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文/DoNews著名作者 刘步尘

有人说,敌人从来都是自己一手制造出来的,当你看谁都是敌人的时候,你就成了别人眼中的敌人。

的确,这句话非常适合于黄光裕及其旗下的国美。

2012上半年财报显示,苏宁、国美的差距正在进一步拉大。黄光裕入狱及随后发生的“陈黄之争”,是国美的转折点

为什么国美给人留下的印象是内斗不止?业界一般认为,结症在于国美企业文化及价值取向出了问题。

研究国美企业文化,你会发现有如下特点:

首先是“狼性”特征。

据说国美有两个文化图腾,一是鹰二是狼。在国美,开店、促销都叫“打仗”。因为陈晓作风“过于温和”,后来成为某些高管批评的罪状,国美高层普遍“喜欢当狼的感觉。”

由此可见,国美人嘴里的“狼性文化”并非我们理解的“团队协作精神”,而是以不容置辩的方式解决问题,与市场经济倡导的契约精神格格不入。

其次是“帝王情结”。

据说,黄光裕办公室有400平方米之巨,被媒体称之为黄光裕的“太极殿”。办公室外面的会客厅,挂着清朝历代皇帝的图章印玺集,这被解读为“帝王情结”。

再就是“霸道作风”。

这一点在2008年之前的国美与供应商关系上体现得最为明显,陈晓主政时代,与供应商关系缓和不少,但是杜鹃“垂帘听政”之后,再度恢复黄光裕时代的霸道作风,声称与供应商的关系“不是谈出来的,是打出来的”。

黄光裕及杜鹃对国美管理层采取“萝卜加大棒”政策,一边敲打一边笼络。一个典型的例子就是对王俊洲的处理。“陈黄之争”之初,包括总裁王俊洲在内一帮管理层选择站在陈晓一边,这让黄光裕大为不满。陈晓去职之后,杜鹃在国美内部进行了清算。反复权衡利弊之后,她对王俊洲在陈晓与黄光裕争夺中“选择沉默”表示理解,但同时指出,“如果王俊洲积极争取,陈晓就不会有机会”。最后的结果是,王俊洲保住了国美电器总裁的位子,但丢掉了董事会中的席位。

这样的权术,被黄氏家族在国美内部运用得炉火纯青。

在国美,所谓的企业文化及企业价值取向,很大程度上是由黄光裕的个性生发而来,基本上都是围绕黄氏的家族利益,与现代企业倡导社会责任、人文关怀的主流价值观格格不入。

实际上,黄光裕夫妇被处以刑罚,很大程度上是其病态价值观导向的直接结果。显然,这样的企业不可能赢得人们发自内心的尊重,也很难为其核心管理层所认可。

国美价值观与现代企业看起来那么遥远,这一切都与黄光裕这个人分不开。套用国家体育总局网管中心主任孙晋芳评价李娜情绪波动比较大,叫“崩溃源于教育缺失。”黄光裕的自以为是,目空一切,与其早早经商缺乏良好的教育背景有关。

因此,要想建设一个健康的、可持续发展的国美,必须对其文化及价值观进行彻底的改造,往现代企业应有的价值观引导。遗憾的是,国美对自己的检讨显然是肤浅的,从黄光裕到杜鹃直到王俊洲,无一认识到问题的根结何在。《中国企业家》在最近一期报道中称,黄光裕铁杆部下、在国美开拓时期冲杀在开店最前线的李俊涛称,今天的国美,“狼性团队作战这种霸气,比以前更加突出了。”很显然,狼性文化依旧被今天的国美所推崇。

而国美的对手苏宁显然不同。

与国美相比,苏宁的企业个性表现得并不明显,但是仍有其个性的一面。首先,苏宁的企业性格要温和得多,以大连锁和供应商冲突最为激烈的2002—2008年为例,媒体报道的苏宁和供应商发生直接冲突的次数远远少于国美。我曾经问一个家电企业分公司老总:“是不是对国美既爱且恨?”他说:“哪里有爱,只有恨。”当我问他对苏宁的态度时,他犹豫了一下,说:“和国美差不多吧。”但是,他的语气缓和了很多。

也有人说,黄光裕霸道的个性,容易将炮火吸引到自己身上,从而掩护了张近东,而这得益于张近东的儒雅。

“至少苏宁是可以讲道理的”,这是大多数家电企业对苏宁的看法。

同为大连锁,感觉却不同,供应商给国美和苏宁的印象分差别很大。在国美强于苏宁的时代,供应商慑于国美淫威,不敢过多地表达;但是,当苏宁反超国美,他们对苏宁的亲近感会表现出来。比如,三星(中国)公司新任总裁朴载淳甫一上任即前往苏宁总部拜访,而公众并没有看到三星对国美类似的消息。

我们当然得不出“苏宁比国美高尚”的结论,但是,至少苏宁的文化要健康得多,人际关系也远不如国美那么复杂。在2010年“陈黄之争”正酣的时候,曾经有人将苏宁、国美进行对比:“一个在一心一意谋发展,一个在处心积虑搞斗争”,结果当然不同。

虽然同属私有企业,苏宁几乎没有家族企业的色彩,企业管理机制更接近现代企业。虽然国美早已在香港上市,但怎么看都更像是一个家族企业。这,才是二者的最大分野。

国美由盛而衰的教训告诉我们:建构健康的企业文化,才是实现企业可持续发展的最基本前提。

======带个自私自利的小AD=========

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