最低价”也几乎不可能。它面临的价格战对手不再只是当当和卓越,还包括国美、苏宁各自的线上销售平台,以及家电品牌供应商或大的渠道代理商依托淘宝平台开办的旗舰店。同时由于在采购渠道以及资金方面并不占据优势,靠低价继续攻城略地已经不太可能,曾经是京东商城惯用的“价格屠刀”,如今却成为对手的杀伤性武器。

如今各大电商的价格战矛头均直指京东,从4月份苏宁易购发动强大的价格攻势后,京东一直没有大规模的回应,而6月是京东传统的店庆月,而京东掀起的“京东诺曼底”的价格战,却变成了其他电商巨头对京东的一次集体围攻。

失去低价这个京东的惯用武器,京东下一步何去何从很值得关注。

转载请注明 DoNews博客认证作家/miss2010


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