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今年的电商大新闻莫过于淘宝天猫的交易总额超过了1万亿元。但笔者关注的是电商的新业态是什么?没有业态支撑的电商规模是难以持续的。记得银泰集团的总裁沈国军说过一句话,大意是超市业态更适合西方人来做,百货业态更适合亚洲人来做。这句话值得细细品味。因为多数电商的标杆企业是亚马逊,亚马逊的标杆企业是沃尔玛。这一条路径或许违反了电子商务的发展规律,电子商务的新奇特应该带来百货的复兴,而不是规模更大的在线超市。将超市巨大的销量变成一批批个性化物流,想想北京该怎样堵车?

百货电商的经营至少有以下几个特点:一是工商联营。在超市的业态中,零售商和供应商的利益是比较对立的,而百货业态则存在工商联营的优势。现在有一种说法,百货业的衰落恰恰是因为联营占比高,百货企业应该自营为主,加大买手制的比重。其实工商联营恰恰可以下出好棋,淘宝和天猫的发展,一定程度上也是工商联营的翻版。工商利益如果冲突,从本质上是做不好零售的,而工商联营的模式有很大的创新空间。银泰网以及即将上线的王府井百货、大连万达将上演百货电商的好戏。之前电商习惯于单打独斗和冲击销量,而事实证明工商联营才是一条正路。

二是精品为主。百货和超市的区别在于百货要卖精品,而超市需要放量销售日常用品。需要脑筋急转弯的是,日常用品也可以做成精品,消费者可以少买一点,买精一点。淘宝的幸运在于根据地在浙江,浙江是中小企业王国,不乏一些精品制造。据说一些国外奢侈品的制造也外包给温州企业。意大利也是中小企业为主的国家,而凭借精湛的工艺而创造了很多世界知名的日用品牌。电商百货完全可以兼容并蓄,销售各国的品牌产品,形成品牌长尾。国内产能过剩,殊不知国外也产能过剩,一些国外品牌希望打开中国市场,百货电商的机会窗口正在打开。

三是垂直百货。百货行业真正的弱点是缺乏品类杀手的气质,其实百货也可以做得很垂直,围绕若干品类形成精品百货。百货电商新就新在垂直,选择成长性强的品类作为主导产品,将其做透。垂直百货电商集合了B2B与B2C的优点,所谓B2B就是工商联营,B2C则是垂直的品牌长尾。垂直百货再进一步就是ZARA的变种,品牌更新的节奏快,供应链速度跟得上。

四是内容营销和社会化营销。百货电商要卖文化,通人脉。内容营销和社会化营销既然是线上的优势,就应该发挥到极致。百货电商能催生一批内容型网站,严格地说导流量的美丽说等和内容型网站相比,后者才是流量之源。从网易出来的若干创业者都擅长做内容,YY上市是内容型网站的胜利。随后社交类网站和垂直化搜索公司也将走红,成为百货电商的支撑力。

五是O2O落地。这一点你懂的。O2O是水到渠成的事情。不需要多说。

电商百货的崛起会让更多的企业认识到,真正的商机在线上而不是在线下。象王府井百货如果线下多做几个店,需要几十亿的资金,而做电商几个亿就够了。从这个意义看,电商的投入远远不足。电商竞争的核心是业态的竞争,以上的描述是粗线条的,实际的电商百货是复合型的业态。


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