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18年,中国互联网的产品墓场

互联网逐渐在由一个新生事物转为日常生活的一部分,曾经谈“网”色变、要用电击去治疗“网瘾”的昨天尽管荒诞,却也融入到了历史的痕迹当中。

CNNIC的调查报告显示,中国城市网民人口的增长趋势正在放缓,互联网正在渗透至乡镇和农村区域,网民亦开始呈现新老生代的差别。

时间的动态特质在“互联网”这个东西上得到了最为充分的释放和展示,从拨号上网到白兆光纤,从HTML到DIV+CSS,从桌面终端到移动终端,信息的更迭也让一个接一个的网络热词被创造,被热捧,最后又被迅速遗忘。

德国哲学家海德格尔对存在主义的定义是:“存在是存在者的存在,存在者存在是该存在者能够对其它存在者实施影响或相互影响的本源,也是能被其它有意识能力存在者感知、认识、判断、利用的本源”,他继承了尼采而颠覆了笛卡尔,认为“死亡”是“存在”的损失,前者一旦到来,随即则等同于剥夺了后者的可能性。

如果以Chinanet始建的1995年为标尺,中国互联网已经走过了十八个年头,我们一度有四家网站跻身全球流量前十的榜单之中(2006年Alexa:百度新浪搜狐腾讯),CN域名的注册数量也超过了30万个,杭州的电子商务企业阿里巴巴能够在一天之内达到181亿的网络销售额,腾讯的微信则刚刚获取了它的第一亿名海外用户。

然而,一将功成万骨枯——商业市场并不会给予落败者太多的怜悯,或因为竞争失利,或因落伍遭弃,或因经营不善,或因政策打击,中国互联网也有着一片产品墓场,那些曾经闻名遐迩的落败者在这里长眠封存,历史或许会记录它们,但时间最终注定不会记得它们。

就像一句老话:“生老病死,时至则行”。

仅仅作为见证者,我走进这片雾霾弥漫的墓场,在碑林中翻寻那些显赫一时的名字。并不身怀死而复生的技艺,只是出于多愁善感的某种情结,重温一些可能没有太多人会在乎的故事。

被誉为“先烈”的第一个名字

18年——中国互联网的产品墓场

“中国人离信息高速公路有多远?向北1500米——瀛海威时空。”

1996年,北京中关村南大门立起了这块广告牌,设计、配色、字体都可以称得上“土鳖”二字,但这被认为是中国互联网的一个起点。在中国电信的ChinaNet骨干网络都尚未落成的时候,从中科院“下海”、做传呼机生意赚了第一桶金的辽宁人张树新创办了瀛海威信息通信公司,拿下了中国第一个互联网接入服务(ISP)的资格。一边帮着中国电信推广互联网业务,一边模仿美国在线(AOL)建立中国的信息交互中心。

林军在《沸腾十五年》中详细描述过瀛海威的兴衰起落,按照张树新自己的话来讲,瀛海威成于超前,也败于超前,作为中国互联网的启蒙单位,瀛海威获得了极高的未经稀释的关注度,在盈利有限的情况下就可以轻易的卖股份融资,中国兴发集团于1996年投了瀛海威5000万人民币,将张树新推向了辉煌而短暂的顶峰。由于瀛海威希望独立于中国电信之外向网民提供整套的网络接入及收费服务,瀛海威很快成为了中国电信的敌人,后者开始尝试从邮电部门中分拆出来亲自进入市场,渐进式的将瀛海威的客户一个又一个的撬到中国电信的服务内,而在流量变现根本就是一个未解之谜的上世纪九十年代,瀛海威也难以找到向用户收费的渠道,内外交困的局面仅仅维持到了1998年,因为与投资方发生冲突,张树新宣布辞职,成为了中国早期ISP的殉道者之一。

在剖析瀛海威去势的论调中,瀛海威那场著名的政治宣传项目“网上延安”被公认为是败笔之一,为了配合爱国主义教育,同时也出于借势捆绑传播瀛海威的品牌认知,张树新主导瀛海威做了一档最终耗时三年也没能完成的“网上延安”信息专题,在张树新的计划当中,“网上延安”会将延安的红色历史搬到网站上,然后通过教委组织全国中小学生观看进行爱国主义教育,进而向学生家长普及瀛海威的业务。

时间不仅改变了瀛海威的结局,也改变了张树新的信仰。2008年,人民网旗下的强国论坛举办了一次在线交流,邀请瀛海威与网友就互联网相关话题互动,强国论坛有过一些引导性的问题设计,想借“中国互联网教母”之口来表达一些特定看法,但是张树新的回答相当出色,节选部分放在下面:

问:你听说过网络暴力吗?你认为现在是根除暴力的最佳时机吗?

答:听说过。如果现实社会中的暴力根源不根除,人心中的暴力因素日趋增长,互联网的暴力也不可能根除。我说过互联网其实是现实社会的镜子,只不过某些被现实压抑的部分在那个镜子中会更加放大而已。

问:你怎样看待网络游戏对广大青少年的毒害作用?

答:如果青少年的学校不那么无聊,老师不那么可恶,课程不再都是应试,也许网络游戏对青少年的吸引力未必有今天那么大。还是这句话,互联网只是技术平台,它会更大程度的反映人们在现实社会中的压抑愿望。中国的青少年对网络游戏的依赖尤其为甚,其实和中国现阶段的家庭与社会的教育模式、非常单一的功利性知识系统都密切相关,这是个太复杂的问题,牵涉到社会心理学,很难讨论罪与罚。

问:张女士,我把您看成神话般、史诗般的人物。您说“如果没有互联网以及全球一体化,中国的开放探索可能几次都会退回来。”指的是什么?

答:中国的改革开放是中华民族历史上从未有过的,其复杂与艰难程度超乎想象。当遇到挫折时,很自然有各种声音,大家可能听说过很多“左”和“右”方面的争论,包括今年还有很多人在怀念毛时代。自上而下的改革自有其脆弱性,当遇到困难及利益阻力时,停滞和向回走时常发生,毕竟我们的特色是政治和经济的改革高度不对称。但在开放系统中,民众的声音与国际社会会平衡逆行的力量,大家都知道,现阶段的朝鲜是绝对不会有互联网的。

问:有人说网络到处是陷阱、网络言论不可信、要打击网络暴力等等对网络的负面言论,你如何看这种鼓噪?

答:我想脏水和孩子不该一起倒掉。

含着“金钥匙”出生的第二个名字

18年——中国互联网的产品墓场

“提问:如何证明你是一个老网民?回答:FM365。”

FM365是联想距离互联网最近的一次机会,也是最惨的一次教训。

1994年,柳传志带领联想集团在香港上市,手握30亿港元,开始放眼硬件生产以外的互联网市场。与瀛海威类似,借助ISP接入的契机,联想逆市进入,在1999年11月发布联想天禧I个人电脑产品时,隆重推出FM365网站,试图以每年几百万台的出货量来奠定网站的覆盖率。与瀛海威不同的是,联想有着充足的资金保证互联网项目的投入,这给了FM365相对稳定的环境。

作为彼时已经相当成熟的大型集团企业,FM365并不是一个草率的决定,联想有着相当完善的规划,即“接入、FM365、垂直网站”这样三点一线的经营模式,在接入端,联想通过电脑终端占领用户的硬件入口,其后借助照搬AOL模式的FM365留住用户,最后将流量导给联想并购而来的垂直网站(财经网站赢时通、教育网站新东方在线、旅游网站国旅)进行变现。

十余年后,百度CEO李彦宏提出“中间页”概念,其实与联想当时对FM365的设定并无太大区别。

由于占据硬件入口这一优势,FM365的推出后一年之内就达到了全国排名前五的访问量,赶超新浪的声音开始不绝于耳,蓝色光标从那时起就是联想的公关代理公司,他们也为FM365制定了“新三大门户网站”的宣传方案,将263、TOM和FM365锚定为新生代门户网站的代表。

然而,互联网泡沫的到来摧毁了富二代FM365,至始至终依靠联想输血、没有真正踏上过竞争赛场的FM365错误的估算了流量价值,在与AOL各投一亿美元成立合资公司进行运营之后,联想发现按照FM365的营业增速,这笔投资可能超过五十年都无法收回来,而AOL则高姿态的制定了相当昂贵的许可费,使FM365陷入了入不敷出的境地。

2002年,联想计划投资30亿进入房地产行业,间接宣告了联想对于互联网业务的淡漠。同时,新浪、搜狐和网易则站稳脚跟,开始通过门户资源运作广告及SP等商业项目,收入成型,这让FM365彻底失去了机会。

2004年,已经出于无人管理的FM365项目,忘记续费域名,被蔡文胜抢注。蔡文胜当时谎称FM365的域名“被美国一家公司注册”,后被自己耗资12万美元买下,后被查实所谓的“美国公司”其实是美国域名管理机构NSI,FM365的域名只是正常到期,蔡文胜花了100美元在60天保护期结束之后抢注了这个域名,并将域名指向自己旗下的265网址导航站。

蔡文胜说,当时FM365域名给265仍然能够带来一天几十万的流量,那些将浏览器首页绑定为FM365的联想电脑用户最后都成了265的用户。

“连个域名都保不住”让联想的形象大受损失,经过一些手段,蔡文胜“无偿”将FM365域名归还给了联想,但是联想则已经没有新的互联网计划,FM365长期只是指向联想的官方网站,再无任何动作。

“顺势”自然死亡的第三个名字

18年——中国互联网的产品墓场

“由于产品重新规划的需要,网易聊天室将于2008年11月1日0时起停止运营。”

2008年10月21日,网易宣布关停聊天室产品。

我当时写了一篇文章《网易聊天室即将关闭,中国互联网彻底告别单纯时代》,贴到了天涯社区的IT视界版面,迎来四百余篇“忆苦思甜”式的跟帖。(2012年8月,这张帖子又被顶了起来,一名天涯的老网友“扯犊子的基友”跟帖回复:“上次看到这篇文章的时候,我还没有女朋友。现在我小孩两岁了。”)

聊天室是互联网初级阶段的典型产物,简单、直接、松散,也是对互联网自由精神的经典应用——没有社交关系、没有准入制门槛、没有数据储存,只是提供公共的场域,然后连接天南海北素未谋面的人们。

网易是国内最早提供聊天室服务的网站之一,网易聊天室一度负载了5万人同时在线聊天,它与碧海银沙、搜狐聊天室构成了中国早期网民的互动中心。CNNIC在2000年的统计数字显示,网络聊天室是38.8%的网民最常使用的网络服务之一,是中国互联网的前五大应用之一。

不过,聊天室也是一个过早衰败的产品,网易聊天室与其说是撑到了2008年,不如说是被搁置在那儿一直持续到了2008年。经历QQ、论坛、网游等冲击,聊天室自从2004年之后就已经开始走下坡路了,年轻人纷纷离开,剩下的只有习惯聊天室模式的少部分中年群体,而聊天室的内容,则很自然的偏向于情感层面。

由于聊天室的加入门槛很低,许多聊天室内进驻了卖春群体,通过群发广告来招揽客户,这让聊天室担负起了法律风险,网易北京、上海、杭州三大聊天室被改造成了“买春圣地”,网易不断加大监管投入,而聊天室本身的商业增收又停滞不前,这让网易聊天室沦为了被抛弃的一枚棋子。

生态平衡一旦遭到破坏,带来的波及定然是“一损俱损”的——当灰色信息充斥聊天室空间,迫使仅存的有着聊天需求的网友不堪其扰逐渐退出,最后剩下的只有行尸走肉般的空壳。网易聊天室在被关闭前夕,在线人数不过千余人,抛开Robot,真实用户所剩无几。

不过,在2008年10月31日,网易聊天室的在线用户暴增,接近五千余人,在那最后一晚,许多老网民重新登陆到了网易聊天室,在聊天室的窗口里敲下“再见”,为网易聊天室的落幕划上了沉重的句号。

被称作“大骗子”的第四个名字

18年——中国互联网的产品墓场

雅虎不是把终生邮箱当一个产品来经营的,我们要打造的是用户可以从一而终、共同度过的人生伙伴。”

2013年4月18日,阿里巴巴发布公告,称中国雅虎邮箱将启动整体迁移计划,将用户数据转至阿里云邮箱,而原来的中国雅虎邮箱则将于2013年8月19日停止服务。

颇具黑色幽默的是,中国雅虎曾在2007年推出了“终生邮箱”服务——现在搜索“雅虎 + 终生邮箱”的关键词,仍能看到当年中国雅虎发出的新闻通稿:“我们认为所谓终生邮箱,至少是要符合四个标准,即无限容量的空间、个性易记的ID、安全可靠的品质、值得信赖的品牌。只有全部满足这四个方面,才能真正实现让用户安心无忧、永不删信、收藏一生邮件与故事的心愿。雅虎不是把终生邮箱当一个产品来经营的,我们要打造的是用户可以从一而终、共同度过的人生伙伴。”

看来,无论是男朋友、政治家还是商业巨头,“承诺”这玩意都是引鱼上钩的诱饵,目的实现或者兴趣转移,都会轻易暴露出“承诺”的空头支票属性。

雅虎似乎拥有着触犯用户的天然基因,今年6月,雅虎在美国推行新的措施,宣布它将清理无效(长期未登录使用)的电子邮箱帐号,然后将空出来的帐号释放给新用户抢注,这也引起过老用户的大规模抗议。就在前不久,美国《堪萨斯城星报》的体育记者Martin Manley在其60岁生日当天自杀,他在自杀前注册了域名martinmanleylifeanddeath.com,并托管到了雅虎的空间上,预付了5年的费用,上面记录了自己的自杀原因。而在其自杀之后仅过了一天,雅虎就关闭了他的网站,理由是违反了服务条款。雅虎的服务条款声明,托管合同是不可转让的,将在用户死亡后终止,该用户已经自杀,所以雅虎关闭网站并未违反合同。

邮箱产品有着一定的特殊性,因为它除了向用户提供邮件通讯服务之外,还是许多互联网服务的注册纽带,一旦注销,那么极有可能对用户使用其他互联网服务造成影响,如找回密码等。受此牵连,新浪微博在“微博帮助”中添加了“雅虎邮箱注册用户更换微博登录名流程”,指导用户平稳过渡注册邮箱,企业和用户因此而增加的成本,也没办法找中国雅虎追讨。

也有传言,梅耶尔即将说服雅虎董事会回购阿里巴巴所持有的中国雅虎运营权,所以阿里巴巴是在过河拆桥,保持用户资产在自己的掌控之下,而只给雅虎留一个空壳。

不过,无论原因如何,用户都不希望作为“资产”被企业挪来用去。

成为过“现象”的第五个名字

18年——中国互联网的产品墓场

“帮你除草、杀虫,对你示好的人,来你家的真实目的可能并不是这个,而是看你有没有可偷的东西。”

2013年8月20日,人人网宣布关闭开心农场的全部服务器,结束了用户的偷菜乐趣。

2009年,《中国日报》评选出了年度十大网络热词,“偷菜”即是其中之一,《中国日报》给出评价:“‘偷菜’流行,缘于与网络‘寂寞’文化共生的空虚感,大背景是阶层板结和‘未富先懒’的社会心态。”

这么说似乎有些“为赋新词强说愁”,不过“偷菜”在2009年的确是媒体的宠儿,围绕着开心农场这款社交游戏,记者们有太多的趣闻可以写成报道,女白领半夜起床偷菜影响白天工作、史上技术最高女司机一边开车一边偷菜、男子网上偷菜不过瘾潜入菜地找刺激被拘三天、绵阳女子半夜忙偷菜被老公掌掴打穿耳膜……这些耸人听闻的标题党填满了当年媒体的社会版面,诺基亚甚至在推出一款手机(N900)时将“可以支持偷菜等网页游戏”加入宣传稿件中。

不过,在人人网关闭开心农场这一事件中必须澄清的是,曾经火爆的农场类游戏其实是开心网的开心农场和腾讯的QQ农场,人人网的这个开心农场其实用户规模不大,只是事件本身的象征意义太大了——SNS类社交网站在力压论坛和博客、风光一阵之后迅速被后起的微博超过,单纯依靠社交游戏获得的活跃用户来得快去得也快,这让中国以Facebook为原型的社交网站至今举步维艰。

2011年的时候,开心农场的开发和运营商“五分钟”曾与新浪微博联合成立了一家基于新浪微博上的社交游戏平台——即现在的“微游戏”前身,可是后来依然无法吸引到预期目标的用户量,被新浪微博以转股的方式收购为自家产品,最后投向网页游戏联运的结果。

而开心农场的参照对象、Zynga旗下的Farm Ville从最高的8300万活跃用户暴跌到3000万活跃用户,仅仅只经过了6个月——社交游戏寿命过短,这是其天生的短板,开心农场在中国火了近2年,已算奇迹。

被“战略抛弃”的第六个名字

18年——中国互联网的产品墓场

“找音乐用百度,找电影用狗狗。”

用“命途多舛”来形容狗狗搜索,并不过分。

狗狗搜索本是多玩和YY的创始人李学凌在2004年离开网易后的第一个创业项目,主推资源类的垂直服务,雷军看好,投了100万,3年后卖给了迅雷,成为迅雷“大下载”战略中的一部分。

狗狗搜索曾经表现出了成为入口的强劲冲力,在迅雷的推广之下,狗狗搜索与资源提供站点达成了收录协议,通过关键词搜索,用户即可找到全网的下载资源,并关联迅雷软件进行下载。

迅雷的CEO邹胜龙在2010年的时候还自信满满的认为狗狗搜索让迅雷有资格去搅动百度一家独大的搜索市场,“迅雷开始尝试用搜索引擎技术做下载。之前没有人这样做过,我们是真正的创新,下载速度很快。人在等待下载的时候会很焦躁,突然给他一个很快的东西,他就一下子很容易记住你,所以我们根本没有花过市场宣传费它就推广起来了。”

唯一的问题是,作为由用户在本地启动的软件,迅雷在下载侵权文件时享有避风港原则的庇护,但是狗狗搜索涉及到联网索引,帮助用户搭建桥梁,这对迅雷来说,是实打实的法律风险。

于是,狗狗搜索一边壮大,一边为迅雷带来一宗又一宗的法律诉讼,直到2011年,邹胜龙打算将迅雷带去美国上市,承销商摩根大通告诉他,带着狗狗搜索去美国,你还没拿到钱,钱就都在官司里输尽了。于是,狗狗搜索被“战略性”的舍弃,迅雷壮士断腕,将狗狗搜索以1万元人民币贱卖给了非关联第三方。

因为不满意估值,迅雷撤销了上市申请,但是狗狗搜索已经“处理”,再拿回来,就等于公示天下自己是意图玩弄纳斯达克,没有放弃上市理想的邹胜龙不得不雪藏了狗狗搜索,到了2013年5月,迅雷索性关闭了狗狗搜索,只留下了一个通知页面。

随着影视、音乐集团不遗余力的推动正版化,不少已经掘金成功的网站纷纷洗白,曾因提供盗版MP3在线试听和下载的百度也摇身一变,加入了正版音乐合作商的阵营。全球最大的BT种子服务器海盗湾迫于压力,在2012年永久关闭了网站的Tracker服务器,其联合创始人Gottfrid Svartholm Warg则在瑞典被捕入狱,获刑两年。

与狗狗搜索命运相仿的还有BTChina,2009年12月,中国最大的BT搜索引擎BTChina因为没有试听许可证而遭到强制关闭,《第一财经周刊》做了一期封面报道,命名为“晚安,BT”,悲观的认为BT下载时代就此结束。

但是,技术突破人们想象的速度,永远出乎意料。Tracker式的种子下载其实是“伪去中心化”的设计,用户需要下载资源,仍然需要通过种子来连接互联网,狗狗搜索、海盗湾、BTChina都需要服务器来储存种子信息,而这正在导致它们违背法律的原因。但是,2002年,纽约大学的两名教授Petar Maymounkov和David Mazières提出了Kademlia下载模型,即后来BT下载中的DHT协议,这是真正“去中心化”的P2P设计,大致原理就是即使没有Tracker服务器,用户也可以通过“磁力链”(Magnet Link)来关联资源,一个字符串就能蕴含一部资源,却没有中心节点,审查、跟踪以及追责都更加困难。如果你用过TorrentKitty或者“种子搜索神器”,你应该知道我说的意思。

不再有“领地”的第七个名字

18年——中国互联网的产品墓场

“我的领地,我的梦想。”

2013年6月,国内最大的免费论坛服务商5d6d向全体用户发布了最后一篇公告:“细心的领主可能已经发现,5d6d官方已经停访半个多月,实为下属论坛发布严重政治敏感信息,被责令关闭。这个月来公司领导多次与上级网安沟通、求情、做保证,终究没能逃开这‘责令关闭’的一纸文书。面对严竣的互联网形势和高强度的网络监管,5d6d两年前关闭新论坛申请,两年来5d6d破釜沉舟,走的每一步都小心翼翼,即使这样我们也一直没有放弃,源 源不断的提供服务器及人员支持,因为在我们心中一直留存着一份信仰‘做国内最好的免费论坛,将服务延续下去’,但是现在我们不得不折服在祖国高贵的制度衣裙下面。”

5d6d是康盛创想旗下的服务,初衷是希望通过提供免费论坛托管来推广康盛创想的Discuz系统,培养初级站长们的论坛体验。这项“挂羊头卖狗肉”的服务很快颠覆了康盛创想的预期,高峰时期每天在5d6d上注册的新站点超过上千个,缺乏技术和资金却又想过把建站瘾的海量用户让康盛创想感到惊诧,戴志康为5d6d配备了专项运营团队,目标就是抓住这些潜在客户,先养起来,再慢慢推收费方案。

为了向用户提供更好的“主人”体验,5d6d官方坚持技术支持的定位,并不直接干预新注册论坛的运作,如果用户愿意掏钱,康盛创想还可以让用户关联一个独立域名,搭建一个至少看上去是的独立论坛。

但是,这种散漫的管理模式最终导致内容监管的全面失控,工信部一度将5d6d的域名纳入黑名单,而康盛创想则紧急停止了新论坛的申请,并开始约束用户清理违规内容。

同时,5d6d的收费情况也不乐观,毕竟,能够接受寄人篱下的“站长”,大多都只是“玩玩”心态,不愿意过多投入,而且5d6d九成以上的论坛最终都成为人气低迷的死站,这样就进一步限制了5d6d的经营规模。

2010年8月,腾讯收购康盛创想,戴志康被抽离到腾讯的生活服务项目,加上用户对论坛的使用率持续下降,5d6d由盛转衰,最后还是倒在了监管难题上。

曾经“牛”过的第八个名字

18年——中国互联网的产品墓场

“关掉的原因跟政治压力、理想、信念、坚持之类的,以及运营成本都毫无关系,关掉的原因是,现在没什么人看博客了。”

2013年,罗永浩在新浪微博上宣布牛博国际站关闭,《博客天下》走访了牛博的资深博主以及除罗永浩的合伙人黄斌,字里行间满是惋惜,罗永浩盛赞报道很“靠谱”,也承认自己在理想主义的道路上“节节败退”。

2006年,罗永浩从新东方离职,赋闲的他开始积极更新新浪及搜狐的个人博客,但因常用脏字评论社会热点事件,几大博客托管服务商都会对其用词进行修改和屏蔽,这让罗永浩很恼火,萌生了自建博客平台的想法,牛博就此诞生,由于罗永浩的人格魅力,许多知名博客作者、学者、媒体人纷纷捧场,要么牛博开设博客,要么也授权罗永浩的牛博抓取其博客内容。

显然,政府部门不太喜欢这样一个不设审查岗位的博客平台,牛博网创办不到一个月就被拔过一次网线。从此,稳定一词彻底与牛博网无缘。

罗永浩在2008年接受《南都周刊》采访时说他并没有主动的去“顶住压力”,如果有关部门让删文章,他就删掉,只是不像其他网站那样主动的去判断风险。但这正是审查制度敌视的态度——审查制度的终极目标是让内容运营方形成自我评估的习惯,然后先于外部审查而主动阉割,让审查制度成为“核威慑”一样的存在。所以,牛博网的态度虽然并不强硬,但是过于消极,这让审查方的工作压力很大,一般网站,警告几次,就大致上明白尺度在那里,接下来就会自行产生监管规范,用不着审查制度时刻盯着,而牛博和罗永浩,显然属于麻木不仁且屡教不改的那种刺头。

所以牛博网成为了两种情绪交战的战场,政府不断关停它,而它的用户则又强烈希望对抗,这种矛盾还曾扩散到了向来远离纷争的豆瓣,文艺青年们在豆瓣发起了多项悼念牛博网的线上活动,豆瓣运营团队则忙不迭的接连删除。

2009年1月,北京市政府新闻办公室祭出大招,因为牛博网“大量登载时政类有害信息”,要求整改而未采取有效整改措施,直接让万网停掉了牛博网域名的解析。

罗永浩重新申请了域名,并将牛博网拆分成两个部分,一为牛博国际站,域名、服务器均在海外,另一个则是嫣(同阉)牛博,刨除了政治内容,在国内运行。不出意外,前者很快遭到屏蔽,不翻墙则不能访问,造成人气大跌,而后者则不被视作是完整的牛博,缺少用户的认同。

最终的结局是:2012年夏天,嫣牛博不能访问,2013年夏天,牛博国际被宣布关闭。

忙于锤子科技的罗永浩也不忘自嘲:“我有强烈的卫道精神,但是缺乏殉道的勇气和决心。”

充当过“网络风向标”的第九个名字

18年——中国互联网的产品墓场

“翠花,上酸菜!”

2001年,一首《东北人都是活雷锋》,让吉林人雪村(本名韩健)名满天下,而足以承担一般功劳的推动力,要算在那部Flash的作者Babylon头上,在那个带宽不算发达、多媒体信息贫瘠的年代,观赏Flash成为网民们摆脱论坛和聊天室内枯燥图文的唯一选择。

而全中国最有名的Flash网站,叫做闪客帝国。

2002年,闪客帝国注册用户突破100万,每天也有200万以上的流量,国内知名的“闪客”,如老蒋、卜晔都在闪客帝国上发布自己的作品。

此时,正值Flash在个人设计领域的鼎盛期,强大的表现能力和远远小于视频尺寸的文件格式,让Flash在网站和用户两端都很吃香。闪客帝国希望做成Flash的上传与播放平台,将作者资源整合到一起,再拿着作品去和SP谈,卖到其他网站和手机上,换来的收入,闪客帝国拿六成,作者拿四成。

好运伴随着闪客帝国,一直持续到2004年,Flash开始转向商用,优秀的Flash作者发现,相比音乐文化公司,有着制作网站需求的企业出手更加阔绰,与其导演编剧视觉一身扛着去做Flash作品,比如接受企业的外包工作,为企业装潢网站更加来得赚钱。

闪客帝国也面临转型选择,经过近五年的Flash发展,用户逐渐对于矢量化的动画风格产生审美疲劳,影视化的流媒体内容开始发力,看Flash的人正在减少。2005年,Flash的开发公司Macromedia投资了闪客帝国,将后者当成Flash软件的分销渠道,闪客帝国的平台特色被进一步削弱。

再往后,闪客帝国被困在赚钱这条道路上,就没有回过头——开培训学校、做手机定制动画、推原创动漫文化……但都没有起色。2009年,闪客帝国网站悄然关闭,而Flash也几乎全面转入商用领域,很少有人再去欣赏Flash动画作品了。

算是“耻辱柱”的第十个名字

18年——中国互联网的产品墓场

“因为急于求成,确实做了一些不注重用户感受的事,给用户带来了很多困扰,肯定是我做错了事情。”

3721,是周鸿祎迄今还未洗刷干净的“黑历史”。

这里面故事太多,而且经各方(包括周鸿祎本人)站在不同角度进行过解读,在这里就不多说。

2003年,周鸿祎将3721脱手给雅虎中国之后,将之改名为“雅虎助手”的雅虎中国刚刚准备借助可观的装机量大展身手,数年之后即被周鸿祎的360安全卫士杀得干干净净,雅虎中国的实际运营方阿里巴巴怒不可遏,马云也放出了绝不和周鸿祎发生任何业务往来的誓言。

2009年1月,雅虎中国调整方向为口碑路线,而雅虎助手则被正式宣布放弃,3721.com也被跳转到雅虎中国的首页。再晚一些时候,360日渐坐大,淘宝也与360在浏览器产品上开展了合作,马云撂下的狠话也就烟消云散得无影无踪了。

3721是一款开创流氓软件先河的产品,微软的ActiveX浏览器插件技术被3721利用到了极致,易安装、难卸载、耗资源是其三大特点,北京市网络行业协会曾将3721列为2005年度中国10大流氓软件之首。插件行业当时的反应是,周鸿祎胆子太大,那些恶意程序的代码其实大家都会用,但大都不敢用,只有周鸿祎毫无顾忌的都用上了。傅盛后来也证实,是3721首创了拦截其它软件下载安装、禁止其它软件对它的卸载等流氓方法。

但是,3721同时也以实践证明了中低端网民(俗称小白用户)的“可操控性”,这让周鸿祎及其门生在“创新”上找到了切入点。就像广告业的那句忠告:“千万不要将你的用户当做傻子,但是,也千万不要忘记你的用户就是傻子”,中国互联网开始有了“得屌丝者得天下”的说法。

周鸿祎看国共内战的书,得出结论:“蒋介石就是一个不称职的产品经理,蒋很聪明,也很兢兢业业,但天天就是身边的小圈子,他不知道真正的用户是几亿农民。老毛的用户是农民。农民不在乎什么议会斗争,搞土改分田地能打动所有的用户,国民党士兵能就地解放,所以作为产品经理要关注真正的用户。”

他似乎有意忽略了土改后来的实际结果,用胜败而非对错来定义事件性质,周鸿祎的本性一直没有变过。

更多的名字……

一起网、蚂蚁网、巨鲸音乐网、做啥、Follow 5、一塌糊涂、亿唐网、PPG、爱枣报、1984BBS、世纪中国、清韵书院、分贝网、Levelup、海内网、贪婪大陆、博客中国、8848、六月天空……

在刘慈欣的科幻小说《三体III》中,曾经提到要将信息保存一亿年的方法,U盘中的数据超过五千年就无法读取,如果换成光盘,在金属材料上花点功夫,可以将信息保存十万年,而特殊纸张和油墨做成的印刷品,则可以保证二十万年后仍能阅读,最终得出要将信息保存一亿年的方法,那就是将信息刻在石头上(人类可以在地球上找到一亿年前的恐龙脚印)。

这就是科技的荒谬之处,愈是先进,就愈是脆弱,反而是最为原始和笨重的方法,效果最好。

怀着敬畏,我带上了墓场的大门。那些名字归于阴暗,覆满尘埃,沉默的等候下一位祭拜者。


263条评论

  1. 推广小助手官网最新更新的是2011年 9月份的 版本号码:4.9.9

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