2006年05月17日

vol.1
今天跟大家讲讲美国最"黑"的英文,也就是一些黑人兄弟常用的俚语(slang):

thang = thing

e.g:
1.dr.dre & snoop dogg – nothing but a G thang,

2.tupac – it ain’t easy

but every where is the same thang, i will be damned if a thang change,fuck the fame, i be hustling and making a million, lord knows aint no love for us ghetto children…..

3.tupac – better days

time to question our life style look how we live, smoking wee like aint no thang, even kids wanna try now…..

explanation:
thang,在俚语中,就是thing的意思,那么nothing也就可以写成nothang,同样的,anythang,都可以.

notes:
tupac,dr.dre & snoop dogg,美国相当出名的rapper & mc,其中tupac死于美国东岸于西岸的帮派斗争.

——————————————————-

vol.2
中国人的国骂是tmd,而老黑可能最爱说的就是fu*k了.今天就来给大家讲讲如何更好的去"fu*k",lol

the fu*k常用来加强语气,类似于"到底","究竟","the heck","on earth"和"the hell"等,在疑问词后.

eg.
熟人间的问候:
how the fu*k are ya?(最近如何?)

疑问:
wut the fuc*k is …?(这tm是?)

不满:
wut the fu*k is goin’ on here?(tmd搞什么呢?)

迷惘:
where the fu*k are we?(我们这是tmd在哪?)

表担心:
let’s get the fu*k out of here.(我们快闪吧)

get fu*ked ,be fu*ked 被骗:遇到麻烦
eg:
I guess I’m fu*ked now.

fu*k it 屈从,放弃
eg.
"Oh, fu*k it!"

探討黑人英語的用法及生活用語

~以心靈訪客及最後一支舞為例

   葉東鑫

摘要

在現今潮流,英語早已成為國際語言,然而經過時間的洗鍊以及不同國家、地區的使用,英語漸漸有了改變,每一族群都有其一套特別用法,其中較明顯且廣泛的就屬AAVE(黑人英語)最具特色,於是我們選用並編輯兩部影片-心靈訪客及最後一支舞-為例,來說明分析黑人英語最主要的特點:(1)語彙(2)文法(3)俚語,此三大部份。除此之外,為了讓學習者更能輕鬆學習黑人英語,我們建立一個黑人英語的互動教學網站,包含了能讓學習者配合影片及文字分析的部份學習,並希望藉著此網站的歸納整理,能幫助英文學習者更了解黑人英語的特色。

 

 

Abstract

In the modern time, English has been an international language all over the world.  However, as time passes, English has been changing; each of groups in the global village has different way to use English in the daily life. The most obvious and wide-ranging characteristic is in AAVE (African American Vernacular English), so we choose and edited two films, Save the Last Dance and Finding Forrester, for discussing the three main features of AAVE-lexical variation, grammar and slanguage.  Besides, we built up an interactive teaching website of AAVE for studied well and use easily by English learners. The website includes corpus and two edited film, and we sincerely hope that English learners may more comprehend the major features by making use of the website.

 

Key words: AAVE, Standard English, corpus
Introduction

Being a common language in the global village, English is used in many different countries or regions by many different people. English, just like many other languages, are subject to change when used in various societies. As time passes, each of the societies may develop its own special way of using English for meaning expression in its unique context. As the so-called melting-pot, the U.S.A. has immigrants from all over the world, and hence variations of English has also been evolved in the country. AAVE (African American Vernacular English), in particular, has swayed SE (Standard English) we are taught before. Owing to the growing population of African American, AAVE can be heard very often. Many young people enjoy communicating in AAVE particularly because AAVE is cool, unique, and attractive. They usually regard AAVE as a symbol of fashion; besides, AAVE idioms are so brief, smooth, frank and rhyming as to deeply fascinate us. In this project, we will use two films as examples to illustrate some of the major features of AAVE.

 

Finding Forrester and Save the Last Dance are the selected films for the discussion of the features in African American’s utterances. “Finding Forrester” describes a genius 16-year-old Black student learned SE from a famous white writer who, on the other hand, decides to walk out again to face the world for the Black student’s sake. The conversations between the black student and his black friends provide examples that may show the features of language of the Black. Save the Last Dance is a story about a white girl, whose parents were divorced and the mother was killed in an accident, transferred to a school where most of the students are black. She lives in the black region, goes to school with black friends, and even has a black boyfriend. She learns Black English from her black friends. In these two films, some interesting contrast between AAVE and SE can be easily found.

 

After doing the literature review, we decided to focus on three main aspects-lexical variations, grammatical differences, and slang-to exemplify the contrast between AAVE and SE. Using a concordancer, Concordance, for text-analysis, the scripts of these two films are the sample corpus for the illustration of the features of AAVE. According to Rickford’s (1997) study, three major categories can be identified, i.e. grammar, lexical variation, and slanguage. The omission of “s” in verbs with a third person singular subject, the auxiliary/copula (has, have, is, are, and etc.), and multiple negations are examples included in the grammar category. The frequent use of “V-in” instead of “V-ing,” “gonna,” “wanna,” “ain’t,” “yo,” “dog,” and “shit” in conversations belongs to the category of lexical variation. Some amazing and funny usage such as “honky,” “chillin,” “fuck,” “whatcha,” “y’all” and so on is put into slanguage category.

 

Nowadays, we can see in films, TV shows, or mass media that many white men also use AAVE as if they accept some of words and phrases in AAVE as normal daily language. Using the scripts of the films mentioned above, we will create a website to present the major features of AAVE.

 

Objectives

AAVE is quite interesting, unique, and different from SE. As EFL learners, we have been constrained to learn conventional SE; when we touch AAVE, we truly feel it is rarely gripping. For a project of such scale, it is impossible to do an exhausted study on the related issues regarding AAVE. And hence we have to limit our study to some of the major features in AAVE. We will summarize the examples found in these two films, which contain plenty of complex and simple usage of AAVE.

The objectives for this project are:

(a) To demonstrate clearly the circumstances in which AAVE is used.

(b) To use the selected two films to build up a sample corpus for the illustration of the major features in AAVE.

(c) To create a website to present the major features interactively so that anyone who is interested in AAVE may obtain some ideas about AAVE in a more efficient and vivid fashion through this website.

 

Literature Review

According to Rickford (1998), the distinctive pronunciation and grammatical features of African American Vernacular English or Ebonics are used most commonly by members of the Working and Lower Class. He showed us the statistics of the percentage of using African American Vernacular English among different social classes.

 

Lower Working Class

Upper Working Class

Lower Middle Class

Upper Middle Class

Consonant cluster simplification NOT in past tense

84%

79%

66%

51%

Voiceless th [Ø]

71%

59%

17%

52%

Multiple negation

78%

55%

12%

8%

Absence of copula/auxiliary is, are

57%

37%

11%

5%

Absence of third person present tense –s

71%

57%

10%

1%

Absence of possessive –s

27%

25%

6%

0%

Absence of plural –s

6%

4%

1%

0%

Rickford (1997) also contends,

 

We know, for instance, that most of the kids who fall behind in reading and otherwise fail in inner city schools (see above) are Working Class kids, rather than Middle-Class kids. And we know that the distinctive pronunciation and grammatical features of African-American Vernacular English or Ebonics are used most commonly by members of the Working and Lower Class. Consider table 1, which summarizes data from Wolfram’s (1969) study of Detroit.5 Except for consonant cluster simplification and absence of plural -s, every other Ebonics feature in that table is far more frequent among the Working Class groups than among the Middle Class groups.

 

Rickford (1997) stressed that in AAVE, when the subject is third person singular, the “s” of verb is often omitted in simple present tense, whereas an “s” is added to the verb in Standard English. He called the third person –s absence, as in “He walkØ.” Sidell (1997) mentioned that when regular verbs occur with such –s marking, they often carry special emphasis. As for auxiliary/copula (has, have, is, are, etc), Sidnell found that Standard English uses a conjugated form in a number of different sentences (e.g. He’s, they’re); but in AAVE these verbs are often missing.

 

Sidnell stated, “AAVE also allows negation to be marked in more that one position in the sentence (so called double or multiple negation), and certain kinds of nouns actually require negative marking in negative sentences.” Multiple negation sentences in AAVE still have negative meaning. Richard (1997) also held the same view.

 

However, there is an exception, and that is “bin.” The examples provided by Rickford are, “1. Present perfect progressive: He bin runnin. 2. Present perfect progressive with remote inception: He BIN runnin.” Mufwene (1997) and Sidnell (1997) had the same opinion with Rickford.

 

According to Rickford (2002), differences in vocabulary are one aspect of dialect diversity. We found some main lexical variation and searched their explanation from (http://www.panikon.com/phurba/alteng) as follows: “V-in”(V-ing), ”gonna”(going to), “wanna”(want to), “ain’t”(isn’t; aren’t; has not; have not). Moreover, according to Sidnell, AAVE uses ain’t to negate the verb in a simple sentence. We also surfed some web sites (such as http://www.panikon.com/phurba/alteng) related to the slang of AAVE. We found a lot of interesting slang that we have never seen before. By collecting and analyzing the related information, we understand more about Black English.
Methodology

Literature review

In order to find out the major features in AAVE, we conducted a literature review first.  The review will also help us understand the background and history of AAVE or Black English.

Categorization

We analyze and discuss the major features in AAVE and put them into three categories, i.e. lexical variation, grammar and slanguage.

Building the sample corpus

We aimed at two DVD of entire area to capture script by computer.  First, we put DVD into a script capture machine and through RS232 (a transmission line) to transmission data between machine and computer.  Next, we sort the data that we gather from computer by Microsoft Word.

Concordance

Concordance, text analysis and concordancing software, is for anyone who needs to study texts closely or analyses language in depth. This is the most powerful and flexible software of its kind, with registered users in forty-four countries.



Table1

In the above display of the concordance, the Headword window has been string-sorted alphabetically and how many times of words occurs in the script. In the window of the right side were offer the keyword in the context.

Making video clips

We use VCDcutter, a program used for making video clips and frames, to make video clips and still frames to be used in the webpages. We extract MPG,frame from VCD or MPG file, cutting our video clips part or whole MPG file to disk when playing.


Figure 1

Designing website

In order to present the examples that illustrate the major features of AAVE, we use Macromediat’s Dreamweaver and Flash to create a website that contains our project and video clips.

Discussion

There are a number of examples of different grammatical usage, lexical variation, and slanguage between Standard English and African American Vernacular English found in “Save the last dance” and “Finding Forrester.” The rules of AAVE are different from what we learned in grammar books or what we are taught at school. Lexical variation in AAVE will be discussed first in this section.

Lexical variation

(a)“Ain’t”–“isn’t; aren’t; am not; has not; have not”–the most malign contraction in English. Almost every English teacher in the country will insist that this is not a proper word; however, anyone of them knows what it means.

 

Example in Save the last dance:

Malakai: You act like you don’t know who you are anymore, Derek. And what’s up out there for anybody who ain’t you? I’m still from this neighborhood, but you? I guess that’s what happens when a white girl goes to your head.

Friend: -or gives you some.-

Derek: shut up, lip.

Friend: -sorry.-

Here, “ain’t” represent “are not.”

Examples in Finding Forrester:

Jamal: Thank you.

William: is still mine, isn’t it?

Jamal: I guess.

William: Now, it was the neighborhood that changed, not me.

Jamal: Man, please. I ain’t seen nothing change.

William: “Ain’t seen nothing”? What in the hell kind of sentence is that? When you’re in here, don’t talk like you do out there.

Jamal: I was messing with you, man. It was a joke.

Both “ain’t” mean “have not” here.

(b) “Gonna”–the abbreviation of "going to"; “wanna/wana”–the abbreviation of "want to"; “gotta”–the abbreviation of " got to";outta”–the abbreviation of “out of”

Examples in Finding Forrester:           

Fly: All right. What the hell you working there, man?

Jamal: Shut up, man. Yo, about red rose. I ain’t gonna make it. I gotta go over to this dude’s house. I think they do it every year. Hey, don’t be goin’ off on this, man.

Fly: Yo, you big-time. You best be goin’, man. I don’t wanna hold our bus up. You gonna be around this weekend? Where you think I’m gonna be? The Hampton?

Examples in Save the last dance:

       Example 1:

Chenille: Oh, no. You’re not going nowhere with my son tonight. Not on that temper, and not with that attitude.

Kenny: Look, you know what? Fine. Then, I won’t take him. I’m outta here.

Chenille: Go ahead, leave. That’s what you’re good at! Your son ain’t seen nothing but your back since he was born!

 

Example 2:

Sara: My dad’s gonna fix that. It’s kind of messy in there.

Sara: Do you wanna see my room?

Derek: Uh, yeah.

Sara: This is it. I sleep on the couch. [Laughs] Un-hun.

Sara: There’s a bed underneath, but it gets stuck, and my dad says he’s gonna fix it, but I don’t know. He’s, um, at work right. He’ll… Be gone all night.

(c) “Yo”–“wait; hi; here; general exclaimant”

Example in Finding Forrester:

Fly: J, you see that window? He keeps that one cracked sometimes.

D: Yo, light’s been out for two hours, dog. You sure he asleep?

Fly: Man, listen. That methuselah’s like a thousand years old, man. That’s all he ever do.

Friend: Yo, J, man. For the reals, son, I don’t know about this.

Friend: I’m thinkin’—Shit! I think I’m gonna pull the call, yo.

The first and second “yo” mean wait. The third “yo” is general exclaimant.

Example in Save the last dance:

Kai: Yo, Derek. Hey, yo.

Derek: Hey, man.

Kai: Medicine man.

Snook: What’s up, Kai? Man, baby, I was just asking about you, and I got a little emotional too about you being back and all.

The first “yo” means “hi” and the second “yo” is general exclaimant.

(d) “Vin”–“Ving” The suffix “-ing” of a verb is pronounced as “-in” in AAVE.

Example in Finding Forrester:

Mrs. Wallace: Hey, Jamal, you awake? Jamal, I know you hear me, boy. Jamal, I’m writin’ all this down, but I’ve got that thing with your teacher. And they got me workin’ late, so you’re gonna have to take care of yourself for dinner. Okay? Okay?

Jamal: Okay.

Mrs. Wallace: Hey I thought you wanted to get up by 7:30.

Player: Play the ball. Hey, bay, you hear the chains singin’? Check that up, man. Stop cryin’.

Fly: Hold on, hold on. What up, J? Where you been, man?

Jamal: Sleep, yo. What’s up, man? Up late, wondering how I was gonna save your ass out here.

Fly: What are you savin’?

 

Example in Save the last dance:

Friend: I’d sleep in a dresser too if I had six brothers to sleep with.

Derek: Hey, fellas, what’s up?

Friend: Look at this stud. What’s up, man? Hey, playah.

Friend: How you doin’, man?

Friend: Whassup, baby?

Friend: Oh, no love. No love.

Friend: I hear you been traveling in new circles. What’s up with that?

Malakai: you tappin’ that white girl? – [laugh]

(e) Dog – “man.” In AAVE “dog” represents “man”, and it is usually placed in the end of a sentence.

Example in Save the last dance:

Derek: I got my own problems. Snook

Snook: Problems? What problems? We ain’t got no damn problems. You going to college, doctor college after that. You the man, dog.

Example in Finding Forrester:

Jamal: Don’t say nothin’ about them test scores to nobody, all right?

Terrell: Don’t worry about that. I’m your brother, dog. Whatever me and you discuss, that’s gonna stay between me and you. Right. Love you, dog. All right?

Jamal: Right.

(f) Kinda–“Kind Of”

Example in Finding Forrester:

William: What thing?

Jamal: The 5,000 words on- – On why you wanted me to stay outta your place. At least that’s kinda the way you said it.

William: Try remembering it exactly as I said it.

(g) Wassup–"What Is Up?"

Example in Save the last dance:

Derek: Kai, I’ve been trying to catch up with you. I gotta talk to you.

Malakai: Ready to roll?

Derek: I gotta talk to you.

Malakai: Wassup?

Derek: Look, man. I ain’t going with you.

Grammar

(a) Omission of “-s” in verbs of third person singular subject

In AAVE, the suffix of a verb “-s” is sometimes omitted when the subject is the third person singular (he, she, it, or the name of the person or object).

Example in Finding Forrester:

Player: He bring(’) in something for the window.

Player: You ever seen him?

Player: The window? Yeah.

Player: No. But he see(s) us, man.

Fly: Come on, man. Y’all don’t wanna play ball?

Player: All right.

Fly: Wake up.

(b) Absence of copular/auxiliary is, are

General absence of copula:

Standard English uses copula in many cases, example: You are going to college. However, in AAVE the copular is often missing. The absence of copula may occur in following cases: in future tense, in progressive tense, before a noun and before adjectives or expressions of location.

Example in Save the last dance:

Derek: I got my own problems. Snook

Snook: Problems? What problems? We ain’t got no damn problems. You (are) going to college, doctor college after that. You (are) the man, dog.

The first “are” is in case of future tense and the second “are” is in case of before noun.

Example in Finding Forrester:

Terrell: Yo, T. What (‘s) up, fly? How (are) you, baby? Maintainin’. Look. You (are) lookin’ for tickets, little bro? Dead tonight. Sorry ‘bout that, fellas.  

Fly: Come on, man. We know you got tickets.

Terrell: I got four words for you. Bos-ton red sox. All right? The yanks and sox tickets, they damn near been sold out almost a month now. All right, Mr. Fly? And by the way, why don’t you… Go tell Camry boy over there that he need to go and back up … his little cheap ass bumper on that Mercedes over there. Go handle that. Let’s go, Fly! Let’s go. What the hell, Jamal? Moms called. Tell me about the test you took. What’s up with that?

Jamal: Nothin’, man.

The first “is” and the second “are” are in case of before noun. The third “are” is in case of progressive.

General absence of auxiliary: (in perfect tense.)

In AAVE, “have” or “has” may be deleted in “perfect tense.”. This is quite different from Standard English.

Example in Finding Forrester:

Mr.s Wallace: Hey, Jamal! Jamal, you awake? Jamal, I know you hear me, boy. Jamal, I’m writin’ all this down, but I’ve got that thing with your teacher. And they got me workin’ late, so you’re gonna have to take care of yourself for dinner. Okay? Okay?

Jamal: Okay.

Mr. Wallace: Hey, I thought you wanted to get up by 7:30.

Player: Play the ball. Hey, baby, you hear the chains singin’? Check that up, man. Stop cryin’.

Fly: Hold on, hold on. What up, J? Where (have) you been, man?

Example in Save the last dance:

Friend: How you doin’, man?

Friend: Whassup, baby?

Friend: Oh, no love. No love.

Friend: I hear you (have) been traveling in new circles. What’s up with that?

Malakai: You tappin’ that white girl?

Malakai: That’s why you ain’t got no more time for your boys no more? Too busy fronting?

(c) Multiple negations

AAVE allows negation to be marked in more than one position in a sentence, e.g. Don’t kill nobody. It also uses ain’t to negate the verb in a simple sentence, e.g. I ain’t no fool. Moreover, AAVE also has a special negative construction called “negative inversion.” Example: Wasn’t nobody in there but me and him. In negative inversion, a negative auxiliary (wasn’t) is moved in front of the subject (nobody).            


Example in Save the last dance:


Chenille: Where you going?

Derek: Stay out of my business, Chenille.

Chenille: I know what Malakai wants you to do. Why are you trippin’ off him, Derek? All you’re trying to do is get the hell up out of here. Ain’t no shame or blame in that.

Derek: It’s getting cold out here. Take that baby inside.

Example in Finding Forrester:


Jamal: Thank you.

William: The title is still mine, isn’t it?

Jamal: I guess.

William: Now, it was the neighborhood that changed, not me.

Jamal: Man, please. I ain’t seen nothing change.

William: “Ain’t seen nothing”? What in the hell kind of sentence is that? When you’re in here, don’t talk like you do out there.

Jamal: I was messing with you, man. It was a joke.

(d) The absence of possessive “-s’” and plural marker

According to Rickford (1997) the possessive “-s’” and the plural marker “s” after a noun are often absent in AAVE. For example: This dog (‘s) tail is very long. I got many book(s). However, we fail to find examples from Save the last dance and Finding Forrester.

 

Slanguage

Nowadays, AAVE has been seen as a kind of cultural phenomenon. Many white children like to chat in Black English. They think it’s cool. In fact, the slang of Black English also affects American pop music. The following examples are taken from the scripts of the films, and the Internet.

(a) “Shit

Shit – 1. “Shit” can be used as a pronoun to refer to anything mentioned before.

Example in Finding Forrester:

Jamal: You ever read your own book?

William: In public? Hell no! Barely read it in private.

William: You know those things they do, that, uh, coffee shop reading shit? (pronoun) You know why they do it?

Jamal: Sell books, I guess.

Example in Save the last dance:

Chenille: Look, I’m going to tell you like I’ve been telling you, you need to leave Malakai alone and let that scrub handle his own mess.

Derek: Chenille, scramble the CD, I ain’t trying to hear all that shit. (pronoun)

Sara: You guys, I live like five blocks that way, I’m just going to go home. I’ll see you later.

Shit – 2. "Filth, Refuse, Garbage." This meaning stretches throughout the other Germanic forms of the word as well. It is not certain which meaning came from the other.

Example in Save the last dance:

Snook: I.D. She thought she was getting in off your looks. Ha! No, no. Tour girl is weak, all right? I got my rep to watch. I can’t be getting any old toe-tapping, ass-shaking bandstand—

Sara: Snookie, you talk a lot of shit (garbage) for someone who never says anything.

Chenille: Oh!

Example in Finding Forrester:

William: Oh, really? You had to read a book to figure that out?

Jamal: Yeah, but Crowford’s messed uo on it anyhow. Says the guy having trouble after the war is really you. Some symbolism shit (garbage) for all the problems you were having with everybody.

William: Robert Crowford?

Jamal: Yeah. I think it’s bullshit, though. I think there really was somebody else.

Shit – 3. General Exclaimant. "Shit" is one of the two most common exclaimants, the other being "fuck." It is uttered in extreme pain, extreme horror, and in the throws of sexual extasy. Its exclaimant use comes from its taboo nature and is compounded by its easy, one-syllable pronunciation. Shit can also be used to stress speaker’s tone and express one’s displeasure.

Examples in Finding Forrester:

Fly: J, you see that window? He keeps that one cracked sometimes.

D: Yo, light’s been out for two hours, dog. You sure he asleep?

Fly: Man, listen. That methuselah’s like a thousand years old, man. That’s all he ever do.

Friend: Yo, J, man. For the reals, son, I don’t know about this.

Friend: I’m thinkin’—Shit! (General exclaimant) I think I’m gonna pull the call, yo.

Example in Save the last dance:

Sara: This is. This is where I live. This is my dad’s music room. He plays the trumpet.

Derek: No shit. (General exclaimant)

(b) “Ass”

The initial definition of ass is donkey, fool and idiot but in AAVE it refers to “hip.”. The usage of ass conveys someone’s dissatisfaction.

 

Example in Save the last dance:

Kai: Yo, Derek. Hey, yo.

Derek: Hey, man.

Kai: Medicine man.

Snook: What’s up, Kai? Man, baby, I was just asking about you, and I got a little emotional too about you being back and all.

Kai: Man, sit your punk ass down, fool. Matter of fact, step you lame ass off.

Example in Finding Forrester:

Jamal: Okay.

Mrs. Wallace: Hey I thought you wanted to get up by 7:30.

Player: Play the ball. Hey, bay, you hear the chains singin’? Check that up, man. Stop cryin’.

Fly: Hold on, hold on. What up, J? Where you been, man?

Jamal: Sleep, yo. What’s up, man? Up late, wondering how I was gonna save your ass out here.

Fly: What are you savin’?

(c) Y’all – "You All."

Examples in Save the last dance

Chenille: I gotta find my brother. Derek! Derek!

Shawana: It’s about to get real out here, y’all. Cops and shit, I’m gone.

Chenille: All right, girl. Derek! Derek! Yo, what the—

Derek: Go.

Example in Finding Forrester:

Player: Can’t give him that.

Jamal: I’m awake now, y’all.

Player: Come on, yo.

Jamal: Come on, man. You got something for me?

(d) Chill – "Relax." A slang word derived from the variant ideas of "cool," as in "cooling off," "cooling down," being cool," etc.

Example in Save the last dance:

Nikki: I’m pretty sure you came with one.

Chenille: Oh, no, wrech. You did not just call me a Negro!

Shawana: Y’all just chill, okay.

Chenille: Why don’t you tell her to chill?

(e) Fuck – "To Have Sex; Sexual Intercourse; Cheat, Trick; General Expletive."

The usage of “Fuck” is sometimes like “shit.” Fuck could be a pronoun, stuff, etc.

Example in Finding Forrester:

William: How about 5,000 words on why you’ll stay the fuck outta my home?

Woman: Fuck me! Fuck me!

The first “fuck” is a pronoun.

The second and the third “fuck” means “sexual intercourse”

Example in Save the last dance:

Sara: I’m gonna go home. Are you ready?

Malakai: No, he’s not ready. He’s talking to me. It’s an “a” and “b” conversation. You gotta go? See yourself home.

Sara: Fuck you!

Here, “fuck” is a general expletive.

(f) Slammin’– a stronger way of saying “cool” or “beautiful”

Example in Save the last dance:

Example 1:

Chenille: All right, I’m just gonna get my coat and then will be out.

Sara: Cool outfit.

Chenille: Slammin’. Slammin’ outfit.

Sara: Oh.

Here, “slammin’” represents beautiful.

Example 2:

Derek: I said I’ll walk you.

Sara: Well, what about you?

Chenille: We live right around the corner.

Derek: All right, well, I’ll be home in a minute.

Chenille: All right. So you was working it tonight, girl.

Sara: Yeah, right, slammin’.

Here, “slammin’” represents cool.              

(g) Whatcha –the abbreviation of "What Are You".

Example in Save the last dance:

Man: It was midnight at the party.

Malaki: So, whatcha gonna do? As you walk in looking nice. It’s payback time. Either you down or you not. Either you my boy or you ain’t. Simple as that.

Friend: Oh, ha! Hey, baby, we lit it up out there. I am serious. Did you see us, “d” man?

Malakai: Do you see us? We’re talking.

(h) Bitch a woman in General

Example in Save the last dance:

Nikki: what the hell was that?

Sara: I was trying to block the ball.

Sara: Stupid bitch

Here are some useful slangs in AAVE that do not exist in two script.

Honky–"White Person." A pejorative term. This term supposedly was originally directed against Southern White people who used to honk their horns at black pedestrians on the street and often try to run them down. Other etymologies have been suggested.

Homie – A contracted version of "homeboy." See "homeboy” below.

Homeboy, Homie – "Friend." Originally, someone from the same town, or hometown, as the speaker. Popular in Black Vernacular.

Aiight, A’ight, Aight – "Alright."

Ain’cha – "Aren’t You, Are You Not." A compound. See "ain" and "cha."

Chillin’ – "Being Cool." See "chill."

Dope – Dope has many meanings in American slang. It was supposedly first introduced to English from the Dutch "doop," meaning "sauce," Though I have not found this word in Dutch. It may be archaic. It is still sometimes used to denote "sauce" in certain regional dialects. It was later used to refer to any thick liquid. For instance, it was used to denote resin used to solidify airplane wings, etc. It was first used to denote drugs when it was used for heroin, which is injected as a thick liquid. It later came to mean any drug, or a drug user. The term "dopey" originally meant "stupid as if on drugs." Dope later acquired the meaning "cool" through its association with drugs. The meaning "knowledge," as in "the inside dope," comes from horse racing, and knowing which horses were doped up.

Em – "Them; Him." As in the rap song "Shut Em Down."

G – 1. "Guy." From Black Vernacular. Originally, "G" designated a member of your gang, short for "gangsta," but it has changed to mean something more like "bud." "Yo G!" = "Yo Bud!" The original connotation can be seen in the phrase "Ain’ nuthin but a G-thang!"

G – 2. "Grand, Money." For instance, "20G" = Twenty Grand = $20,000. The term has been expanded to mean "money" in general, as in "I gots no g’s, yo" = "I’m broke." See also "gees."

G – 3. "Gram." Mostly from drug terminology.
– "Grin." An internet abbreviation.

Na’mean? –"(Do You) Know What I Mean?" It is sometimes used alone and sometimes as "Ya na’mean?" or "y’namean." From Black Vernacular.

Phat, Fat – "Cool." This was supposedly adopted into Ebonic slang when the coat company "Triple Fat Goose" was in style in Black culture.

 

The website

In order to present the examples taken from the sample corpus interactively, we use Macromedia’s Dreamweaver 4 to create a website so that each of the examples can be retrieved easily together with the video clips.

 

The content of website include nine main sections – introduction, objectives, literature review, methodology, discussion, conclusion, reference, appendix, and teamwork information. We constructed a chart (See Appendix B. Figure 2) to describe the skeleton of the website and demonstrated a sample picture (See Appendix B. Figure 3) of the website. In the discussion of findings, we split them into five categories– outline, lexical variation, grammar, slang, and others. The scripts and the results of the concordance of the sample corpus are attached as appendices to the website. To investigate the useful statistics of words and phrases in two films, and to demonstrate the statistics more clearly to people, we make use of this software, Concordance 3, to count how many times the usages of AAVE are used by the Black people in their daily life. (See Appendix A. Table)

 

In order to present the examples interactively, video clips of the selected conversations are edited using the editing software, VCD Cutter. We hope that the words and phrases describing the usages of AAVE can thus be presented together with their original context.

We spent plenty of time in deciding the colors to be used for the presentation of the content while developing this website. We hope that our hard work has help make what we have done in this project be clearly presented and people can gain a great deal from what is available on this website.

 

Conclusion

Language is a dynamic system and is changing constantly. English gets a lot of changes in many countries and among users of different races. It may produce some variety, and that’s how dialects are formed. AAVE has a lot of different features from Standard English. The idioms in AAVE are unique, brief, and interesting, and they catch our attention deeply.

 

In order to get more information about African American Vernacular English, we selected two movies, “Save the last dance,” which describes the affection of a white woman and black man, and “Finding Forrester,” which describes the relationship between a white teacher and a black student as our sample corpus. From the sample corpus, we found out that there are some differences of usages between Standard English and Black English. Based on the literature review, we divided them into three parts: lexical variation, grammar, and slang usage. In lexical variation, we listed some variations of the usage of words, including “ain’t” (are not, am not, have not, has not), “gonna”(going to), “wanna”(want to), “yo”, “-in’”, and so on. In the grammar section, the absence of the suffix of the third person singular present verb tense, the absence of copular/auxiliary, and multiple negations are discussed. Finally, in the slang part, some slangy expressions of AAVE are discussed by using the examples taken from the sample corpus and the Internet.

 

In AAVE, the suffix of a verb is missing when the subject is the third person singular (he, she, it, or the name of the person or object). The copula (is, are) in AAVE followed by an adjective, adverb, verb, noun, or prepositional phrase are often omitted.  AAVE usually use multiple negations to represent negative meaning, which is AAVE allows negation to be marked in more than one position in the sentence. It also makes use of “ain’t” to negate the verb in a simple sentence. The absence of possessive “-s” and the absence of plural marker can also be frequently seen in AAVE.

 

Nowadays, AAVE has been seen as a kind of cultural phenomenon. Many white children like to chat in Black English. Black English not only affects American pop music but also has quite a lot of influence on the Standard English. It seems that everybody is regarding it as a trend. We hope that our project can help people to have more understanding about lexical and grammatical variations between Standard English and African American Vernacular English.
Reference

1.Bryan McLucas. African American Vernacular English. Published on the World Wide Web at

http://www.arches.uga.edu/~bryan/AAVE/

2.Ellen Johnson. (1998, October 27) Comments on Ebonics. Published on the World Wide Web at

http://fsweb.berry.edu/academic/hass/ejohnson/ebonics.htm

3.Jack Sidnell. (1997, May 1). Structural differences. Published on the World Wide Web at

http://fsweb.berry.edu/academic/hass/ejohnson/eb/featur~1.txt e-mail:jsidnell@chass.utoronto.ca

4.John R. Rickford & Angela E. Rickford. (1975) Dialect Readers Revisited. Linguistics and

Education, 7.2, 107-128.

5..John R. Rickford. (1997) Suite for Ebony and Phonics. Discover magazine, December.

6..John R. Rickford. (1997, September 17) The Creole Origins of African American Vernacular

English: Evidence from copula absence. Department of Linguistics Stanford University.

7.Published on the World Wide Web at http://www.stanford.edu/~rickford/papers/CreoleOriginsOfAAVE.html

A.John R. Rickford. (1998, 99) The Creole Origins of African American Vernacular English:

B.Evidence from copula absence. Department of Linguistics Stanford University. Published on the

C.World Wide Web at http://www.stanford.edu/~rickford/papers/EbonicsInMyBackyard.html

D.John R. Rickford. Using the Vernacular to Teach the Standard1 Department of Linguistics,

E.Stanford University. Published on the World Wide Web at

F.http://www.stanford.edu/~rickford/papers/VernacularToTeachStandard.html

8.Linguistic Society of America.(1997 January) LSA RESOLUTION ON THE OAKLAND

"EBONICS" ISSUE. Published on the World Wide Web at

http://www.emich.edu/~linguist/topics/ebonics/lsa-ebonics.html

9.William, Labov. (1972) Academic Ignorance and Black Intelligence. Published on the WorldWide

Web at http://www.theatlantic.com//issues/95sep/ets/labo.htm.

10.Wolfram, Walter A. and Nona Clarke, eds. (1971) Lsa Resolution on the Oakland "Ebonics" Issue.

11.Published on the World Wide Web at  

http://www.emich.edu/~linguist/topics/ebonics/lsa-ebonics.html

 

 

姓名:Dr Dre
NBA声望模板:Magic Johnson
歌曲名称:Nuthin But A “G” Thang
专辑名称:The Chronic

“现在每个人都一副有话要说的样子,好像他们真的能说出什么似的,但实际上他们一动嘴唇,出来的就全是些没有用的废话,*他妈的!他们都忘了谁是Dr Dre。”
Eminem在Forgot About Dre中为师傅渐渐失去的地盘报不平的时候,所有人都已经想起来了缔造美国Hip-hop辉煌的那只手就竟长在谁身上,那只手贪婪而变幻莫测,冷酷而呼风唤雨,任何名字沾上这只手就如同镀了金,麻雀变凤凰,蚯蚓变龙王,Still dre day ,still rule。
今天送上G-funk圣歌Nuthin But A “G” Thang(“就是一首流氓歌”),很多年前就已是老江湖的Dre和“还是个傻小子”(汤姆贾诺维奇语)的Snoop的合作天衣无缝。不要尝试理解歌词,进入音乐状态就好。

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Nuthin But A “G” Thang歌词:

[Snoop Doggy Dogg]
One, two, three and to the fo’
Snoop Doggy Dogg and Dr. Dre are at the do’
Ready to make an entrance, so back on up
(Cause you know we ’bout had to rip shit up)
Gimme the microphone first, so I can bust like a bubble
Compton and Long Beach together, now you know you in trouble
Ain’t nothin’ but a G thang, baaaaabay!
Two loc’ed out G’s so we’re craaaaazay!
Death Row is the label that paaaaays me!
Unfadable, so please don’t try to fade this (Hell yeah)
But, uh, back to the lecture at hand
Perfection is perfected, so I’m ‘a let ‘em understand
From a young G’s perspective
And before me dig out a bitch I have ta’ find a contraceptive
You never know she could be earnin’ her man,
And learnin’ her man, and at the same time burnin’ her man
Now you know I ain’t wit that shit, Lieutenant
Ain’t no pussy good enough to get burnt while I’m up in it
(yeah) Now that’s realer than real-deal Holyfield
And now all you hookas and ho’s know how I feel
Well if it’s good enough to get broke off a proper chunk
I’ll take a small piece of some of that funky stuff

Hook: Snoop Doggy Dogg

It’s like this and like that and like this and uh
It’s like that and like this and like that and uh
It’s like this and like that and like this and uh
Dre, creep to the mic like a phantom

[Dr. Dre]
Well I’m peepin’, and I’m creepin’, and I’m creep-in’
But I damn near got caught, ’cause my beeper kept beepin’
Now it’s time for me to make my impression felt
So sit back, relax, and strap on your seatbelt
You never been on a ride like this befo’
With a producer who can rap and control the maestro
At the same time with the dope rhyme that I kick
You know, and I know, I flow some ol funky shit
To add to my collection, the selection
Symbolizes dope, take a toke, but don’t choke
If ya’ do, ya’ have no clue
O’ what me and my homey Snoop Dogg came to do

Hook: Snoop Doggy Dogg & Dr. Dre

It’s like this and like that and like this and uh
It’s like that and like this and like that and uh
It’s like this, and we ain’t got no love for those
So jus’ chill, ’til the next episode

[Snoop Doggy Dogg]
Fallin’ back on that ass with a hellified gangsta’ lean
Gettin’ funky on the mic like a’ old batch o’ collard greens
It’s the capital S, oh yes, the fresh N-double O-P
D-O-double G-Y D-O-double G ya’ see
Showin’ much flex when it’s time to wreck a mic
pimpin’ ho’s and clockin’ a grip like my name was Dolomite
Yeah, and it don’t quit
I think they in a mood for some mothafuckin’ G shit
So Dre. (What up Dogg?)
We gotta give ‘em what dey want (What’s that, G?)
We gotta break ‘em off somethin’ (Hell yeah)
And it’s gotta be bumpin’ (City of Compton!)

[Dr. Dre]
It’s where it takes place so I’m a ask your attention
Mobbin like a mothafucka but I ain’t lynchin
Droppin’ the funky shit that’s makin the sucka niggaz mumble
When I’m on the mic, it’s like a cookie, they all crumble
Try to get close, and your ass’ll get smacked
My mothafuckin homie Doggy Dogg has my back
Never let me slip, ’cause if I slip, then I’m slippin’
But if I got my Nina, then you know I’m straight trippin’
And I’m a continue to put the rap down, put the mack down
And if your bitches talk shit, I have ta’ put the smack down
Yeah, and ya’ don’t stop
I told you I’m just like a clock when I tick and I tock
But I’m never off, always on, ’til the break dawn
C-O-M-P-T-O-N, and the city they call Long Beach
Puttin’ the shit together
Like my nigga D.O.C., no one can do it better

Hook: Dr. Dre & Snoop Doggy Dogg

Like this, that and this and uh
It’s like that and like this and like that and uh
It’s like this, and we ain’t got no love for those
So jus’ chill, ’til the next episode

姓名:Nas
NBA声望模板:Patrick Ewing
歌曲名:One Mic
专辑名:Stillmatic

Nas,纽约皇后区说唱歌手,来自街头的桂冠诗人,独来独往,不喜欢在专辑中招揽一票哥们,配器也没什么特别的地方,现场表演的动作实在让人提不起精神。2Pac看他不顺眼,Eminem却把他当偶像,Jay-z跟他是死敌,Ja Rule也就伺机拉拢他。和AZ是好兄弟,与Mobb deep惺惺相惜,小个子,hip-hop的巨人。
适逢从业10周年,其经典专辑illmatic纪念版的发行
请欣赏他2001年专辑Stillmatic中的催泪弹——One Mic(一支麦克)
all I need is one mic

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

One Mic歌词:

[speaking softly, gradually getting louder]
One time.. yeah.. yeah..

Yo, all I need is one mic, one beat, one stage
One nigga front, my face on the front page
Only if I had one gun, one girl and one crib
One God to show me how to do things his son did
Pure, like a cup of virgin blood; mixed with
151, one sip’ll make a nigga flip
Writin names on my hollow tips, plottin shit
Mad violence who I’m gon’ body, this hood politics
Ackowledge it, leave bodies chopped in garbages
Seeds watch us, grow up and try to follow us
Police watch us {*siren*} roll up and try knockin us
One knee I ducked, could it be my time is up
But my luck, I got up, the cop shot again
Bus stop glass bursts, a fiend drops his Heineken
Richochetin between the spots that I’m hidin in
Blackin out as I shoot back, fuck gettin hit! [more sirens]
This is my hood I’ma rep, to the death of it
’til everybody come home, little niggaz is grown
Hoodrats, don’t abortion your womb, we need more warriors soon
Sip from the star sun and the moon
In this life of police chases street sweepers and coppers
Stick-up kids with no conscience, leavin victims with doctors
IF YOU REALLY THINK YOU READY TO DIE, WITH NINES OUT
THIS IS WHAT NAS IS BOUT, NIGGA THE TIME IS NOW!

[whispering again]
Yo, all I need is one mic..
All I need is one mic.. that’s all I need
All I need is one mic.. all I need niggaz
All I need is one mic.. yeah

[gradually getting louder]
All I need is one blunt, one page, and one pen
One prayer – tell God forgive for one sin
Matter fact maybe more than one, look back
at all the hatred against me, fuck alla them
Jesus died at age 33, there’s thirty-three shots
from twin glocks there’s sixteen apiece, that’s thirty-two
Which means, one of my guns was holdin 17
Twenty-seven hit your crew, six went into you
Everybody gotta die sometime; hope your funeral
never gets shot up, bullets tear through the innocent
Nothin is fair, niggaz roll up, shootin from wheelchairs
My heart is racin, tastin revenge in the air
I let the shit slide for too many years, too many times
Now I’m strapped with a couple of macs, too many nines
If y’all niggaz really wit me get busy load up the semis
Do more than just hold it explode the clip until you empty
There’s nothin in our way – they bust, we bust, they rust, we rust
Led flyin, feel it? I feel it in my gut
THAT WE TAKE THESE BITCHES TO WAR, LIE ‘EM DOWN
CAUSE WE STRONGER NOW MY NIGGA THE TIME IS NOW!!

[whispering again]
All I need is one mic.. that’s all I need, that’s all I need
All I need is one mic.. there’s nuttin else in the world
All I need is one mic.. that’s all a nigga need to do his thing y’know
All I need is one mic..

[starting loud this time, getting quieter]
ALL I NEED IS ONE LIFE, ONE TRY, ONE BREATH I’M ONE MAN
WHAT I STAND FOR SPEAKS FOR ITSELF, THEY DON’T UNDERSTAND
Or wanna see me on top, too egotistical
Talkin all that slick shit, the same way these bitches do
Wonder what my secrets is, niggaz’ll move on you
only if they know, what your weakness is I have none
Too late to grab guns I’m blastin cause I’m a cool nigga
Thought I wouldn’t have that ass done? Fooled you niggaz
What you call a infinite brawl, eternal souls clashin
War gets deep, some beef is everlastin
Complete with thick scars, brothers knifin each other
up in prison yards, drama, where does it start?
You know the block was ill as a youngster
Every night it was like a, cop would get killed body found in the dumpster
For real a hustler, purchased my Range, niggaz throwin dirt on my name
Jealous cause fiends got they work and complain
Bitches left me cause they thought I was finished
Shoulda knew she wasn’t true she came to me when her man caught a sentence
Diamonds are blindin, I never make the same mistakes
Movin with a change of pace, lighter load, see now the king is straight
Swellin my melon cause none of these niggaz real
Heard he was, tellin police, how can a kingpin squeal?
This is crazy, I’m on the right track I’m finally found
You need some soul searchin, the time is now

All I need is one mic.. yeah, yeah yeah yeah
All I need is one mic.. that’s all I ever needed in this world, fuck cash
All I need is one mic.. fuck the cars, the jewelry
All I need is one mic.. to spread my voice to the whole world

姓名:Coolio
NBA声望模板:Tim Hardway
歌曲名:Gangsta’s Paradise
专辑名:Gangsta’s Paradise

Funk血统,pop走向,雷鬼发型加上一张苦瓜脸,这就是九十年代中期的rap英雄Coolio的光辉形象。也许是因为大器晚成,加上一直被贴上POP标签,Coolio从未在Hip-hop历史拥有过一个时代,甚至晚景凄凉,写满了携带大麻和被传讯的纪录。但他确实是在街头音乐与流行音乐中找到平衡的第一个人。Puff Daddy把舞曲成功融入Hip-hop,要感谢Coolio铺的路——让那些沉睡的古式funk乐和hardcore鼓点温和一点,以方便在年轻人中随心所欲地蔓延开来,这是他的成就,也是他被人诟病之处——商业痕迹重,讨好低龄听众,对(街头)音乐不够严肃(虽然我也说不出今天的Dre有多“严肃”)。Coolio的辉煌年代仅仅从1995年的“Gangsta’s Paradise”持续到1997的“C U when U get there”(很好的一首潜吟低唱作品,尽管专辑不卖)。
接下来说Gangsta’s Paradise(歹徒天堂)这首歌……
没什么可说得,Coolio与福音歌手L.V合作
也许他算不得一个伟大的rapper,但这歌绝对算伟大的音乐
Billboard年度冠军——rapper仅有的一次。Grammy奖,三百金。
无法表述的恢宏和悲壮,难以忘怀的旋律,没有溢美之词。

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Gangsta’s Paradise歌词:

As I walk through the valley of the shadow of death
I take a look at my life and realize there’s nothin’ left
‘Cuz I’ve been blastin’ and laugin’ so long, that
even my Mama thinks that my mind is gone
But I ain’t never crossed a man that didn’t deserve it
Me be treated like a punk you know that’s unheard of
You’d better watch how you’re talkin’, and where you’re walkin’
Or you and your homies might be lined in chalk
I really hate to trip but I gotta, know
As they group I see myself in the pistol smoke, fool
I’m the kinda G the little homies wanna be like
On my knees in the night, sayin’ prayers in the street light

Chorus:
Been spending most their lives, living in the gangsta’s paradise
Been spending most their lives, living in the gangsta’s paradise
Keep spending most our lives, living in the gangsta’s paradise
Keep spending most our lives, living in the gangsta’s paradise

They got the situation, they got me facin’
I can’t live a normal life, I was raised by the knife
So I gotta be down with the hood team
Too much television watchin’ got me chasin’ dreams
I’m an educated fool with money on my mind
Got my 10 in my hand and a gleam in my eye
I’m a loc’d gangsta set trippin’ banga
And my homies is down so don’t arouse my anga, fool
Death ain’t nothin’ but a heartbeat away,
I’m livin’ life, do I die, what can I say
I’m 23 now, will I live to see 24
the way things is goin’ I don’t know

Chorus:
Tell me why are we, so blind to see
That the one’s we hurt, are you and me
Been spending most their lives, living in the gangsta’s paradise
Been spending most their lives, living in the gangsta’s paradise
Keep spending most our lives, living in the gangsta’s paradise
Keep spending most our lives, living in the gangsta’s paradise

Power and the money, money and the power
Minute after minute, hour after hour
Everybody’s runnin’, but half of them ain’t lookin’
What’s goin’ on in the kitchen, but I don’t know what’s cookin’
They say I gotta learn, but nobody’s here to teach me
If they can’t understand it, how can they reach me
I guess they can’t, I guess they won’t
I guess they front, that’s why I know my life is outta luck, fool

Been spending most their lives, living in the gangsta’s paradise
Been spending most their lives, living in the gangsta’s paradise
Keep spending most our lives, living in the gangsta’s paradise
Keep spending most our lives, living in the gangsta’s paradise
Tell me why are we, so blind to see
That the one’s we hurt, are you and me
Tell me why are we, so blind to see
That the one’s we hurt, are you and me

2006年05月16日

 “鲜红的夕阳,漆黑的骷髅旗,沾满血污的战刀以及成堆的让人睁不开眼的黄金。”海盗的故事总是那么吸引人,几个世纪来为艺术家们提供了无尽的创作源泉,童话里的彼德·潘为了保护温蒂同凶残的钩子船长战斗,在史蒂文森的《金银岛》上则有堆积成山的财宝在等待探险者的光临,这些家喻户晓的传奇故事像磁石一样牢牢地吸引着一代又一代的年青人,激励他们不断向未知的领域探索,激励着他们去创造自己的天地,在西方,几乎每一个小男孩都曾经梦想过做一个驰骋在大海之上寻找失落的宝藏、劫富济贫的海盗。而在游戏中我们不仅仅从《大航海时代》系列看到了当年航海业的盛景,也从《大航海家》系列《海商王》等游戏中,看到了曾经崇敬的海盗人物。好了,让我们一起扬帆远航,去找寻那些年少的记忆,去探寻那些无尽的财宝吧!


  一、海盗的历史

  1.海盗的成型期

  海盗的历史可谓源远流长,可以说有了海船也就有了海盗。最早的海盗记录出现在公元前1350年,这被记载一块黏土碑文上。在这期间,腓尼基人和其后的迦太基人都是优秀的航海家,其造船术和航海术遥遥领先于地中海的其他民族——当然,他们也是当时地中海横行无忌的海盗,打劫商船、掠夺城镇。所以在《帝国时代》中,腓尼基有最好的投石战船,他们的弩炮战舰攻击快65%,而迦太基人则是喷火船的攻击力增加了25%。在罗马人征服了迦太基和埃及之后,整个地中海海域就没有别的国家的船队了,但是帝国境内,海盗活动依然很活跃。即使强大如罗马帝国,也因为初成气候的海盗而大伤脑筋。从公元前5世纪开始,罗马人就不得不煞费苦心地对付科西嘉和撒勒岛上的海盗,虽然海盗活动的势头受到压制,但是威胁仍然存在。散布在伊利里亚海岸的众多小岛,竟然是那些抢劫过往船只的“野蛮民族”的老巢。他们擅长造船,经常骚扰意大利海岸。女王特塔的王国成了一个正镇的“掠夺者的国家”,不断给罗马帝国制造麻烦。直至公元前219年罗马出兵,才结束了她的统治。但是受到部分贪图利益的商人影响,海盗活动并没有受到更严厉的打击,反而有了反弹的势头。在海盗活动日益猖獗的情况下,罗马帝国终于忍无可忍,由庞培将军率战船5000艘、士兵12万出征地中海,摧毁了海盗的老窝,让地中海暂时恢复了一段时期的平静。如果说这个时候的海盗们都还只是些打劫商船、杀人放火的小角色,还无法和国家的舰队相抗衡,没有成为统治者们的心腹大患的话——那只是因为他们的时代还没有到来,而且,海洋的霸主——维京人此刻还在斯堪的纳维亚的森林里追逐着野鹿,在几百年之后,他们将追逐整个欧洲。

  2.与海盗历史不可分割的维京人

  说到维京人生活在1000多年前的北欧,今天的挪威、丹麦和瑞典。当时欧洲人更多将之称为Northman,即北方来客。维京是他们的自称,在北欧的语言中,这个词语包含着两重意思:首先是旅行,然后是掠夺。他们远航的足迹遍及整个欧洲,南临红海,西到北美,东至巴格达。但他们第一次在当地百姓面前出现,就是以海盗的身份抢劫掠夺。维京人是强悍的战士,他们的人数较少,于是就得依靠周密的策划与出其不意的突袭。在战斗中他们又表现得异乎寻常的狂热,悍不畏死,于是人们谈海盗色变。 他们的突击常分成两节:先在远距离上投掷长矛和发射火箭;然后用剑和战斧做近距离的了断。在海上相遇时,海盗遵守古老的传统,一声不吭地将船系在一起。在船头搭上跳板,然后依次上场单挑,每个走上跳板的人都面临这样的命运:或者将对方统统杀光,或者自己战死,由后面的同伴替自己复仇。如果感到害怕,可以转身跳进海里,没有人会追杀逃兵,但放弃战斗资格的人与死者无异,从此连家人都会忽视他的存在。因此排在船头第一个上阵的,通常是最精锐的战士,他们在战斗中赤裸上身,发着粗野的吼声,忘情地享受战斗的酣畅。他们知道,脚下的跳板浸透着祖辈的鲜血,自己的后代也会落脚在同一个地方。愤怒使维京海盗显得强大而骇人,这种战士被称为Berserker,即狂战士。没有人知道为什么,这种原始的战斗会激发出这么惊人的人类本性,狂战士的故事被代代相传。公元789年,一伙维京海盗洗劫了多赛特郡,从此英格兰就受到不断的骚扰。当地人与强盗们英勇地战斗过,但更多的时候,他们缴纳赎金,称为Danegeld(今天丹麦的赋税不叫tax,就叫Danegeld),让灾星快快离去。但钱不是总可以解决问题的,海盗有好几股,这个大王离去,另一个头领翩翩登场。在防守薄弱的地区,维京海盗很是猖獗。

  强盗的斧头毕竟无法和上帝的力量相抗衡,维京人在征服着,他们高傲地将欧洲大地踩在脚下,可是基督教却慢慢地侵蚀了他们的灵魂,改变了他们的信仰,他们融入了曾经被自己征服的文化——征服者变成了被征服者。这样,海盗们被沉入了海洋的最深处,等待着在未来被鲜血和烈火唤醒。阴郁的中世纪随后笼罩了欧洲大地,这就注定了无法出现像维京人那样勇敢而伟大的海盗——虽然这个时候,北非的柏柏尔海盗在地中海横行无忌,但是他们很快又被历史的海浪给卷了下去。

  正是因为历史上维京人如此深刻地影响了欧洲大陆,所以与北欧海盗或者是北欧神话相关的游戏很多——维京武士、北欧海盗、维京战船、北欧天神奥丁……这些人物或者物品频频出现在各种各样的游戏里面。2001年,国内发行过一款名叫《维京物语》的画面优美的策略模拟游戏,就是让玩家创造一个强大的维京王国。而Human Head推出的采用了《虚幻锦标赛》引擎的第三人称战斗游戏《北欧战神》,则是以维京海盗的时代为背景,玩家扮演一个名叫Ragnar的维京海盗战士,寻找并消灭妄图毁灭世界的恶魔。在网络游戏方面,2001年Funcom推出过一款名叫《Midgard》的游戏,游戏中表现了斯堪的那维亚半岛的独特的海洋、峡湾、森林等场景和奇特的气候变化;而热衷于游戏开发的韩国人则在2003年推出了一款名叫《Midgard》的以北欧神话为背景的网络游戏。

  3.海盗的黄金时代

  随着新航路的开辟,航海贸易业热了起来。新大陆的发现,殖民地的扩张,令世界各地游曳着各种各样满载黄金和其他货物的船只,各国的利益竞争和对殖民地的野心提供了海盗活动最大的温床。随着私掠许可证的出现,海盗活动甚至开始“合法化”了。私掠许可证听起来有点强盗逻辑,例如:一个荷兰商人的货物在德国被偷,而他不但不能通过合法或外交手段来获得对于他损失的补偿,反而能得到一封荷兰政府授权的私掠许可证,这样的许可证允许他可以俘获德国商船来祢补损失。后来各国政府使用这些许可证作为国家工具来加强海军,可以使本国在不增加预算的情况下,凭空多出一支能够攻击敌国商船的海上力量。后来海上霸主英国,就是靠着一群海盗起家的,难怪有人曾戏说:全英国就是一大群海盗,伊莉莎白就是最大的海盗头子。在这个自由与荣誉共重、炮声伴随海风齐飘的海盗黄金岁月,一批著名的海盗头子涌现出来,基德船长、“黑胡子”蒂奇、“黑色准男爵”罗伯茨等都成为了海盗史上的传奇经典。这个时期的海盗使用的武器主要是短火枪和水手弯刀。短火枪携带和使用都非常方便,是海盗的最爱;水手弯刀比一般的刀剑略短,刀身呈弧状,利于近战劈砍,是海盗们的主要武器。除此之外,他们还配有利于狭小空间作战的匕首、登船时用来砍断索具和网的登船斧、较短火枪而言射程更远威力更大的火枪……海盗船上则装备了大炮,可以发射单颗大铁球,也可以同时发射多颗小炮弹,另外还可以发射专门用来对付敌人桅杆的铁链弹——用长铁链连接的两颗大铁球。在电影《加勒比海盗》里,威尔·特纳他们发射了餐具,还有酒壶。当然,还有各种各样形形色色的武器和装备,它们也出现在了今天的电脑游戏里面,只是浴血的撕杀和呐喊变成了属性栏上的一排排数字。

  4.海盗的没落

  随着工业时代的来临,各国海军实力大大加强,海岸巡逻更严密,海盗们再也没有了往日的辉煌,从18世纪末到19世纪初的相当长一段时间里几乎销声匿迹。然而,海盗并未从此绝迹。1981年夏天,一艘“幽灵船”在巴哈马群岛附近被发现,它挂着满帆航行,不回答任何讯号,侧舷上布满弹洞,甲板上到处是血迹。经查,这艘叫卡利亚3号的帆船,两天前曾发出求救电报,说受到四艘无标志快艇的攻击。这一切显示着:海盗们死灰复燃了。同时,更快的船,更具威力的武器都使海盗们变成了更难琢磨和更有危害性的暴徒……

二、传说中海盗船长

  1“海盗之王”——基德船长:

  基德船长是海盗史上最有名的家伙,他的名字在各种电影、小说、漫画上一遍遍地被提及,甚至成了海盗的“代名词”。事实上他是海盗史上空前绝后的倒霉蛋,再没有什么人比他点儿更背了,他之所以出名,是因为“在逆境面前他没有低头,而凭借自己顽强的意志与其抗争,直到毁灭。”这一切再一次验证了那句名言“悲剧比喜剧更容易震撼人们的心灵!”

  1645年基德生于苏格兰某地,像埃夫里一样他是在孩提时代就随船出航,20岁移民美洲时已经是一个有丰富经验及高超航海本领的船长了,1689年英法开战时,他已是一个富有的商人,但还是应征入武当上了武装民运船的船长,在西印度群岛和加勒比海一带同法国人作战,屡建战功,甚至还得了英国女皇的亲自嘉奖,后来他在纽约娶妻生子,购置房产(在曼哈顿至今还有基德船长的故居)一切都是那样的顺利,没有一点不详的征兆。

  1695年,基德经商途中路过伦敦,很偶然的机会经一位熟人介绍他认识新任纽约总督爱尔兰贵族贝洛蒙勋爵,开始了他不幸的后半生,当时的英国政府正在为东方的海盗发愁,尽管东印度公司多次催促皇家海军前来,但时值英法交战,皇家海军实在是抽不出身,如此情况下,贝洛蒙提议纠集一些权贵出资入股经营一艘武装民运船,该船的任务就是攻击海盗船,夺回被抢财物,这样于公可以打击海盗们的气焰,于私可以把抢劫来的钱洗干净放入自己的腰包,何乐而不为呢?至于船长的人选,则需要找一名正直可靠有丰富航海经验的人来担当,他们选定了基德,而基德也表示“可以一试”。10月出资者已经找齐了,包括海军大臣在内的四名权贵联合赞助了这次行动,贝洛蒙和基德签署了协议,规定基德每一笔“收入”的65%归投资者,基德自己分15%,剩下的归水手,基德还拿到了袭击法国船只的“民船委任状”和一张皇帝颁布的委托书,授权他抓捕四名情节严重的海盗头子,其中就有亨利·埃夫里和托马斯·图(其实托马斯在一个月前已死,只是消息没有传过来)起初基德有些犹豫,但贝洛蒙威胁说如果他不出海就是对国王不忠,海军大臣也保证会支持他,于是12月基德乘坐“冒险”号出发了,他满心欢喜地认为自己有强力的靠山,必定马到成功,殊不知,船还没行出泰晤士河就惹出了第一件麻烦,他的船员由于行为无礼得罪了皇家海军,结果一大帮士兵涌上船来不由分说地征走了基德那些最好的水手,无奈基德只得临时召募了一批乌合之众匆忙上路了。

  整整一年,“冒险”号飘荡在大西洋上,没有遇到任何海盗船只,还处处被皇家海军欺负,基德的心情很坏,更糟的是水手们开始抱怨了,有些人甚至煽动大家去当海盗,为了稳住局势,基德被迫驶往红海,在那里他偷偷抢了几条印度商船,把财物分给了水手,无意中违反了他与赞助人的第一条约定,而且从法律上讲他犯了海盗罪,但这只是开始,8月14日晚在穆哈港外,他又驾驶“冒险”号混进一只“法国船队”,第二天一早“冒险”号开始了进攻,他首先击毁了一条商船的主桅,接着又与迎面冲来的护航兵舰对射,让他大吃一惊的是对方竟然升起了米字旗,倒霉的基德这才发现他所袭击的是英国东印度公司的船队,而正在和他作战的是英国皇家海军,基德撤退了,但“冒险”号却被认了出来,于是“基德已经变成海盗”的消息迅速传播开来,东印度公司和皇家海军也向政府递交了报告,基德的后台老板们害怕闹出丑闻,竟没有一人站出来替他说话,海军部迅速作出反应,一方面派出舰队去抓捕“冒险”号,另一方面通告各殖民地基德的行为,要求“总督们只要看见就抓”,具有讽刺意味的是基德也上了通辑令,而且和他一直不懈追捕的亨利·埃夫里一前一后排上了头两把交椅,有口难辩的基德只能一边寻求非英港口,一边靠打劫过活,但他一直相信,凭借他手中的文件,只要能回到英国他就一定能澄清事实。就这样,1698年4月1日基德的船队驶进了马达加斯加群岛的一个小港,这个小港怡巧就是海盗聚集地圣·马力诺,罗伯特·卡利福船长的海盗船“莫查”号正停在这里,天真的基德此时还认为自己是一个海盗缉捕者,竟然下令向海盗开火,但他的水手拒绝这样做,他们给基德两条路,要么死,要么当海盗,陷入绝境的基德选择了后者,正式成了一名海盗,但他始终认为自己是无辜的,坚信“只要回到英国一切都会好办”。1699年6月10日,在基德离家3年后,他的船停泊在了北美的奥伊斯特湾,在那里他给在波士顿的贝洛蒙写了一封信,要求他的支持,贝洛蒙满口答应,花言巧语把基德骗进了港,在收回了几份可以做为证据的文件后立即命人逮捕了基德,抄了他的家,找到1111盎司的黄金、2353盎司的白银,以及一磅多的钻石,但其它的宝物被藏在了哪里无从得知。

  基德被关进了伦敦的新门监狱,由于所有的证据都被贝洛蒙拿走了,他无法证实自己的清白,相反却有大批曾被他抢劫过的船主站出来指证他,1701年5月9日在一场“走过场式的审讯”中他被认定有罪判处绞刑,就这样曾经的海军英雄、大名鼎鼎的基德船长成为了政治的牺牲品被吊在了泰晤士河边,为了警示其它的海盗,基德的尸体被涂满了柏油,用铁圈固定挂在了泰晤士河边一挂就是好几年,海欧啄去他的眼睛,野狗对着他的腐尸吠叫,而他的宝藏一直没有被找到,和他那坎坷传奇的经历一起成为了永远的传说。


  2“海盗女王”——唐·埃斯坦巴·卡塔琳娜:

  卡塔琳娜18世纪中叶出生于西班牙,是当时巴塞罗那船王的千金,与那些来自社会底层有一身无赖习气的英国海盗不同,她从小就受到了正统的贵族教育,她的父亲对她抱有很大希望,因而对她的要求很严格,但卡塔琳娜生来就是个活泼好动的女孩,是个喜武厌文的小姑娘,还是很小的时候,她就和敬爱的哥哥一起骑马、划船,在哥哥的熏陶下,完全走上了一条本属于男孩子的“转职路线”。到十七岁那年已然出落得亭亭玉立的卡塔琳娜,已经是一个武艺高强的“女强人”了,无论是剑术还是枪法都到了炉火纯青的地步。在今天看来固然不错,但在当时她则完全不符合上流社会的审美观,一句话“她一点也不像一个千金小姐”。终于,在十八岁的时候他那被气得半死的父亲把她送进了修道院,希望她能在那里有所收敛,但卡塔琳娜生来就是个向往自由的女孩,她实在是无法忍受这种半囚禁式的生活,她狠了狠心,毅然决然地剪去了红色的长发,逃出了修道院脱离了专制的家庭,女扮男装开始了流浪生涯,为了活下去她干过各种职业,在酒吧里当伙计,在邮局当邮差,参加过盗贼团,也干过水手,一年后在秘鲁她报名参加了陆军,并且成功地隐瞒了自己的身份,在当时的军队,不平等的事件屡有发生,长官不但克扣军饷,还仗势欺人,动辄对士兵施以打骂,性烈如火的卡塔琳娜不甘受辱,一天晚上,在一次大规模的集体冲突中,她一怒之下杀死了任驻军副司令的上校,并且和上校的副官剑对剑的打了起来,由于当时的天太黑,谁也看不清对方的面孔,但双方都明白对手是一个一等一的高手,丝豪不敢怠慢,经过一场激烈的战斗,卡塔琳娜夺取了最终的胜利,但她还没来得及享受喜悦,就惊讶地发现她杀死的正是她那参军多年的哥哥。(在《大航海时代Ⅱ》中卡塔琳娜的哥哥是死于西班牙候爵马丁内斯之手),悲痛欲绝的卡塔琳娜深深地陷入自责和悔恨之中,她连夜逃离了驻地,万般无奈之下加入了海盗团伙。这就是在《大航海时代Ⅱ》里拥有极高人气度的西班牙海盗女王唐·埃斯坦巴·卡塔琳娜的原型。

  在茫茫大海上,性格豪爽的卡塔琳娜很快和海盗们打成了一片,海盗们敬佩她高超的航海技术和娴熟的武艺,而她也喜爱海盗们的诚恳与直率,在一次海战中,船长战死了,她被推选当上了新的船长,这时海盗们才惊异的发现他们的船长原来是一个离家出走的千金小姐,就这样卡塔琳娜开始了长达十年的征战杀伐,她拥有十艘楼船和上千名手下,打遍了南大西洋抢劫了大批的船队,而那些企图和她争抢地盘的英国海盗也都在她的剑下变成了冤魂,但这位海盗女王,也有自己的准则:她从来不曾袭击过一艘西班牙船只,还经常救助那些落难的西班牙商船,在她心中无时无刻不在思念自己的祖国,当时的海上霸主英国对这位“海盗女王”甚感头痛,于是就向西班牙政府施加压力,要他们帮助消灭卡塔琳娜,在第十年头,卡塔琳娜队伍被西班牙舰队击溃,而这位绰号“火の女郎”的小姐也被带回马德里受审,经过一审判决判处死刑,但国民一致认为她是无罪的,这件事惊动了国王菲利浦三世,在他的干预下法院重新审理了案件,最终将卡塔琳娜无罪释放了,不仅如此,国王还亲自召见了这位“西班牙的英雄”,赏赐给她“大笔的金钱和封地”。卡塔琳娜一直住在那里,终生未嫁。

3“黑胡子”——爱德华·蒂奇:

  生辰年日不详,出生地不详,安妮女王时代在一艘武装民船当水手,当时的英国正与西班牙处于交战状态,尽管西班牙的无敌舰队在一百多年前的英西海战中已经被消灭,但西班牙仍旧是英国在海上强有力的竞争对手,所以英国继续鼓励武装民船政策,企图利用海盗来骚扰甚至切断西班牙的商业线,1713年最后一次“英西海战”落下了帷幕,大英帝国成了名符其实的海上霸主,但当女王下令武装民船停止对商船进攻时才发现这些人早已将此当成职业而欲罢不能了,他们不但继续抢劫而且连英国船只也不放过,整个加勒比海成了海盗们的狩猎场,英国政府也尝到了玩火自焚的痛楚,在这种历史背景下黑胡子蒂奇登场了。

  蒂奇留着一丛浓密的黑胡子,据说打出娘胎以来就从没剃过,下至前胸上举齐眉,又长又密,据说还被蒂奇编成了许多小辩子,模样甚是可怕,他本是大海盗戈特船长的手下,后来脱离了戈特自立门户。1715年他指挥着有40门火炮的“复仇女王”号出海时还没有人知道他的名字,但几天后他就迎来了成名的机会,当时的海盗们总是想尽一切办法避开皇家海军,即便是狭路相逢,也尽量避免战斗,除非陷入绝境,他们是不会与海军交战的。但蒂奇不同,他生来就是个亡命徒,别人眼中的危险在他看来是最大的挑战。后世曾有人评价说:“黑胡子从没把什么放在眼里,他是个天生的恶魔。”所以他一出海就直奔东海岸的英国海防处,在军港港口大摇大摆地抢劫了英国商船“爱伦”号,当时在港内停泊的海军战舰迅速出港截击,两船在港外宽敞水面上开始了一对一的“决斗”,英国战舰首先开火了,蒂奇则镇定自若地驾着船避开每一发致命的攻击,瞅准机会“复仇女王”号全速前进拦腰撞在了英国战舰上,皇家海军们吓坏了,他们从见过这种不要命的打法,正当他们乱成一锅粥的时候,蒂奇的水手们举起枪开始向甲板疯狂射击,英国官兵死伤惨重,残破的卡斯巴勒号在蒂奇骇人般的大笑中,狼狈逃入港中。自此一战,“黑胡子蒂奇”名震天下,整个大西洋沿岸陷入恐怖之中。此后,蒂奇打劫了无数的商船,人们很快发现金钱并非这个家伙唯一的爱好,他最大的爱好是杀人,每劫到一艘船他就要杀死整船的旅客,或是强迫他们去“跳甲板”(将人双手捆住,蒙住双眼后强迫其从船舷上跳下去)。传说在每次埋藏珍宝时,蒂奇都会带一名水手同行,然后当土埋到一半时他就从背后杀死这名水手,把他和珍宝埋藏在一起(这个情节在很多电影小说中都曾被借用)。总之,他是个不折不扣的恶魔,但就在这时,他突然神秘地消失了,因为他爱上了一个姑娘。

  传说黑胡子在袭击一艘商船时杀死了船上所有的人,但只有一个姑娘例外,她是船长的女儿。据说她当时一边擦拭着父亲脸上的鲜血,一边吻着死者额头,完全无视黑胡子和他的手下,“四下弥漫着一种神圣而不可侵犯的气氛”。海盗们完全被震慑住了,没有谁敢上去再给那姑娘一刀,而黑胡子的良知也被唤醒了,他答应姑娘不再做海盗,甚至还剃掉了胡子,他们一起定居在了北卡罗莱纳过着稳定安闲的生活,邻居都认为他们是温顺善良的小俩口,没有人能想到这个“温顺的蒂奇”就是黑胡子,但两年后一场瘟疫带走了蒂奇生命中的天使,悲伤到极点的蒂奇狂性大发,又一次变成了黑胡子。

  1718年秋,斯波茨伍德接到密报说黑胡子的旗舰“冒险者”正停泊在奥克拉库克湾,总督立刻派遣两艘军舰“珍珠号”和“里姆号”前去抓捕,行动的指挥官叫梅纳德,11月17日下午3点战斗打响了,由于奥克拉库克湾地形复杂,到处都是浅滩和暗礁,战斗刚一开始,双方的船就都搁浅了,海战变成了陆战,但黑胡子的炮手还是准确地击中了里姆号,船长贝克当即死亡,当黑胡子带着手下爬上珍珠号时,孤军奋战的梅纳德只有12名士兵还能战斗。稳操胜券的黑胡子还不知道命运女神的天秤已经歪向了梅纳德一边,据目击者回忆两个指挥官几乎是同时拔出了手枪,但黑胡子因为喝醉了酒没能打中,倒是梅纳德一枪打中了他的肚子,但身材魁梧的黑胡子却狂吼着扑过来一下打断了梅纳德的佩剑,这个时候一个水兵一刀刺中了他的脖子,但这个巨人一边喷着血一边死死掐住梅纳德的喉咙,其它的水兵则一窝蜂的冲上来,直到黑胡子断气为止,群龙无首,其它的海盗马上放下了武器,梅纳德获得了他自己都不敢相信的胜利,在黑胡子身上总共有25处刀伤和5处枪伤,梅纳德把蒂奇的头割下来挂在军舰上带回了弗吉尼亚,黑胡子的死标致着美洲海盗的衰亡,除了罗伯茨之外再也没有什么“海盗王”存在了。

  小结:从公元前1350年至今,杀人不眨眼的恶魔逐渐演变成了我们人类文化的一部分。文学、动漫、影视作品里越来越多地出现了他们的身影——脚穿皮靴、腰间别着一把短火枪、戴着眼罩、肩膀上停靠了一只鹦鹉(《加勒比海盗》里站在巴布沙肩膀上的是一只猴子)……相较于以北欧时代为题材的游戏,这些后来者的海盗形象也要更丰富了些。与前面提到过的《大航海时代》系列相比,Bethesda推出的《海狗》系列则完完全全地可以说是海盗扮演游戏——优美的场景和华丽的海战,还有真实的船舰模型和复杂的游戏世界,将玩家送回了那个在大海上战火纷飞的时代。与《海狗》系列相类似的还有Ascaron发行的《新世界海盗》,这款策略游戏也是让玩家扮演海盗,通过商业、抢劫、海战等方式,最后成为海上的霸主。比较另类特别的则有Spririt公司开发的3D动作冒险游戏《巫毒岛》和Poptop公司的经营模拟游戏《海岛大亨:海盗湾》,前者是让玩家扮演海盗,并找到失落的“巫毒岛”和珠宝,后者则是让玩家经营一个海盗海岛。在网络游戏方面,美国的Flying Lab Software公司2003年推出了一款以18世纪航海时代为主题的3D游戏《Pirates of the Burning Sea》,玩家可以扮演航海家或者是海盗,为了探索新大陆和争夺财富而展开冒险,据说在游戏中可以当海盗。另外,据说光荣也会推出《大航海时代Online》,看来众多玩家们彻夜不眠地在浩瀚大海上扬帆远航的日子又要开始了,让我们为海盗梦想继续前行…… 

 知识点:

  海盗的宝藏

  对于过着刀口舐血日子的海盗来说,刺激他们的原动力,就是那诱人的金银财宝。当时流行的货币是西班牙银元,而最吸引海盗的还是那闪闪发光的黄金和璀璨的珠宝。通常海盗把抢来的财宝平分后就会到陆上挥霍一空,但是有时候碰上一宗特大买卖,他们就会找一个秘密的地方把财物藏好,并画下藏宝图,以备将来之用。不过这往往引发海盗之间的矛盾,从而互相算计,结果同归于尽,使得宝藏成了后世好事之徒的“努力目标”。海盗史上最大的一笔“买卖”,即“利马大宝”案发生在1821年。当时,南美反西班牙殖民统治的著名领袖西蒙·玻利瓦尔率领的军队逼近秘鲁首府利马。当时的利马被认为是南美最富饶的城市,有无数的金锭、金币、印加人的金饰物、宗教神庙的贵重用具、项链、戒指、镶满宝石的武器、金像等等,这批宝物被装上英国的一艘两桅帆船“玛丽·基尔”号。由当时以忠诚可靠闻名的荷兰籍船长亚姆·汤姆逊指挥,运往英国。“玛丽·基尔”号起航后,一天夜里,汤姆逊带领水手闯入客舱,杀死押船的利马总督和大主教,船上升起了海盗旗。此后,这笔巨额财富就下落不明。当时盛传,这笔宝藏被埋在太平洋的一个小岛——可可索夫岛,也就是后来米蒂文森在名著《金银岛》中描写的那个小岛。而在中国其实也有一些关于海盗宝藏的传说:相传在明嘉靖四十四年(1565年)八月,龟缩在南澳岛的大海盗吴平面对明朝两位最伟大的军事家戚继光和俞大猷的合击,匆匆将平日劫掠来的大笔金银珠宝埋藏在某个神秘地方。古老相传,藏宝地点就在深澳镇贼澳湾的金银岛上。藏宝时吴平试探他的妹妹:“如果山寨被剿,你是随我逃走还是留下来看守金银?”妹妹说:“还是留下来好。”于是吴平就将妹妹杀死并分尸和金银埋在一起。到了十月,戚继光在宰猪澳登陆成功,进而分兵直捣敌寨,吴平仓卒夺船入海。四十五年四月,终于在安南(今越南)万桥山被戚、俞部歼灭。而宝藏的秘密也随同吴平深埋在地下,只留下一段充满玄机的歌谣:“水涨淹不着,水退淹三尺。”这藏宝谜语其实还有上半段:“吾道向南北,东西藏地壳。”而有关藏宝的数额,同样有一首歌谣:“九瓮十八缸,一缸连一缸,谁人得的着,铺路到潮州。”至于这个宝藏现在在哪里,至今还是个迷。


  海盗旗

  即骷髅旗,也就是一个骷髅加上两根交叉骨头的旗帜,这绝对是海盗的标志。虽然来源已不可考,但很多人认为这个词其实是来自法语单词JOLI(即非常红的意思),从前的海盗们用这个词来描述船桅上高高飘扬的血红旗帜。不管它源自何处,骷髅旗的作用是毋庸争议的:将恐惧之箭深深射入海上猎物的心底。以前的海盗在平时使用称为“假色”的任意国国旗,而战时则升起“真色”——骷髅旗,来恐吓那些“猎物”。在18世纪时,第一面海盗旗由艾曼纽·韦恩船长在加勒比海升起。多数情况下,海盗在追逐猎物时,升起白色旗帜,表明身份。有时猎物会因此降下国王的旗帜而屈服;如果猎物拒绝投降,海盗们则升起黑白两色旗帜,表明意图;而若猎物继续逃窜,或是海盗船长过于残暴的话,红色旗帜会在桅顶飘扬,意思是一旦捕获猎物,不留任何活口。当然,海盗旗上的图形也是为了表达其特定含义而被设计出来的:头骨象征的是死亡;带有号角的整个骷髅,是指受尽折磨而死;飞标或矛的图案暗示惨遭横死;滴血的心脏比喻的是痛苦地慢慢结束生命;举着匕首或水手刀的手臂预示嗜杀的习性。

  比较奇特的做法也有:黑胡子把上述这些主要的标志一个不漏地都放到他的旗帜上;杰克·拉克汉用雅致的交叉长剑图形代替了传统的交叉人骨;托马斯·提欧也模仿地使用了剑的图案在他的旗帜上,找不到象征死亡的图案,但侵害他人利益的人,命运可并没有因此而得到改观。提欧爵士大概认为,用不带有死亡含义的物件来描述他的暴力行动,会显得礼貌些吧。

海盗们的装备

  在海上过着亡命生活的海盗们,战斗是他们生活中的一大部分,一件好的武器,无论是落后的斧头或是先进的火枪,都可以让海盗们在你死我活的斗争中获得更大的生存可能。

  匕首:匕首是用作突袭的理想武器,另外,在挥剑不便的狭小空间也十分有用。

  火枪:火枪在海盗中可是种比较豪华的装备,当时的人们用碳、硫和硝酸钾混合制成黑火药,来驱动火枪所使用的圆形铅弹。在18世纪,多数火枪还是依靠燧石打火器来点火,燧石被紧紧夹在一个钳子中,当扣压扳机时,燧石撞击对面的金属块而产生火花,火花被导入装有火药的盘子,引爆火药,子弹就由枪口射出了,这可是好危险的!和今天的枪支不同,那时的火枪是没有膛线的。

  短火枪:和火枪功能相似,但短火枪在当时可是常用得多。虽然在射程上无法相比,但由于体积的关系,短火枪在使用和携带上更为方便,海盗对手枪一向推崇倍至。通常第一个登上敌人船只的船员有任意挑选战利品的奖赏,而大多数人挑的第一件东东就是——短火枪!(咕咚~不就是现在的手枪吗!)

  水手刀:水手刀可以说是海盗最最主要的武器了。为了适应接近战,水手刀被设计得比一般的刀剑稍短。它是一件劈砍用的武器,而且呈弧状,以增加劈砍的威力。水手刀并不需要使用者有高深的技术,同时它也是海军舰船上的标准武器。

  大炮:黑火药出现不久,大炮也应运而生。其实,它的构造并不复杂。一根中空的粗管子,堵塞一头,就是它的全部。大铁球炮弹从空的一头填入炮管,推到底。而炮弹和底部之间,就是火药。 大炮的末端有点火孔,可以用火柴来点燃火药。大炮的威力是巨大的,大炮可以发射圆球弹、葡萄弹和铁链弹。圆球弹就是一个大铁球,用来在船板上打洞十分有效;葡萄弹是好多小炮弹,用于撕裂敌船的帆,或是对甲板上的人员造成大面积杀伤;至于铁链弹,则是用长铁链连接的两颗大铁球,打断敌船的桅杆好用得很。当时的大炮是用“磅”来分级的,例如十磅大炮,或是十二磅大炮等等。


  海盗的规章制度

  很多海盗在组织上有着严格的规章制度。通常都是写成条文,并由全体船员签名共同遵守的。大多数情况下,它包含了劫掠得手后战利品的分配比例。自然,条文中还包括了对违纪者的处罚——当然都是极其严厉的。

  例一 巴沙洛缪·罗伯茨船长和他的船员所用的规章(由1724年查尔斯·詹森船长整理)

  1每人都有选举权

  2人人公平,但在财产方面不得欺骗,违者放逐

  3禁止赌博

  4晚八点熄灯,此后想喝酒的到甲板上去喝

  5保持武器的整洁,随时可用

  6男孩和女子不得加入队伍,若有船员带女子到海上,他将被处死

  7延误战机者,处死或放逐

  8船上不得互斗,争端到岸上用剑或手枪解决

  9不得谈论改变生活方式的话题

  10船长得两份战利品,炮手一份半,其他人等一又四分之一份。


  例二 约翰·菲利浦船长和他的船员所用的规章(由1924年菲利浦·高瑟船长整理)

  1人人遵从内部命令,船长得所有战利品的一半

  2逃跑者和对同伴守秘者将被放逐(给予一桶火药、一桶水及一件小武器)

  3从群体中偷盗财物者,视价值大小,放逐或枪决

  4当遇见别的被放逐者,给予船长和船员认为合适的惩罚

  5当条文在军中时,殴打他人者给予摩西之法(赤裸的背上打四十鞭)

  6折断武器者,持蜡烛不加灯罩者,同上

  7不能保持武器整洁者,玩忽职守者,扣除应得的战利品,或给予船长和船员认为合适的惩罚

  8战斗中失去一关节者,给予四百金币,失去一肢者,八百金币

  9调戏女子者立即处死。


  周边资料

  船首像:如果问一名水手,在船上最具美感的东西是什么,他会毫不犹豫地告诉你是“船首像”。是的,上至公元前,人们就已经把图腾和神祗雕像固定在船首,以期神明可以保佑航行的顺利,在水手们的心目中,船首像就是一条船的象征,是一条船的灵魂,它还是战斗意志的体现,同时也是爱与美的化身。

  海盗与自助餐:你知道吗?现在流行的自助餐,其真正的发明者就是8至11世纪斯堪的纳维亚半岛附近的海盗们。那时的海盗每次有所猎祸时,就要由海盗船长出面大宴群盗,以示庆贺。但海盗们不熟悉也不习惯当时中西欧吃西餐的繁文缛节;于是便别出心裁,发明了这种自己到餐台上自选、自取食品及饮料的吃法,以后的西餐业者将其文明、规范化,并丰富了吃食的内容,就成了目前的自助餐,很多西方专业自助餐厅现在还冠以“海盗餐厅“的名字,缘由在此。

  海盗一词在英文中的三种说法:

  PIRATE(海盗):“PIRATE”的基本意思是指海上抢劫者。而“PIRACY”则是指在海军部的司法权以内的海上掠夺,是由政府授意、组织的“官方海盗”。

  CORSAIR(回教徒海盗):这个词被用来指在地中海进行劫掠的海盗或私略者。他们中最著名的是从北非来的蛮族(欧洲人称伊斯兰教徒为野蛮人)海盗。他们的政府授权他们以便攻击基督国家的海上运送。名声略逊的是由圣约翰骑士领导,不断与土耳其人争斗的马尔他海盗。起初他们的热情由宗教来推动,但是后来海上掠夺成了真正目的。

  PRIVATEER(私掠者):“PRIVATEER”既可以指武装的船只(武装民船),又可以指它的首领(私掠者)或它的船员。私掠者与海盗之间的主要的差别是:私掠者得到政府的命令及授权来俘获敌对民族的商船。来自政府或是商会的信件公文是国际通用的。战时各国常采用武装民船来攻击敌对船只,因为这样既省下了造船费,又保存了正规海军的实力。

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从冷战结束中受益:俄罗斯黑帮

  冷战结束后,俄罗斯黑帮终于能自由地与国外同行切磋技艺。双方惺惺相惜,大有相见恨晚之感。俄罗斯黑帮向尼日利亚提供武器,从哥伦比亚购买毒品,与意大利黑手党合作洗钱,跟日本雅库扎携手开拓色情市场,他们贩卖核材料的企图一直是美国政府心中挥之不去的梦魇。美国联邦调查局局长认为,俄罗斯黑帮已经取代了前苏联军队,成为欧美安全体系的新威胁。

  在俄罗斯国内,黑帮则控制了一切。“体坛教父”托克塔霍诺夫,不仅在盐湖城冬奥会操纵裁判令旗下选手获得双人滑冠军,还把手伸向网球界。卡费尔尼科夫、萨芬、库尔尼科娃公开承认和这位“体坛教父”是朋友,但都拒绝深谈细节。库“辣妹”解释说:“我是一个俄罗斯人,我还要回到那去。” 活着的人只能保持沉默,敢谈论细节的体育人都死了。1996年,斯巴达克职业冰球俱乐部总经理被枪杀。不到一年,俄罗斯冰球协会负责人下了地狱。2个月后,莫斯科斯巴达克足球俱乐部总经理也见了阎王。

  网络卖淫是俄罗斯黑帮步入信息时代的标志。在国际征婚网站里,虽然肯定有良家妇女,但如果征婚者过于美艳动人的话,很可能就另有玄机了。俄罗斯《真理报》说70%的跨国征婚都由俄罗斯黑帮控制,一个嫁到美国的新娘熟悉当地环境后,就会把她的姐妹们弄过去,共同开拓当地市场。是否属实,不得而知,但在俄罗斯最大的国际征婚网站上,确有很多明眸皓齿的少女。如果你愿出2000美金,网站可以为你安排一次“特殊”的相亲之旅。

  * 俄罗斯职业杀手

  他们已成了恐怖的代名词。为人所不知的是,职业杀手有两种:一种受雇于黑帮,负责消灭那些碍手碍脚的家伙。另一种是警察内部的“死神小组”,专门对付涉嫌杀害警察的黑帮分子。但他们的特点是共同的:都使用军队的正规武器,全部一枪毙命,作案后均顺利逃离现场。

  * 犯罪之都——圣彼得堡

  俄罗斯总统普京花了15亿美元庆祝“圣彼得堡建市300周年”,44国元首也前来捧场。但在当地人眼里,这是一座“犯罪之都”。

  2000年爆发的新一轮冲突中,波罗的海石油公司总裁卡卢什于光天化日下被打死在市中心,而俄罗斯最大的啤酒制造厂的二号人物、35岁的沃尔斯曼也被神秘的职业枪手在家门口干掉。2002年,圣彼得堡警方缴获2000多件武器,包括100多枚手榴弹和21挺机枪。而当地媒体认为,警方所缴获的与黑帮持有的相比,“连冰山的一角都算不上”。

  在这座犯罪之都,官员似乎很难一尘不染。谣传说圣彼得堡市长弗拉基米尔·雅科夫列夫是在黑帮的支持下赢得两次连任。就连普京这位以清白无瑕著称的总统,也似乎脱不了关系。据美国《新闻周刊》报道,美国和欧洲情报官员怀疑圣彼得堡的俄罗斯-德国房地产开发公司参与黑社会洗钱,而普京在圣彼得堡当副市长期间曾在该公司的顾问委员会中任职。尽管没有证据表明普京从这家公司得到过好处,但在这些蛛丝马迹里依然可以嗅到无孔不入的黑帮气味。

*俄罗斯娘子军

  早在前苏联时代,伊万科夫就是色情业巨头。1991年移民美国后,这个长得像日本人的家伙开始向欧美推广“俄罗斯美少女”。在1994年法国博纳举行的世界黑帮高级会议上,伊万科夫代表俄罗斯黑帮加入精英俱乐部,与来自美国、日本、意大利和哥伦比亚的“企业家”们讨论如何划分势力范围并加强合作,会议确立了伊万科夫“全球美女供应商”的地位。

  由前苏联特种兵组成的杀手团,加上美艳惊人的娘子军,伊万科夫不断扩张自己的版图。把芬兰从爱沙尼亚黑帮手中夺过来,在德国挤走了土耳其人,迫使阿尔巴尼亚黑帮退出法国市场。风头之劲,一时无二,他甚至把触角伸到中国——简直就像当年的蒙古铁骑一样,“所向披靡,战无不胜。”

  “国际反奴役妇女组织”新闻秘书维特曼透露,目前中国境内约有6000名俄罗斯小姐。在北京主要集中在友谊商店和三里屯一带,价格从50到150美元不等;在上海的高级私人俱乐部中,每夜700美元的俄罗斯美女随便挑;而在哈尔滨,俄罗斯小姐们乘旅游大巴而来,经过两周夜以继日的劳动,用身体挣来的钱买日用品运回俄罗斯卖。

  像中国的出口商品一样,仅仅价格低是不够的,还要有品牌和服务,而负责伊万科夫集团“品牌建设”的,是前苏联克格勃的性爱大师们。

  *性爱大师

  萨沙是前苏联克格勃的官员,当新一代的俄罗斯情报机关不再使用美女间谍后,他失业了。还好,伊万科夫给他一份新工作——培训高级小姐。

  萨沙穿着深色西服,神情严肃地坐在教室里。教室中间是一张宽大柔软的床,粉色灯光下,4个年龄介于18~24岁之间的丰满女人坐在床的两侧,薄如蝉翼的紫色睡衣下空空荡荡,缎子般光滑的大腿撩人情欲。她们呻吟着,像叫春的猫,令人躁动不安。

  但是,萨沙平静地倾听着呻吟声,作为一个有着20年克格勃经历的职业教官,他正在给学生们上第一课——如何优雅地脱衣、诱惑地呻吟。他的工作是把那些活泼可爱的邻家女孩培养成充满野性和欲望的女人,全身上下每一分、每一寸都燃烧着来自地狱的火焰,随时随刻都可以把男人活活“烧死”。

  前一天晚上,他的学生们分别和4个男人上床。这既是对年轻的黑帮骨干分子的奖励,也是课前必不可少的热身。服下春药的女人们发出本能的叫声,整个做爱过程都被录下来,现在她们要做的是结合录像,模仿自己高潮时的呻吟。在以后的课程中,萨沙还会帮助她们分析每一个床上动作。

  床上课程结束后,每个学生还会根据自己的爱好,学习音乐、美术或者文学,然后用学生签证进入欧洲和美国,成为那里身价最高的小姐。

臭名昭著的华裔黑帮:大圈帮

  最早的华裔黑帮被称为“中华英雄”,他们有资格骄傲,面对警察的漠视,除了团结起来对付当地黑势力外,他们别无选择。

  在警方档案中最早出现的华裔黑帮,是20世纪70年代纽约唐人街的ABC(American-born Chinese,在美国出生的中国人)组织。ABC与黑手党进行了3年战争,令甘必诺家族失去了37名得力干将。据联邦调查局对保罗·甘必诺的窃听录音显示,这位教父认为黑手党已无法继续控制唐人街,不如放弃。就这样,ABC“解放”了唐人街,并在地下社会赢得了声誉。

  失去共同的敌人后,ABC内部开始火并,内战长达10年,直到1985年美国警方成功卧底,一举将所有老大全部投入监狱,唐人街才恢复了宁静。但和平是短暂的,冲突才是永恒主题。ABC的失败,给另一个华裔黑帮大圈帮提供了迅速崛起的机会,偷渡和高科技犯罪成为唐人街的新油水。

  大圈帮只是初级阶段的黑帮,没有严密的组织结构,核心成员多有行伍背景。大圈帮最早成名于香港,然后随着内地移民潮转战北美和澳大利亚。

  80年代初期,大圈帮的标准配备是“黑星”(五四手枪)。尽管黑星的指向性差(25米的距离能跑偏20公分)、握把角度不好(正常握持时枪口向下,所以手腕要向上挺),但是它的穿透力极强,极其适合黑帮的近距离作战。当时香港警察的防弹衣,遇到“黑星”绝对是一枪一个洞。因此有经验的香港警察,见到“黑星”掉头就跑。

  加拿大也是大圈帮的势力范围。在当地有组织犯罪调查局的名单上,大圈帮已经超越港台的莲花帮和越南帮,成为亚裔黑帮中的老大。它与当地的地狱天使帮携手,控制了毒品批发市场的半壁江山。

  大圈帮在澳大利亚也赫赫威名。2002年,澳大利亚警方查获一起上亿美元的贩毒案,结果发现有10名大圈帮成员涉嫌其中。他们不仅把越南裔的“5T党”赶出澳大利亚唐人街,也向当地白人发动了新一轮的鸦片战争。

黑社会的智囊:美国犹太帮

  每个成功男人的背后,都有一个犹太智囊。小布什的智囊是副国防部长沃尔福威茨,而卢西安诺的犹太智囊是迈耶·兰斯基,他是唯一能参加黑手党全国代表大会的外国人。虽然没有投票权,但意大利教父们异常尊敬他,因为兰斯基不仅有头脑,还掌控着黑手党的财务收支。

  兰斯基和卢西安诺的友谊可以追溯到童年时代。当卢西安诺向这个犹太小孩收保护费时,得到的回答是:“把你的保护费塞进你的屁眼里吧,我不需要。”他们从此成为朋友,除了相同的野心和暴力外,他们都是冷静的职业罪犯。20世纪20年代,卢西安诺和兰斯基开办了“七家集团”,垄断了纽约的私酒市场。为了保持与兰斯基的友谊,卢西安诺甚至不惜干掉自己的教父——马塞利亚。

  在兰斯基的策划下,卢西安诺一步步地把充满暴徒气息的黑手党改造为组织严密的现代化社团。当卢西安诺入狱时,兰斯基设法营救了他;当卢西安诺被流放西西里时,兰斯基成为他在美国的代表。

  但是,教父之间的友谊建立在实力基础上。尽管远在西西里的卢西安诺依然具有强大的影响力,但遥控指挥总不如身临其境,兰斯基开始悄悄发展自己的势力,一个重要的举措是投资建立赌城拉斯维加斯。

  提出建议的是本杰明·西格尔,兰斯基童年时期的战友;促使黑手党全国委员会通过建议的,是习惯于幕后操纵的兰斯基。1943年,西格尔开始在荒凉小镇拉斯维加斯建设第一座赌场——“火烈鸟”旅馆。但是,1946年旅馆的开业彻底失败,600万美元打了水漂。更致命的是,西格尔的女友弗吉尼亚·希尔在瑞士的账户却多了50万美元。这令兰斯基和黑手党感到愤怒。他一边以5万美元盘下破产的旅馆,打发掉债权人;一边促使委员会通过了对西格尔的死刑判决。

  两年后,旅馆重新营业。经过前一次的失败,这次开业大获成功,第一年就赚了100万美元。在上个世纪40年代,这相当于纽约黑手党一年的保护费收入。会下金蛋的旅馆越盖越多,到了60年代,兰斯基和他的犹太帮在拉斯维加斯有了17家赌场,而黑手党只有11家。

  兰斯基的过人之处还在于他始终躲在黑手党的背后。黑手党的所有收入,他都有一份;而来自政府和警方的打击,却全落在黑手党的背上。

  嚣张加拿大的黑帮:地狱天使

  60年代,一群骑着大功率摩托车四处乱逛的美国嬉皮士创造了这个名词。这些穿着黑色皮衣、蓄着落腮胡子,肥胖粗鲁、决不洗澡的家伙沿着高速公路穿行北美,吓坏了许多宁静的村镇,也吸引了不少崇拜者加入。到了80年代,厌倦了流浪的“天使”们在加拿大成立了地狱天使黑帮,目前已茁壮成长为加拿大的第一黑帮。总部设在蒙特利尔,成员约4万人,以贩毒为主业。

  1995年,地狱天使和另一大黑帮滚石机器在魁北克省爆发了地盘争夺战。冲突持续了7年,在你来我往的谋杀和报复中,双方共有160人下了地狱。迫于平民不满情绪日趋强烈,加拿大警方发动了“2001春季行动”。2000多名警察在一夜之间逮捕了100多名“天使”。警方暗示,如果双方继续厮杀下去,他们还会采取更严厉的镇压措施。和平的呼声产生了效果,2001年9月26日下午,双方举行了闭门会议,地点选在魁北克省的一家法院里。那里既安静又安全,没人能把枪带进法院,而警方扫黑组也不会光顾法院。地狱天使的教父茅利斯·布彻与滚石机器的老大弗莱德·特莫各带了3名助手,在庄严的法院里达成了历史性和解。魁北克安全部的发言人事后证实了这一消息,但他强调,双方的和解不会影响警方对暴力事件的打击。不过在那以后,加拿大警方再也没有进行大规模扫黑行动。

  黑暗力量从未停止过自身的变幻,正如一片草枯萎,就会有另一片草欣荣。在他们不断地撕杀和争名夺利之后,新的权威诞生了。但安享荣耀的心态是极其危险且绝对被唾弃的,胜利者比失败者更容易陷入四面楚歌。与阳光下的文明世界相比,这个黑色地域像野生动物世界一样原始、血腥,富有攻击性:随处可见的弱肉强食,明显的群体生存,频繁的新陈代谢。然而,胜利者仍然能享受到它们最美妙的时刻,那就是——激烈对峙中的高潮迭起。

  最庞大的东亚黑帮组织:雅库扎

  如果有人在日本街头寻衅滋事,那么最先赶到的,不是警察,是雅库扎成员。他们会用最残酷的手段对付闹事者以维持自己地盘上的秩序;如果发生了谋杀案,雅库扎也会像警察那样不遗余力地调查真相,然后把凶手交给真正的警察。投桃报李,每次政府扫黑前,雅库扎高级成员都会提前回避。考虑到警方的面子,他们通常会留下几只枪,方便警察“没收”。

  雅库扎和政界的关系很好,每次竞选的背后,都有来自雅库扎的资金和选票。因此,当山口帮教父因谋杀入狱时,前首相相岸信介和两位前大臣联名保释他。这件事震惊了世界,但日本人却习以为常。1975年,日本警方在一位山口组教父的家中发现一张巨幅照片,照片上的教父正与当时的首相大平正芳举杯痛饮。

  雅库扎和官方也不是完全没有冲突。当教父田岗葛路因心脏病去世时,山口组不顾警方的反复规劝,决定公开举行传统的佛教葬礼。作为报复,警方逮捕了近900名山口组成员。但到了葬礼那一天,还是有来自全国的1300名追随者聚集神户。大约800名头戴钢盔、手持盾牌的防暴警察在四周严阵以待,另外500名警察在机场和火车站搜身检查每一个参加葬礼的人,包括日本的头号明星高仓健。高仓健因雅库扎电影《网走监狱》而成名,并在《田岗生活三步曲》中扮演田岗葛路本人。

  葬礼后,108名高级成员投票选举竹中正久继任教父。但是,二老板山本广拒绝合作。他召开记者招待会,他告诉日本人民为真理奋斗的时刻到了,并正式宣布:“我不能同意竹中做山口组教父,这是我诚挚的最后的决定。”

  2个月后,山本和另外18位高级成员组建了“伊地和”帮,拉走了山口组的一半成员。为了不让山本广的风头压过自己,竹中正久举行了更为隆重的就职典礼。300多名成员参加,全部是黑西服、白领带和镀金的帮徽。在一家日式酒店里,前教父遗孀庄严地把一支象征无上权力的短剑交给新教父。

  在日本黑帮里生存,是件非常难的事。1993年6月,稻川会的一个组长小宫政芳朗,因无法完成组织分配的保护费定额开枪自杀了。自杀前他给情妇打电话说:“与其因借不到钱被组织开除而丢脸,还不如去死。”3周后,山口组的一位组长也因同样的原因而饮弹自尽。

  *雅库扎

        一个有数百年历史的东亚黑帮。它在日本可以公开活动。教父由民主选举产生,并通过记者招待会公之于众。目前约有10万成员,3个最大的帮会分别是山口组(26000人)、稻川会(8300人)和住吉会(8200人)。年收入在1000亿美元以上,其中35%来自毒品,也有20%是正当投资所得的合法收入。

最嚣张的贩毒集团:麦德林

  巴勃罗·埃斯科巴曾被《财富》杂志评选为全球7大富豪之一,他那由4万人组成的私人军队装备精良;他的专机叫“云雀"。这架战斗直升机原属哥伦比亚海军,配有多管火箭筒及响尾蛇导弹,号称“空中坦克”。埃斯科巴出动3架战斗机把“云雀”迫降在自己的机场,成为他的私人专机。

  埃斯科巴是有史以来最嚣张的毒枭。逮捕他的警察,不出3天就被人射杀;审判他的法官,妻子被轮奸后,沾满精液的乳罩和内裤被寄到法官办公室;通缉他的哥伦比亚总检察长,被他反过来悬赏1亿美元捉拿,最后横尸街头。1987年,他的兄弟奥乔亚被捕。负责审判的哥伦比亚最高法院院长先后辞职,司法部长不得不取消逮捕令。

  但在当地人眼里,埃斯科巴是一个英雄。“哥伦比亚人民终于拿起了打击美帝国主义的有力武器,我们对美国社会上的2500万吸毒者不负任何责任!”埃斯科巴在接受媒体采访时这样说。

  美国政府一直想除掉埃斯科巴,这很不容易。1984年3月,在美国军事顾问的指挥下,5000名哥政府军乘坐大力神运输机直捣麦德林集团的老巢。在数十架美制F-16战斗机和阿帕奇直升机的空中支援下,打死150名毒贩,俘虏了上千人。

  但是,埃斯科巴的反击也异常犀利。仅过1个月,哥伦比亚禁毒总指挥——司法部长拉腊被枪杀。5月,50多名毒贩干脆冲入哥伦比亚司法部大厦,试图绑架正在开会的司法部、最高法院、最高检察院和缉毒警察局的高级官员。400多名军警奋力抵抗,双方一度形成僵持局面。随后,300名携带地对地导弹的贩毒前来增援。战斗一直持续到深夜,直到哥伦比亚国防军加入战斗,毒贩们才带着5名法官和1名警察局长离去,留下34具警察和11名法官的尸体。

  1989年,美国航天局动用最先进的“大鹏”侦察卫星和红外热像仪确定了麦德林集团的准确位置,哥伦比亚政府发动了有史以来最大规模的缉毒行动:由美国训练的200名特种队员直接空降虎穴,国防军精锐第14旅的数千名官兵左右两侧合围,切断陆地和海上逃亡路线,最后由50架F-16战斗机组成轰炸机群,对麦德林基地进行毁灭性轰炸,夷平为止。但是,埃斯科巴和他的手下还是奇迹般地逃了出来,继续跟政府军纠缠。

  1991年,哥伦比亚政府接受了埃斯科巴提出的3项招安条件:保证他的个人财产合法化;惩办侵犯过毒贩及其家属人权的警察;建一座由正规部队看守的专门监狱以确保他们的生命安全。

边境线养肥的黑帮:墨西哥黑帮

  2003年5月,美国海关在一辆卡车上发现了80名来自墨西哥的偷渡者,其中18人已窒息而死。这样的事情每天都在发生,来自世界各地的“蛇头”云集墨西哥边境。那些怀抱着美国梦的各色人等不知疲倦地一次次闯关,一次次被驱逐。统计数字告诉他们,如果没有暴毙途中的话,平均冒险7次就能进入富裕的美利坚。

  贩毒是美-墨边境的保留节目,每年有超过100亿美元的毒品从这里进入美国。

  绑架是墨西哥黑帮的传统游戏,这里的绑票仅次于哥伦比亚,排名世界第二。2000年被捕的头号通缉犯卡莱特里,一人就做了20多票大案,从墨西哥克莱斯勒汽车公司老板到总统饭店集团总裁,只要被他盯上,绝对没跑儿。连外国大使也无法躲避劫掠。2002年11月,西班牙国王卡洛斯正式访问墨西哥。在西班牙驻墨大使前往机场迎接国王的途中,暴徒洗劫了这辆挂有西班牙国旗和外交牌照的汽车。事后西班牙驻墨使馆说,他们不打算向警方报案,因为“这纯粹是浪费时间,不会有结果”。

  库利阿坎、瓜达拉哈拉、华雷斯、马塔莫罗斯、索诺拉和蒂华纳——墨西哥的这6大黑帮家族共同控制着与美国接壤的3200公里长的边境线,他们因此脑满肠肥。毒贩子和非法移民的组织者都乐意聚集在他们周围,分享丰盛的残羹。

  墨西哥政府并非坐视不管,他们先后重金请来两位“黑手党克星”做顾问。一位是纽约前市长朱利安尼,另一位是巴勒莫前市长莱奥卢卡·奥兰多。但结果如何呢?收了400万美元顾问费的朱利安尼认为,初见成效至少要在3年以后。

我们很难界定黑帮产生的具体时间,在这里,也没有必要探讨黑帮游戏产生的条件和历史背景。毕竟我们只是基于游戏层面思考这个复杂的社会产物。

  一、黑帮

  广义上的黑帮涵盖很多,基本一切与社会法律相违背的,不被社会普通意识形态认可的社团组织都可以称之为黑帮,比如中国古代的“丐帮”、“天地会”等等。但在在现代社会,“黑帮”基本等同于我们所谓说的黑社会,这种非法的社团组织已经完全不同于古时因为义气、信仰或者反抗共同的敌人而结合在一起的团体。取而代之,维系社团的是经济利益,非法获得财富为目的,通过森严的组织结构,有着周密详尽的规章制度,结构类似于公司或者政党的形式。

  有别于香港电影中由蛊惑仔发展而来的黑帮,更具代表性的黑帮组织,就是美国的“黑手党”,而在我们现在接触到的黑帮题材的游戏,也都指的是这种“黑帮”:

  美国黑帮

  纽约市的“小意大利”是昆士区,跟中国城比邻。同如今的景象有所不同,20世纪30年代前后,这里是所谓的“穷街陋巷”(mean streets)。因为两次大战和那次全球经济体系的崩溃,在“旧大陆”欧洲找不到活路的移民纷纷坐船来到美国,史为美国的第二次“移民潮”。

  其中意大利移民聚居在现在的昆士区,形成风味独特的意大利风光,街道邋遢但富有生活气息,一到夏天,吃食店都把桌子搬到街沿上来。由于意大利移民大家族聚居习惯,所以当时该区居民住房拥挤,居住条件很差。虽然时空遥隔,至今仍然可以想见当时情景,尤其意大利人的饮食习惯,一到吃饭时间,干酪和大蒜的味道飘荡在大街小巷。

  初次来到新大陆的意大利移民,因为语言、习惯、找不到工作等问题,生活障碍重重,很多青少年从小偷小摸开始犯罪生涯。意大利人一向有不同当局合作的习俗,自晚近中世纪烧碳党人开始,到西西里黑手党(Mafia)已经发展出一整套的组织方式和成员行为规则。其最著名的规条是所谓“光荣的沉默”,或者“荣誉的沉默”。即知情者不得以任何方式向当局泄露所知情况的规则。(这里的“荣誉”是意大利语,根据我有限的理解不作为形容词而应该作为名词,在中文其实找不到对应词,意思在“荣誉”和“规则”之间)。

  这样的传统是很危险的,在现代法制社会,不同当局合作,就意味着所有问题都必须由另一权力结构解决,这就形成美国黑手党这一与当局对抗的地下权力体系,当然,从法律的角度来看,这个就是所谓“有组织的犯罪”。

  看过美国电影《教父》的人对美国黑帮一定印象深刻。这部电影淋漓尽致地反映了上世纪30年代美国黑社会的辉煌。进入50年代后,黑社会发展到极致,全美各大城市几乎都有他们的身影。埃尔·帕西诺在《教父》中的经典形象成为美国黑帮的代表,图为电影剧照。
二、电影里的黑帮

  我们真正了解到黑帮,应该是通过好莱坞的电影里所描绘的景象。从伟大的教父开始,美国黑手党严密宏大的组织结构浮现在我们面前,令人惊叹我们生活的社会还有这样一种地下秩序所控制着。

  由于弗朗西斯·福特·科波拉根据马里奥普左的小说改编的电影《教父》的公映,黑帮电影诞生出第一部经典之作,这是一部黑帮电影史上不可逾越的高峰。之后的每一部黑帮电影,无不在它的观照之下,或抽取其丰富题旨之一研化,或故意反其道而行之却恰好证明受其影响。

  《教父》的博大精深在于它的古典趣味,丰富多义而糅合统一。它对“命运”的观照带有古希腊悲剧的浓酽色彩,对细节的坚实刻画是十九世纪的写实传统,而堂克里奥尼对社会规则的挑战又是非常浪漫的。《教父》从来不想以现实主义的态度来处理素材,它提供给我们的不是纽约黑手党家族的真实历史和现状,而是用全部精确的细节来建立起一个具有必然性的“可能的世界“。弗克波拉为我们描绘的其实是有关人类历史上所有权力体系的产生和消亡过程的一部寓言。

  真正严格按照社会学方式来研究小意大利区黑手党生态状况的是马丁·斯科西斯.斯科西斯出生在小意大利区的一个意大利移民家庭,他的电影带有深刻的地域烙印.他甚至让自己的家人在影片里扮演一些角色,他的御用主角德尼罗跟他同样是出生在此的意大利移民.这些背景使他的摄影机能够深入到那些意大利移民地下社会的本质世界.在斯科西斯的镜头下,那些暴力不再象科波拉那样具有古代悲剧的命运感,而是–用他自己的话来说:非常丑陋.在斯科西斯的摄影机下,那些友谊不再可靠,往往以背信弃义结局,看《教父》内人物的那些勾心斗角,仿佛是相隔千年历史来观照,仿佛是阅读希罗多德的历史或者《史记》,我们感受到的是具有"历史性"的智慧,看《Goodfellas》里人物的角逐,因为镜头贴的太近,观众只感到丑恶。科波拉在《教父》里解剖的是权力的结构,斯可西斯在他的电影里观察的是黑道人物的生存状态。当斯可西斯年岁渐高,想说的更加“历史”更加“宏观”一点的时候,他的《纽约黑帮》却显得力有不逮。繁复的多义性使导演陷入混水。他把他的意大利移民帮会往前移动将近100年,这一移动没有贴近历史,反而让他脱离他赖以成功的小意大利黑社会真实生态。


斯可西斯晚年作品《纽约黑帮》

三、游戏中的黑帮

  很难说清具体哪部游戏开创了黑帮游戏先河,我们姑且认为伟大牛蛙在1993推出的《极道枭雄》是这个类型游戏的鼻祖。虽然这个游戏背景设置的未来,而且包含了很多“高科技”的元素,但是通过暴力打击竞争对手,逐步控制一个个区域,却带有明显的黑帮游戏色彩。而游戏所带给我们的高度的自由性,血腥暴力的表现形式,对后来的黑帮游戏造成了深远的影响。

  随着游戏技术的不断进步,玩家对游戏要求的提高,越来越多的黑帮游戏涌现出来。在这里我们总结一下黑帮游戏的要素,暴力是游戏基本手段、高度自由的游戏模式、在游戏中从事现实生活中不被允许的行为。

  而这一切的完美结合,就是被玩家称为神作的GTA系列。


意GTA系列为首,诞生了一大批黑帮游戏