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文/DoNews博客作家 GAVIN_X

2008年,贴图网站4chan和社交新闻网站Reddit上的几幅用windows画笔创作的简易表情在网络上迅速走红,并以“Rage Comic”的模式成为了广大网友快速分享糗事、段子的最佳途径之一。

去年,Rage Comic被国内网友以“暴走漫画”的模式引入中国,并逐渐出现在各大社交网络中。不过,最近有国内公司为“Rage Comic”申请了著作权登记,并开展了周边的贩卖。那么,这一类的网络表情,谁都可以用来赚钱吗?

在谈到具体的著作权问题之前,不得不从一系列相对枯燥公约和法律条文说起:中国《著作权法》中第2条规定:“中国公民、法人或者其它组织的作品,不论是否发表,依照本法享有著作权。”《著作权法实施条例》第6条规定:“著作权自作品创作完成之日起产生。”同样,在美国的著作权法中也有相似的内容。也就是说,不论是“Rage Comic”,还是那些网络上爆红的原创表情,它们的著作权自作者创作完成的那一刹那,都属于原作者。

1886年,维克多•雨果等文学艺术家在瑞士的伯尔尼发起并缔结了一份关于著作权保护的国际条约,即《保护文学和艺术作品伯尔尼公约》,中国和美国都是该条约的缔约国。合约规定,作品在其他成员国应受到与本国公民相同的保护。所以,无论是在中国还是美国,这些作品都应当受到保护。

但自从人类会画画以来,创作出来的作品简直不计其数。著作权不同于专利权、商标权,其他人完全可能独立创作出相同的或类似的作品,如果侵权人对原作品刻意进行某些程度的演绎,然后以独立创作为由抗辩,就会导致侵权判定标准不易掌握。

那么,又该如何判定两幅图片的作品是否为抄袭复制,还是各自独立的创作呢?在实践中,通常采取下面的办法:

一般来说,只要法官或者陪审团以正常人的理解能力能够判断两幅图片作品来自于同一个艺术构思,就可以认定这两幅作品之间的抄袭被抄袭关系,对作品细节上的改动不能改变这种判断的结果。比如在雅芳婷布艺实业公司侵权“白白猪”一案中,尽管侵权产品中的“蘑菇猪”与原作有细节、动作上的不同,但仍被认定侵权。

如果原告一方举证了被告的作品与原告作品存在相似之处,被告就负有证明自己的作品是独立创作的义务,即证明自己没有条件接触到原告的作品(当然原告也可以举证被告能够接触到该作品并加以利用)。如果被告无法举证,则会被推定抄袭了原告作品。

商业使用属侵权

许多网络表情都是一种宽泛的漫画形式,通过预制的模板和素材让没有绘画基础的人也能完成完整的漫画设计。所以,在讨论这一类网络表情的著作权问题时,也应分为两部分来看:

对于组成漫画的基本图案和素材,比如“姚明脸”、“Forever Alone”等等图案来说,著作权属于原始作者。尽管这些图案的原始出处很难考证,一些图案的原作者也只是网站上的匿名网友,但这仍然不妨碍著作权的归属。而用户利用漫画编辑器创作的故事,著作权则属于用户本身。

对于一般用户来说,我们通常只会使用这些网络表情发个微博,写写帖子,在QQ里进行吐槽之类。这类行为属于个人行为,我们也没有通过这些手段获取任何商业利润,所以并不算侵权行为。

但如果有人使用这些网友创作的表情与图案进行商业活动,比如卖周边、拍电影等行为的话,就侵犯了原作者的财产著作权。去年,日本株式会社万代(BANDAI)诉汕头市澄海区泓利电子玩具实业有限公司侵权案,就是因为这家中国公司自行生产“敢达”玩具(感谢@馒头家的花卷指正标准译名!),被中国法院判处赔偿87万元(该案件已经执行完毕)。

同样,如果有公司或者个人宣称这些网络表情是自己的作品,那么则侵犯了著作人身权(署名权、保护作品完整权),原作者同样可以通过法律途径维护自己的权利。

网络表情,维权难

在中国,著作权登记采取自愿登记原则,不具有强制性。著作权登记是公示著作权状态的一种手段,其目的是为维护著作权人和作品使用者的合法权益,有助于解决因著作权归属造成的著作权纠纷,并为解决著作权纠纷提供初步证据。

在司法实践中,如果著作权主张者提交了《作品登记证书》,一般即可认为其拥有争议作品的著作权。但登记机关对登记事项仅作形式审查,不作实质审查,故如有相反证据,如他人更早完成发表使用作品等证据,则法院可直接否定著作权登记人享有著作权。

所以,如果有人、或者公司拿着这些网络表情去中国版权保护中心登记的话,版权保护中心并不会对这些作品的原创性进行审核。不过,这种行为实际上是违反《作品自愿登记试行办法》第六条的,应属于会被撤销的登记(既该作品并非登记者原创,与事实不相符)。同样,当这样的公司或个人,凭借这样的“著作权”来起诉他人侵犯自己的著作权时,被告也可以以原告自身也没有著作权来进行抗辩。

虽然利用网络表情牟利的行为违反了《著作权法》,但由于只有原权利人才可以发起诉讼,并维护自己的权利。所以,在一些表情的原作者十分分散,且不可考证的情况下,指望着能有人站出来维护自己的利益,显得非常困难。这也是为什么,知识产权诉讼已经逐渐变成大公司之间的游戏了,一般网民的权利很难保障:维权成本太高,收益获得太难。

DoNews博客认证作家/GAVIN_X


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