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iDoNews 小牛注:在微软、苹果这样巨头的参与下,数字媒体平台中强手如林,小型平台想要生存和发展呢,沈拓老师给出了改变商业模式、寻求巨头合作、寻求商业化、诉诸法律等四点建议。

相信每个人的电脑上或者智能手机终端上,都会有一款甚至多款数字多媒体的播放器。这样才能够播放内容供应商在网络上发布的音频或视频文件。本文我们来分析一下,多媒体播放器作为数字消费平台的一种典型代表,在这个平台上的商业模式和背后的竞争故事。

我们要了解一下,数字多媒体平台的各个组件是如何匹配运转的。假定你要购买一个歌手的演唱专辑电子版,并且下载到自己的电脑、智能手机或者是音乐终端上播放。

整个过程要经历以下动作,首先为了能够让这个歌曲播放,数字媒体播放器的厂商,比如苹果、微软或者是Real Networks,就要和这个歌曲版权所有者的唱片公司进行协商,达成歌曲授权协议。

然后,厂商需要给版权所有者提供相应的软件工具,也就是用编解码器给音乐进行编码。由版权所有者编码之后,把这个歌曲以某种特定的格式放到服务器上。接下来,用户必须要装一个多媒体播放器,要向这个多媒体内容提供商购买这首乐器并且下载到你的电脑上、智能手机上或者是某个音乐终端上。

在你付完钱后,服务器会把歌曲和密钥发给你,并且存储在你的播放终端上。当你想听音乐的时候,就可以使用多媒体播放器在终端上进行播放,每次这个播放器都会从音乐中解密、解码并解压缩然后播放音乐。整个这个过程大体上就是这样完成的。

我们再回顾一下,多媒体数字播放器的演进历程是怎样的。最早,多媒体数字播放是由微软和苹果公司在它们的软件平台上引入了多媒体扩展功能,为音视频文件提供支持。苹果、微软和其它多媒体播放器的厂商一直在鼓励内容供应商,尽可能多地开放它们的内容资源。

这样,这些播放器就能够读取这些数字内容并且对文件进行编码,然后将内容转化成媒体播放器能够识别的文件格式。

从1995年开始,伴随着互联网的发展,从新闻到音乐到视频,越来越多的数字内容向消费者提供并供消费者下载到个人电脑中,媒体播放平台从技术上更多地关注压缩技术和流媒体技术。包括苹果、微软、摩托罗拉、Oracle、Real Network等技术公司,都是创建流媒体音频和视频软件的先驱。

Real Networks在1995年推出了Real Video媒体播放器,这在相当一段时间都是网络上主流的媒体播放器。随后Real Networks又开始增加了视频流媒体功能。

苹果公司于1998年引入了视频流媒体技术,Adobe公司于2005年发布的flash播放器,并逐渐成为主流视频播放器。

总体而言,在数字多媒体播放器领域,整个市场上的核心产品大体上包括flash、itunes、windows media player和real player,这就是若干相互竞争关系的数字媒体平台。为什么说多媒体播放器是一种典型的平台化商业模式呢?

可以看到,多媒体播放器平台一边是用户,另一边是多媒体内容的创作者,需要通过多媒体播放器相互衔接,这样就构成了一个非常典型的双边平台商业模式。

这样的平台如何赚钱的呢?首先,几乎所有的媒体播放器客户端全部是免费的,唯独苹果公司是一种非常独特的模式,它大量依赖于自身的硬件销售和歌曲下载,形成了自己的核心利润源。

Real Networks没有自己的硬件产品,它们主要的收入来源包括面向消费者消费内容,以及面向上游的内容提供商提供媒体服务软件或者服务器,这构成了它的主要收入。微软主要是通过内容,以及面向上游的版权所有者提供媒体服务软件收费。

数字媒体平台里面有哪些主流的商业模式呢?我们需要对比分析一下苹果、微软和Real Networks。

苹果公司是一个非常极端的例子。它既有面向客户的ipod这样的硬件,也有自己的itunes的软件系统。因此它几乎是一个完全一体化的系统。它的ipod和itunes整合了硬件和内容,不需要任何其余平台的支持,而它的文件格式也不能在别的平台上播放。

与之几乎完全相反的例子是微软。它既不生产硬件也不提供内容,而是和其它能够提供这些服务的合作伙伴进行合作。而部分一体化、处于中间状态的是Real Networks公司。它也限制与其它平台的开放,但并不彻底限制。它也参与内容供应商的业务,但也只是部分参与。

总体来看,苹果采取了完全封闭的纵向一体化的策略。微软则采取非一体化的策略,与其它平台高度兼容。Real Networks则居于两者之间。

三者为什么形成了如此迥异的商业模式?这是由于它们自身的战略定位和商业模式不同而带来的。苹果公司一直要保持ipod和itunes平台的高度一体化,苹果的核心策略是建立并保持应用软件和硬件之间的紧密配合,以此来向用户提供一体化的优质体验。

这种模式已经为苹果公司取得了非常显著的竞争优势,ipod的全球销量多达数亿台,出售歌曲数十亿首。与苹果公司相比,Real Networks建立了一个更加开放的多媒体播放平台。它更多地参与了媒体播放器的内容提供业务,它同时也积极地与有线电视运营商、手机制造商、电信运营商开展合作。微软公司建立的是一个完全开放的媒体播放器平台,windows媒体播放器全面丰富了windows的应用,从而进一步增强了windows操作系统的领先地位。

数字媒体平台中,强手如林,包括微软、苹果这样的巨头,那么小型平台如何在里面生存和发展呢?这里面非常典型的案例就是Real Networks。作为一个专业的数字多媒体平台,事实上Real Networks面临着非常巨大的危险。

作为一个单一功能、专业化的平台,如果强大的竞争对手将多个综合性平台捆绑在一起,把你的平台的功能囊括其中,就会给一个单一功能平台带来实质性的冲击。而且不同平台的用户群本来就是相互重叠的,拥有海量客户资源的综合平台提供者,很容易进入并且吞并掉另外一个单一功能。我们不妨回忆一下,Netscape是如何被微软通过捆绑IE打败的。

而单一平台对多平台提出的价值主张,往往只能望洋兴叹,因为它没有能力组建一个与之匹敌的综合平台,又无力削减价格。在许多情况下,被包围的单一功能平台除了退出竞争别无选择。当然它们其中也有一些存活下来。这就是我们接下来我们要谈到的Real Networks。
Real Networks事实上是数字多媒体播放器这个市场最早期的霸主,它的商业模式是典型的双边平台商业模式,一边是消费者从它这里免费下载多媒体播放器,而内容提供商则为它的服务器软件付费,它在上世纪九十年代取得了很大的成功。但自1998年开始,它在多媒体播放器领域的主导地位受到了微软的进攻。

像Real Networks一样,微软也免费向消费者提供媒体播放器软件—windows media player(简称WMP)。同时,微软还在它的NT服务器上捆绑这个流媒体软件,把它作为一个标准功能提供给消费者。

简单的说,微软进攻多媒体播放器市场的策略,与当年进入浏览器市场如出一辙。不仅最终用户可以免费下载多媒体播放软件,而且媒体内容提供商,也可以免费获得流媒体服务器的服务,所以这些媒体内容提供商就很容易转换到微软的网络平台上。

这场进攻发动没有几年,截止到2003年,北美的42%的互联网的用户就把WMP作为首选播放器。而只有19%的用户首选Real播放器。
更加雪上加霜的是,Real Networks不仅面临微软的包围,还面临着另外一个更加强大的对手,那就是苹果公司。在本世纪初,苹果推出了ipod加itunes的模式之后,由于苹果可以为用户提供曲库丰富的itunes的订阅服务,而且还可以从它利润丰厚的ipod上补贴这一服务,因此也迅速获得了海量的用户追捧。
面对微软和苹果这样两个强大的竞争对手,Real Networks它既没办法提供类似微软的捆绑服务,也不具备苹果那样的硬件设计和生产能力,因此它在这场平台包围战中是非常艰难的。

但很了不起的是,在长达十年的反包围作战中,Real Networks仍然艰难的生存下来,并且仍然保持着在主流数字多媒体播放阵营中。这里面有同类平台值得汲取的经验。

第一, 灵活地调整自己的商业模式。

在微软的重重包围之中,Real Networks当然不会坐以待毙。初期,它通过强化自身在媒体领域的积累寻求差异化。它不断加大对于上游内容提供商的服务器软件销售力度,把服务器软件作为销售主攻方向。著区别于一般消费者对价格的高度敏感,这些企业级客户对于网络播放的品质,以及媒体格式的多平台兼容性非常看重。

相对于微软来说,Real Networks在这个领域经营的时间更长,它可以支持windows、ipod和linux的平台。同时,由于当时美国媒体界的主要内容制造者七成以上都还是使用Mac,也就是苹果制式来剪辑音乐和唱片。

因此,Real Player也得以在Mac使用者的庇荫情况下,仍然在流媒体的市场中占有一席之地。但即使这样,还是有相当多的份额被微软公司所掌控。

于是,Real Networks改变自己的赢利模式。它充分利用自己和消费者以及唱片公司建立起的关系,在2003年推出了音乐订阅服务,建立了一个收录有50万首乐曲的音乐库,允许订户以每月十美元的价格,通过个人电脑无限量的欣赏音乐库的乐曲。也就是说,Real Networks一改过去单纯补贴消费者的作法,转而直接从消费者身上直接获利。

此外,Real Networks和CNN、ABC、BBC和运动频道上的电视节目充分地合作,不仅提供音频下载业务,还提供视频和广播的订阅服务。与此同时,Real Networks还进入了游戏领域,包括收购了一些游戏公司,开发了一些在线游戏和单机游戏,最近它也在和Facebook合作,开发相关的社交游戏。

通过这样商业模式的调整,Real Networks的收入结构发生了很大的变化,现在Real Networks的收入中超过70%来自面向最终消费者的内容销售额,在这里面,其中50%来自于视频销售,30%来自于音乐销售,20%来自于游戏销售。

这种盈利模式的灵活调整,是在两大强敌夹击之下,Real Networks仍然能够生存下来的根本原因。

第二, 积极寻求与巨人的战略性合作。

Real Networks公司积极地与有线电视运营商和移动通信运营商展开合作。由于消费者下载音乐或视频,都需要使用宽带,因此音乐服务事实上有助于提高宽带的使用。因此从这个意义上讲,多媒体播放器与有线电视运营商或电信运营商的服务是有组合价值的。

在这里面,运营商是Real Networks的理想盟友。Real Networks公司把自己的互联网收音机产品和Sprint公司的移动通信服务、流媒体视频服务捆绑在一起,这些运营商也愿意花钱在手机上增加一些数字音乐的播放功能,因为这样可以降低消费者换手机的比例。同样,Real Networks公司在中国也跟中国联通等运营商开展了积极的合作。


第三, 积极寻求差异化。

在苹果和微软两大平台的夹击之下,Real Networks充分认识到一点,它与这两个竞争对手形成差异化的最核心的一点就在于,要尽可能的开放。这个开放包括两层含义,一层是源代码开放计划,在2002年Real Networks公布了一个名为Helix的产品系列,包括网络平台和网络社区,其中网络社区的作用,是能够为授权的企业提供媒体播放器的底层源代码。

企业用户、政府机构以及独立软件开发商都能够利用Helix开放资源,开发免费版本的播放器,并使之运行在windows、苹果OS、unix、linux等多种操作系统之上。开放的另外一个含义就是格式兼容,Real Networks的Helix产品系列几乎支持所有的流媒体格式,包括Real Networks竞争对方的流媒体格式,如mov、wmv 等等。

甚至,Real Networks为了最大化地兼容更多的流媒体格式,它还运用了逆向工程技术破解了ipod的技术,来力图进入ipod与itunes 这样的封闭系统中,它可以将消费者从itunes手上购买的音乐和从Real音乐库中购买的音乐放在同一个音乐列表中进行播放。通俗地将,Real Networks通过把自己彻底开放出去的策略,在兼容性上形成差异化,与windows和苹果相抗衡。

第四,诉诸法律武器,特别是寻求反垄断法律的支持。

对于面临强敌包围的单一功能平台,诉诸法律在一定程度上是明智之举。占主导地位的平台提供者如果试图通过捆绑或者低价来打击其它的弱小的平台提供者,有可能受到非法竞争的指控,Real Networks公司就利用了这样的机会,把微软送上了反垄断法庭,并在2005年以微软赔付了7.6亿美元的结局赢得了这场战斗。

尽管从总体趋势上,Real Networks的多媒体播放器的市场份额总体在过去十年间处于下滑的态势。但我们不得不说,在过去十年中,面临微软、苹果这样两强大对手包围之下,Real Networks能够生存下来,没有像Netscape那样消亡,已经是很了不起的事情了。而且它对于微软以及苹果所采取的竞争策略,也给予同类平台提供了一些经验,那就是一个单一功能平台如何在强大的综合平台包围下的生存之道。


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