2004年05月25日

AMERICAN grade 3 student Linda Brown had to walk a long way through a railway yard to get to her school in Topeka, Kansas. There was another school closer to home — but Linda was black and this school was for white children only.      
曾经,美国一个三年级学生琳达·布朗每天要穿过一个铁路调车厂,走很长一段路,才能到达位于堪萨斯州托皮卡市的学校。事实上,她家附近还有一所学校——但是,琳达是黑人,而那所学校只招收白人学生。


Then her father made a decision that ended in a court case which changed US society forever. It celebrated its 50th anniversary last Monday.      
于是,她的父亲做出一个决定,由此导致了一场官司,从而永远改变了美国社会。上周一,美国为该事件举行了50周年庆祝活动。
 
The decision was simple: Linda was to study in the nearby all-white school. After the school refused her, Mr. Brown filed a lawsuit against the local board of education.      
父亲的决定很简单:琳达要在附近的白人学校读书。学校拒绝接受她之后,布朗先生起诉了当地教育委员会。


The case, now known as “Brown versus the Board of Education”, made it all the way to the US Supreme Court. On May 17, 1954, the court declared that “Separate educational facilities are unequal.” This historic ruling ended racial segregation by allowing black children to go to the same schools as white children.     
这个案件被称为“布朗诉教育委员会”案。美国最高法院受理了此案,并在1954年5月17日做出了判决:“种族隔离教育是不平等的”。这个具有历史意义的判决允许黑人儿童和白人儿童同校学习,终结了种族教育隔离。


The court said that the US Constitution guaranteed “equal protection of the laws”, and this meant equal treatment for blacks and whites. This overturned a 19th-century ruling that permitted “separate but equal” racial segregation.     
法院认为美国宪法提供“平等的法律保护”,这意味着要平等对待黑人和白人。当时的这一裁决推翻了19世纪一个允许“隔离但平等”的种族隔离做法的判决。


Thanks to the Brown ruling, from the late 1950s segregation was ended on a much wider scale. Buses, beaches, jobs, housing, voting — black people had equal rights to white people in most areas of society. The ruling also helped improve rights for women and the disabled.     
因为“布朗判决”,从20世纪50年代起,种族隔离在更大的范围内得以废除。公交车、海滩、就业、住房、选举——黑人民众在社会大部分领域获得了与白人平等的权利。这个判决也促进了妇女和残疾人权利的提高。
 
Congresswoman Eleanor Holmes Norton said: “Brown was the most important court decision in US history.” In other countries, these problems may have been solved through violence, she added.      
女议员埃莉诺?霍姆斯?诺顿说,“布朗判决是美国历史上最重要的判决。”她还说,在其他国家,这些问题很有可能通过暴力来解决。


To mark the 50th anniversary of the Brown decision, a museum was opened at Linda Brown’s old school. Visitors get to walk through the “Tunnel of Courage”, in which they are surrounded by photos of shouting crowds and barking dogs. This gives them a taste of the hardships that Brown faced at the whites-only school.     
值此布朗判决50周年之际,琳达?布朗的母校建起了一座博物馆。在那里,游客走过“勇气隧道”,隧道中呼喊的人群、狂吠的狗的照片将游客包围,让他们体味到当年布朗在白人学校遭受的磨难。

2004年05月22日

The invasion has begun. Around the world, plants, animals, fungi, and other life forms are moving into places where they don’t belong. These attacks can mean major headaches for both wildlife and people.


  物种入侵已经开始。在全世界范围内,动植物、真菌和其它的生命形式都在侵入本不属于他们的地方。对于野生动植物和人类而言,他们的入侵危害非浅。


“Half of all endangered species can blame their shaky status on invaders that eat them, eat their food, or destroy their homes,” said Dan Simberloff of the University of Tennessee, US.


  美国田纳西大学的Dan Simberloff说,“几乎一半的濒危物种岌岌可危的处境都可归咎于这些入侵者。入侵物种不仅以这些濒危物种为食,抢占它们的食物和养料,而且还毁掉它们赖以生存的家园。”


There are more than 1,000 alien species in China. Only a few dozen are harmful but the damage caused costs the country more than 57 billion yuan a year.


  中国约有1000多种外来物种,其中只有十几种具有危害性,但是它们每年给中国造成的损失达570多亿元。


For example, American white moths are damaging 1.5 million hectares of forests every year. And imported water hyacinth plants are choking some parts of the Yangtze River and the Pearl River.


    例如,每年有150万公顷的森林遭受美国白蛾之害。而进口的水葫芦正在淤塞长江和珠江的部分河段。


About half of all invasive species are moved by accident, such as insects that travel on your muddy shoes when you fly home from a holiday. “


        约有一半的入侵物种的迁徙纯属偶然,比如,你从海外度假回来,沾了泥土的鞋子就会把一些昆虫带回来。


However, sometimes it’s not an accident. There was the boy from Hawaii who brought some snails to his grandmother in Miami. He thought she would love them but, unfortunately, she didn’t and threw them away. Scientists discovered the snails a year and a half later, after they had already pushed some native species close to extinction. It took seven years and a great deal of money to finally get rid of the invaders.


  然而,有时物种入侵并非偶然。有个夏威夷的男孩把一些蜗牛带给他远在迈阿密的祖母。他以为祖母会喜欢它们,但不幸的是,她并不喜欢,把它们扔掉了。一年半之后,科学家发现了这种蜗牛,但那时它们已经快把当地一些物种推向灭绝的边缘。人们花了7年的时间,耗费了大量资金才最终把它们消灭。


Humans have been moving species around for thousands of years. It started as people began migrating to new areas, bringing plants and animals with them. At that time, it was easy to control the danger of this as travel was still quite slow.


        人类迁移物种已经有上千年的历史了。在人们迁居到新的地方的同时,也把动植物带到了那里。当时,因为旅行还比较慢,所以比较容易控制它们的危害。


Today, however, lots of people travel large distances every day and this has led to the spread of undesirable species.


  可是现在,许多人每天都进行长途旅行,结果导致了许多有害物种的广泛传播。


“Australia and New Zealand do a great job in slowing the spread by thoroughly checking airport luggage for creatures,” Simberloff said. On the other hand, inspections in countries such as the US are not as effective.


  Simberloff说,“澳大利亚和新西兰做了大量工作减缓物种的传播速度。他们通过检查机场的行李来确认有没有夹带海外物种。另一方面,美国等国的检查措施还不是很有力。”


 There are many easy ways in which people can help out. Cleaning shoes and clothes before coming home from a trip removes unwanted insects. While shaking out bags before leaving summer camp makes sure the bugs that belong in the woods stay in the woods.


  许多简单易行的方法可以帮助人们解决这个难题。从海外归国前,洗洗鞋子和衣服,清除掉沾在上面的虫子。夏令营结束前拍打一下自己的行囊,让林中的虫子呆在它们的林子里。


Scientists also ask people not to take plants and animals with them when they travel. Tourists sometimes hide lizards, parrots, bugs, and other exotic creatures in their luggage to bring home as pets or gifts. Their intentions are often innocent, but the results can be disastrous.


     科学家还忠告人们,旅行的时候不要随身携带动植物。旅客有时把蜥蜴鹦鹉、小虫子以及其他一些异国生物藏在行李里带回家当宠物或礼品。它们的初衷是好的,但结果却是灾难性的

TODAY’S fashions, including skin-tight jeans, hip-hugging skirts and oversized purses, might look good — but they may not be good for your body, according to the American Chiropractic Association.


Chiropractic is the science and art of restoring health by manipulating the joints of the body, especially the backbone, to restore normal nerve function.


Their tips could help you stay fashionable and comfortable:


Wear high heels, but bring along a pair of flat-soled shoes to change into when you feel uncomfortable.


While sitting for any length of time, take frequent breaks to stand up and stretch the muscles at the back of your feet.


If tight clothes are your style, choose items that allow you to perform daily tasks with ease.


When carrying a bag or briefcase, carry it on the other side frequently to avoid placing the weight on one side of your body.


If you’re driving or sitting for long periods, remove your wallet or card holder from your back pocket.


VOCABULARY



skin-tight jeans:     紧身牛仔裤
hip-hugging skirts:紧靠时尚的女裙
oversized purses:   过大的皮包
chiro’practic:           n.按摩脊椎疗病术;用手按脊椎疗病者;指压疗法
manipulate:             vt.操纵;使用;窜改;造假;巧妙处理;[医]调整;调节
joint:                         n.[医]连接处;关节;[地理]裂缝;(烤炙用的)大块肉片
                                     adj.连接的;与他人分担的;联合的;[法律]共同的
                                     vt.接合;切断
backbone:                n.脊椎;分水岭;中枢;主力;志气,骨气;毅力;(山)主脉;主脊
tip:                            n.尖端;尖;小费;轻拍
                                     vi.倾斜;推翻;给小费
                                     vt.给小费;给暗示;轻击;使倾斜;装尖头;推翻;[印刷]贴上图案
heel:                          n.脚后跟,踵;鞋后跟;袜后跟;倾侧
                                     vt.补鞋后跟;vi.跟随;倾向一边
flat-soled shoes:      平底鞋
stretch:                     vt.伸出;拉紧;打倒;掺杂;滥用;曲解
                                      vi.展开;舒展肢体;伸懒腰;尽力
                                      n.伸开;一段时间;直线跑道;徒刑
                                      adj.易伸缩的
briefcase:                  n.公文包,公文袋

2004年05月21日

So, you’re too shy to kiss your lover? Or, you think that maybe it’s not so healthy or you’re afraid it could give you some kind of disease? Well, you’d better rethink your ideas, right now.


It has now been scientifically proven that frequent kissing is good: it stabilizes cardiovascular (heart) activity, decreases high blood pressure and cholesterol levels, and overall makes one’s life better, according to a Russian newspaper. The following is a medical account of this pleasant activity.


Dentistry


Kissing can substitute for any chewing gum that fights plaque. Like toothpaste, it stimulates salivation which helps protect the teeth from cavities. In addition, passionate kissers are less likely to suffer from gingivitis (gum disease).


Cosmetics


A passionate kiss causes more than 30 facial muscles to become tense. That helps to smooth out the skin and increase blood circulation. That means it may be better to kiss than to use all those face creams and masks at night. One thing’s for sure: Kissing would be a lot more pleasant! And, you wouldn’t need to remove it in the morning.


Diet


We lose no less than 12 calories during every passionate kiss. However, one does not have to be a love fanatic to lose those few extra pounds. Scientists claim that 3 kisses a day, 20 seconds each, will be enough to make you lose an entire extra pound.


Anesthetic


Another interesting aspect of kissing deals with antibiotics, the things that fight disease. In the course of a kiss, natural antibiotics are being secreted in the saliva. They also possess anesthetic (pain-killing) effect. So just forget the doctor and kiss, kiss, kiss!


Anti-stress therapy


A kiss prevents the initial formation of stress hormones. These are the hormones that are blamed for high blood pressure, high cholesterol, muscle weakening, and insomnia. Generally, a kiss can calm down one’s nervous system quite effectively and rid one of stress. It puts us in a cheerful mood. That is why those who enjoy kissing are often optimists.


Finally, at least three kisses a day leaves you in a romantic, pleasant mood for no less than 24 hours.


Vaccination


Our saliva contains the most bacteria. About 80 per cent of them are the same in all people. Nearly 20 per cent of them are unique to the human being. Upon mixing with other particles in the partner’s mouth, they trigger various reactions of microorganisms.


As a result, this gives one’s immune system an impulse to form certain antibodies.



Compatibility


While you are kissing, your brain conducts an instant chemical analysis of your partner’s saliva and issues a “verdict” of your genetic compatibility. That’s why it’s better not to wait too long until the first kiss. It is better to establish your compatibility right from the start.


Overall, kissing has an incredibly positive effect on an organism. Those who kiss quite frequently are less likely to suffer from stomach, bladder, or blood infections.


Also, you can get rid of your hiccups by kissing! Or, maybe it just seems that way.  


VOCABULARY



scien’tifically:       adv.科学地;合乎科学地;学术(上)地
frequent:              adj.常有的;频繁的
                                 vt.常去,常在,时常出入
stabilize:               vt.使稳定;保持…的稳定;使稳固
                                 vi.稳定,保持稳定
cardio’vascular:   adj.[医]心脏血管的
cho’lesterol:         n.[生化]胆醇;胆石醇;胆固醇
dentistry:             n.牙科学;牙科医术;牙医业
substitute:           vi.代替
                                 n.代理人;代用品
                                 vt.用…代替;派…接替
chewing gum:      口香糖,胶姆糖
plaque:                 n.(建筑物等上的金属或木制)饰板;胸襟饰物;徽章;勋章;[医]牙菌斑
toothpaste:          n.牙膏
sali’vation:           n.过量的唾液分泌;分泌唾液;[医]流涎症
cavity:                  n.腔,(空)洞
passionate:          adj.热情的;多情的;易怒的;易动情的
gingi’vitis:            n.[医]牙龈炎
cos’metic:            n.(pl.)化妆品
                                adj.化妆用的;整型用的;无深度的;表面的
facial:                   adj.面部的
                                n.[俗]面部按摩或治疗
tense:                   n.(动词的)时态;时式
                                adj.绷紧的;拉紧的;紧张的
                                vt.使紧张;拉紧
                                vi.变紧张
cream:                 n.奶油;乳脂;奶油色;淡黄色;精华
                                vt.提取乳脂;加脂;使起泡沫;加乳酪
                                vi.结成乳脂;起泡沫
diet:                     n.饮食,食物;国会,议会
                                vt.给(病人)指定饮食
                                vi.进规定的饮食;忌食;节食
calory:                 =calorie n.卡,卡路里(热量单位)
fa’natic:               n.宗教狂热者;盲信者
anes’thetic:         n.麻醉剂;麻药
                                adj.麻醉的;麻木的;失去知觉的
antibi’otic:           n.抗生素;抗菌素;盘尼西林,链霉素
                                adj.有害于生命的;[生化]抗生的,抗菌的
sa’liva:                 n.唾液,口水
therapy:              n.治疗,疗法
initial:                  adj.最初的;开始的;字首的
                                n.首字母;(pl.)姓名之起首字母
                                vt.写字首
stress:                  n.重压;重音;紧张,重要;压迫;紧迫
                                vt.看重,强调;重读;加压力于;使紧张
hormone:            n.荷尔蒙
in’somnia:           n.失眠;失眠症
cheerful:             adj.快乐的,愉快的,令人高兴的
optimist:             n.乐观主义者;乐观者
ro’mantic:           adj.浪漫主义的
vacci’nation:       n.[医]种痘;预防接种
trigger:               n.扳机
                               vt.触发;开火;扣扳机;促使;引起
micro’organism:微生物;微小动植物
i’mmune:            adj.被豁免的;免疫的;不受影响的;无反应的
                               n.具有免疫能力的人
impulse:             n.冲动;刺激;推进力;突然的欲望;本能;[电子]脉冲;[物理]冲量
                               adj.冲动的;一时兴起的
antibody:           n.抗体
com,pati’bility: n.适合;适应;一致(性);并存性;两用性;相容性;互换性;调和
conduct:             n.行为;举止;指引;管理;
                               vt.处理(方式);管理;指挥;给…做向导;输送
                               vi.当指挥;[物理]传导;指路;当售票员
instant:               n.瞬间;本月;速食食品;即溶的饮料;
                               adj.立刻的;紧急的;瞬间产生的;考虑中的;即溶的
                               adv.立即;即时
verdict:              n.判决;判断;决定
ge’netic:             adj.起源的;遗传学的;基因的;发生的
in’credibly:        adv.不能采信地;非常地;惊人地
organism:          n.生物体;有机体;有机的组织体;被认为生物体的体系;微小的动植物
bladder:             n.膀胱;可充气的囊袋;[医]水泡;起泡;吹牛
in’fection:           n.传染(病);(坏)影响;污点;堕落;交流
hiccup:               n.呃逆;暂时跌落;嗝声;类似打嗝的声音;
                              vi.打嗝;发出类似打嗝的声音;连续打嗝;
                              vt.打嗝发出

It takes a brave teacher to allow boyfriends and girlfriends in middle school to sit together in class. But in Zhang Lin’s classes at Beijing No 171 High School, girls and boys, especially intimate pairs, are arranged next to each other.


Zhang believes that if you treat students more like adults, they will have a grown up attitude towards their work. “When they know my feelings on young love and see that I understand them, they’ll show more respect to me and behave well in class,” she explained.



SKETCH BY LIU RUI. 
 
“If the pair really care about each other, they’ll study hard and help each other to improve. Anyway, you cannot stop teenagers falling in love.”


Young love in middle schools has always been a sensitive topic as many teachers and parents believe that it has a bad effect on studies. Although the age at which teenagers reach maturity is decreasing year by year, Zhang is one of the few teachers who are not nervous about it.


“We like her way of arranging seats as it creates an easy environment for boys and girls in class,” a Senior 1 girl in Zhang’s class said.


Seating arrangements are one of a class teacher’s main responsibilities  at the start of each term. Different arrangements are often tried to make teaching as efficient as possible. However, many students complain that teachers never take into account teenage habits when making these plans.


“It’s quite natural that teenagers hope to communicate with the opposite sex, and not just because they want to have a date,” said Wang Tong, a Senior 1 student in Beijing.


Her teacher tries to separate couples in love by making them sit far away from each other. “It’s obviously no use because teenagers always have the opposite reaction to what adults say,” Wang explained.


Although teenagers welcome Zhang Lin’s “special” arrangements, many parents and teachers think it is risky.


“Some students might see it as an encouragement for young love, which would go against teachers’ original intentions,” said Wang’s mother. “Anyway, study should always come first for them.”


Discussion



1. How are the seats arranged in your class? Do you like it? Why or why not?


2. If you were a teacher, how would you arrange the seats? Why?


VOCABULARY



intimate:                     adj.亲密的;个人的;最熟知的;最内部的;非正式的;有性关系的
                                        n.密友;知己
                                        vt.暗示;宣布;声明
sketch:                         n.草案;略图;短篇;草稿;素描;短曲,小品
                                        vt.绘略图;素描;概略
sensitive:                     adj.敏感的;有感觉的;神经过敏的;过敏的
                                         n.敏感的人
ma’turity:                     n.成熟;完成,齐备;[商]票据的到期;[医]化脓
senior:                           adj.年长的;上级的;资格老的;高年级的
                                          n.年长者,前辈;资深者;高年级学生
the opposite sex:         异性
the opposite reaction :逆反反应
risky:                             adj.危险的;冒险的;大胆的;孤注一掷的
en’couragement:          n.鼓励;奖励;促进;刺激;受鼓励;奖励者;鼓励者
original intentions:      初衷

2004年05月20日

Denise: Did I see your son at hockey practice last night?


Cordell: Yes. He just started. He goes to music lessons and hockey three days a week.


Denise: Wow! He?ˉs busy! My son Doug is on the hockey team and the swim team. I feel like I spend my whole life in the car taking him to practice and picking him up!


Cordell: While they get fit, we get fat! Maybe we should start a carpool.



Many children and teens in North America have “after-school activities”. Some of these activities are school-related and some are not. Many families pay to have their children involved in activities such as sports and music. What after-school activities are common in your country? Describe them to us at the Advanced Email English forum or the Advanced Voice and Text Chats!!


Question of the Week: How does your culture treat growing older? Come and share your examples and questions with us at the Advanced Voice and Text Chats!


VOCABULARY



picking him up:meeting him at the practice and taking him home
fit :                     strong, healthy
carpool:             each person takes a turn driving
hockey:             曲棍球,曲棍球棒
forum:               n.讨论会;(古罗马)公共集会所,法庭
culture:             n.耕种;教养;教化;文化;文明;vt.耕种,用作培养基

Mary: Our dance troupe is rehearsing tonight. Our performance is on Saturday.


Sally: Have you memorized your routine?


Mary: I have it mostly memorized but I still need to practice a bit more. I’ll watch the video of our latest rehearsal. It helps me to be able to see where I’m supposed to be when I’m dancing.


A routine in this sense is a kind of practiced activity such as dance or gymnastics. Have you ever had to practice a dance routine?


VOCABULARY






troupe:           n.(演员等)一团,一班;vi.巡回演出,演出
rehearsing:    re’hearsal=预演,详述,复述
per’formance:n.进行,执行,履行;演出,展出;工作情况
routine:          n.惯例,常规,例行公事;[俚]特殊行动;[计算机]例行程序;adj.日常的,例行的,正常程序的
gym’nastics:  n.体操,健身操,健身术