thang = thing

1.dr.dre & snoop dogg – nothing but a G thang,

2.tupac – it ain’t easy

but every where is the same thang, i will be damned if a thang change,fuck the fame, i be hustling and making a million, lord knows aint no love for us ghetto children…..

3.tupac – better days

time to question our life style look how we live, smoking wee like aint no thang, even kids wanna try now…..


tupac,dr.dre & snoop dogg,美国相当出名的rapper & mc,其中tupac死于美国东岸于西岸的帮派斗争.



the fu*k常用来加强语气,类似于"到底","究竟","the heck","on earth"和"the hell"等,在疑问词后.

how the fu*k are ya?(最近如何?)

wut the fuc*k is …?(这tm是?)

wut the fu*k is goin’ on here?(tmd搞什么呢?)

where the fu*k are we?(我们这是tmd在哪?)

let’s get the fu*k out of here.(我们快闪吧)

get fu*ked ,be fu*ked 被骗:遇到麻烦
I guess I’m fu*ked now.

fu*k it 屈从,放弃
"Oh, fu*k it!"









In the modern time, English has been an international language all over the world.  However, as time passes, English has been changing; each of groups in the global village has different way to use English in the daily life. The most obvious and wide-ranging characteristic is in AAVE (African American Vernacular English), so we choose and edited two films, Save the Last Dance and Finding Forrester, for discussing the three main features of AAVE-lexical variation, grammar and slanguage.  Besides, we built up an interactive teaching website of AAVE for studied well and use easily by English learners. The website includes corpus and two edited film, and we sincerely hope that English learners may more comprehend the major features by making use of the website.


Key words: AAVE, Standard English, corpus

Being a common language in the global village, English is used in many different countries or regions by many different people. English, just like many other languages, are subject to change when used in various societies. As time passes, each of the societies may develop its own special way of using English for meaning expression in its unique context. As the so-called melting-pot, the U.S.A. has immigrants from all over the world, and hence variations of English has also been evolved in the country. AAVE (African American Vernacular English), in particular, has swayed SE (Standard English) we are taught before. Owing to the growing population of African American, AAVE can be heard very often. Many young people enjoy communicating in AAVE particularly because AAVE is cool, unique, and attractive. They usually regard AAVE as a symbol of fashion; besides, AAVE idioms are so brief, smooth, frank and rhyming as to deeply fascinate us. In this project, we will use two films as examples to illustrate some of the major features of AAVE.


Finding Forrester and Save the Last Dance are the selected films for the discussion of the features in African American’s utterances. “Finding Forrester” describes a genius 16-year-old Black student learned SE from a famous white writer who, on the other hand, decides to walk out again to face the world for the Black student’s sake. The conversations between the black student and his black friends provide examples that may show the features of language of the Black. Save the Last Dance is a story about a white girl, whose parents were divorced and the mother was killed in an accident, transferred to a school where most of the students are black. She lives in the black region, goes to school with black friends, and even has a black boyfriend. She learns Black English from her black friends. In these two films, some interesting contrast between AAVE and SE can be easily found.


After doing the literature review, we decided to focus on three main aspects-lexical variations, grammatical differences, and slang-to exemplify the contrast between AAVE and SE. Using a concordancer, Concordance, for text-analysis, the scripts of these two films are the sample corpus for the illustration of the features of AAVE. According to Rickford’s (1997) study, three major categories can be identified, i.e. grammar, lexical variation, and slanguage. The omission of “s” in verbs with a third person singular subject, the auxiliary/copula (has, have, is, are, and etc.), and multiple negations are examples included in the grammar category. The frequent use of “V-in” instead of “V-ing,” “gonna,” “wanna,” “ain’t,” “yo,” “dog,” and “shit” in conversations belongs to the category of lexical variation. Some amazing and funny usage such as “honky,” “chillin,” “fuck,” “whatcha,” “y’all” and so on is put into slanguage category.


Nowadays, we can see in films, TV shows, or mass media that many white men also use AAVE as if they accept some of words and phrases in AAVE as normal daily language. Using the scripts of the films mentioned above, we will create a website to present the major features of AAVE.



AAVE is quite interesting, unique, and different from SE. As EFL learners, we have been constrained to learn conventional SE; when we touch AAVE, we truly feel it is rarely gripping. For a project of such scale, it is impossible to do an exhausted study on the related issues regarding AAVE. And hence we have to limit our study to some of the major features in AAVE. We will summarize the examples found in these two films, which contain plenty of complex and simple usage of AAVE.

The objectives for this project are:

(a) To demonstrate clearly the circumstances in which AAVE is used.

(b) To use the selected two films to build up a sample corpus for the illustration of the major features in AAVE.

(c) To create a website to present the major features interactively so that anyone who is interested in AAVE may obtain some ideas about AAVE in a more efficient and vivid fashion through this website.


Literature Review

According to Rickford (1998), the distinctive pronunciation and grammatical features of African American Vernacular English or Ebonics are used most commonly by members of the Working and Lower Class. He showed us the statistics of the percentage of using African American Vernacular English among different social classes.


Lower Working Class

Upper Working Class

Lower Middle Class

Upper Middle Class

Consonant cluster simplification NOT in past tense





Voiceless th [Ø]





Multiple negation





Absence of copula/auxiliary is, are





Absence of third person present tense –s





Absence of possessive –s





Absence of plural –s





Rickford (1997) also contends,


We know, for instance, that most of the kids who fall behind in reading and otherwise fail in inner city schools (see above) are Working Class kids, rather than Middle-Class kids. And we know that the distinctive pronunciation and grammatical features of African-American Vernacular English or Ebonics are used most commonly by members of the Working and Lower Class. Consider table 1, which summarizes data from Wolfram’s (1969) study of Detroit.5 Except for consonant cluster simplification and absence of plural -s, every other Ebonics feature in that table is far more frequent among the Working Class groups than among the Middle Class groups.


Rickford (1997) stressed that in AAVE, when the subject is third person singular, the “s” of verb is often omitted in simple present tense, whereas an “s” is added to the verb in Standard English. He called the third person –s absence, as in “He walkØ.” Sidell (1997) mentioned that when regular verbs occur with such –s marking, they often carry special emphasis. As for auxiliary/copula (has, have, is, are, etc), Sidnell found that Standard English uses a conjugated form in a number of different sentences (e.g. He’s, they’re); but in AAVE these verbs are often missing.


Sidnell stated, “AAVE also allows negation to be marked in more that one position in the sentence (so called double or multiple negation), and certain kinds of nouns actually require negative marking in negative sentences.” Multiple negation sentences in AAVE still have negative meaning. Richard (1997) also held the same view.


However, there is an exception, and that is “bin.” The examples provided by Rickford are, “1. Present perfect progressive: He bin runnin. 2. Present perfect progressive with remote inception: He BIN runnin.” Mufwene (1997) and Sidnell (1997) had the same opinion with Rickford.


According to Rickford (2002), differences in vocabulary are one aspect of dialect diversity. We found some main lexical variation and searched their explanation from (http://www.panikon.com/phurba/alteng) as follows: “V-in”(V-ing), ”gonna”(going to), “wanna”(want to), “ain’t”(isn’t; aren’t; has not; have not). Moreover, according to Sidnell, AAVE uses ain’t to negate the verb in a simple sentence. We also surfed some web sites (such as http://www.panikon.com/phurba/alteng) related to the slang of AAVE. We found a lot of interesting slang that we have never seen before. By collecting and analyzing the related information, we understand more about Black English.

Literature review

In order to find out the major features in AAVE, we conducted a literature review first.  The review will also help us understand the background and history of AAVE or Black English.


We analyze and discuss the major features in AAVE and put them into three categories, i.e. lexical variation, grammar and slanguage.

Building the sample corpus

We aimed at two DVD of entire area to capture script by computer.  First, we put DVD into a script capture machine and through RS232 (a transmission line) to transmission data between machine and computer.  Next, we sort the data that we gather from computer by Microsoft Word.


Concordance, text analysis and concordancing software, is for anyone who needs to study texts closely or analyses language in depth. This is the most powerful and flexible software of its kind, with registered users in forty-four countries.


In the above display of the concordance, the Headword window has been string-sorted alphabetically and how many times of words occurs in the script. In the window of the right side were offer the keyword in the context.

Making video clips

We use VCDcutter, a program used for making video clips and frames, to make video clips and still frames to be used in the webpages. We extract MPG,frame from VCD or MPG file, cutting our video clips part or whole MPG file to disk when playing.

Figure 1

Designing website

In order to present the examples that illustrate the major features of AAVE, we use Macromediat’s Dreamweaver and Flash to create a website that contains our project and video clips.


There are a number of examples of different grammatical usage, lexical variation, and slanguage between Standard English and African American Vernacular English found in “Save the last dance” and “Finding Forrester.” The rules of AAVE are different from what we learned in grammar books or what we are taught at school. Lexical variation in AAVE will be discussed first in this section.

Lexical variation

(a)“Ain’t”–“isn’t; aren’t; am not; has not; have not”–the most malign contraction in English. Almost every English teacher in the country will insist that this is not a proper word; however, anyone of them knows what it means.


Example in Save the last dance:

Malakai: You act like you don’t know who you are anymore, Derek. And what’s up out there for anybody who ain’t you? I’m still from this neighborhood, but you? I guess that’s what happens when a white girl goes to your head.

Friend: -or gives you some.-

Derek: shut up, lip.

Friend: -sorry.-

Here, “ain’t” represent “are not.”

Examples in Finding Forrester:

Jamal: Thank you.

William: is still mine, isn’t it?

Jamal: I guess.

William: Now, it was the neighborhood that changed, not me.

Jamal: Man, please. I ain’t seen nothing change.

William: “Ain’t seen nothing”? What in the hell kind of sentence is that? When you’re in here, don’t talk like you do out there.

Jamal: I was messing with you, man. It was a joke.

Both “ain’t” mean “have not” here.

(b) “Gonna”–the abbreviation of "going to"; “wanna/wana”–the abbreviation of "want to"; “gotta”–the abbreviation of " got to";outta”–the abbreviation of “out of”

Examples in Finding Forrester:           

Fly: All right. What the hell you working there, man?

Jamal: Shut up, man. Yo, about red rose. I ain’t gonna make it. I gotta go over to this dude’s house. I think they do it every year. Hey, don’t be goin’ off on this, man.

Fly: Yo, you big-time. You best be goin’, man. I don’t wanna hold our bus up. You gonna be around this weekend? Where you think I’m gonna be? The Hampton?

Examples in Save the last dance:

       Example 1:

Chenille: Oh, no. You’re not going nowhere with my son tonight. Not on that temper, and not with that attitude.

Kenny: Look, you know what? Fine. Then, I won’t take him. I’m outta here.

Chenille: Go ahead, leave. That’s what you’re good at! Your son ain’t seen nothing but your back since he was born!


Example 2:

Sara: My dad’s gonna fix that. It’s kind of messy in there.

Sara: Do you wanna see my room?

Derek: Uh, yeah.

Sara: This is it. I sleep on the couch. [Laughs] Un-hun.

Sara: There’s a bed underneath, but it gets stuck, and my dad says he’s gonna fix it, but I don’t know. He’s, um, at work right. He’ll… Be gone all night.

(c) “Yo”–“wait; hi; here; general exclaimant”

Example in Finding Forrester:

Fly: J, you see that window? He keeps that one cracked sometimes.

D: Yo, light’s been out for two hours, dog. You sure he asleep?

Fly: Man, listen. That methuselah’s like a thousand years old, man. That’s all he ever do.

Friend: Yo, J, man. For the reals, son, I don’t know about this.

Friend: I’m thinkin’—Shit! I think I’m gonna pull the call, yo.

The first and second “yo” mean wait. The third “yo” is general exclaimant.

Example in Save the last dance:

Kai: Yo, Derek. Hey, yo.

Derek: Hey, man.

Kai: Medicine man.

Snook: What’s up, Kai? Man, baby, I was just asking about you, and I got a little emotional too about you being back and all.

The first “yo” means “hi” and the second “yo” is general exclaimant.

(d) “Vin”–“Ving” The suffix “-ing” of a verb is pronounced as “-in” in AAVE.

Example in Finding Forrester:

Mrs. Wallace: Hey, Jamal, you awake? Jamal, I know you hear me, boy. Jamal, I’m writin’ all this down, but I’ve got that thing with your teacher. And they got me workin’ late, so you’re gonna have to take care of yourself for dinner. Okay? Okay?

Jamal: Okay.

Mrs. Wallace: Hey I thought you wanted to get up by 7:30.

Player: Play the ball. Hey, bay, you hear the chains singin’? Check that up, man. Stop cryin’.

Fly: Hold on, hold on. What up, J? Where you been, man?

Jamal: Sleep, yo. What’s up, man? Up late, wondering how I was gonna save your ass out here.

Fly: What are you savin’?


Example in Save the last dance:

Friend: I’d sleep in a dresser too if I had six brothers to sleep with.

Derek: Hey, fellas, what’s up?

Friend: Look at this stud. What’s up, man? Hey, playah.

Friend: How you doin’, man?

Friend: Whassup, baby?

Friend: Oh, no love. No love.

Friend: I hear you been traveling in new circles. What’s up with that?

Malakai: you tappin’ that white girl? – [laugh]

(e) Dog – “man.” In AAVE “dog” represents “man”, and it is usually placed in the end of a sentence.

Example in Save the last dance:

Derek: I got my own problems. Snook

Snook: Problems? What problems? We ain’t got no damn problems. You going to college, doctor college after that. You the man, dog.

Example in Finding Forrester:

Jamal: Don’t say nothin’ about them test scores to nobody, all right?

Terrell: Don’t worry about that. I’m your brother, dog. Whatever me and you discuss, that’s gonna stay between me and you. Right. Love you, dog. All right?

Jamal: Right.

(f) Kinda–“Kind Of”

Example in Finding Forrester:

William: What thing?

Jamal: The 5,000 words on- – On why you wanted me to stay outta your place. At least that’s kinda the way you said it.

William: Try remembering it exactly as I said it.

(g) Wassup–"What Is Up?"

Example in Save the last dance:

Derek: Kai, I’ve been trying to catch up with you. I gotta talk to you.

Malakai: Ready to roll?

Derek: I gotta talk to you.

Malakai: Wassup?

Derek: Look, man. I ain’t going with you.


(a) Omission of “-s” in verbs of third person singular subject

In AAVE, the suffix of a verb “-s” is sometimes omitted when the subject is the third person singular (he, she, it, or the name of the person or object).

Example in Finding Forrester:

Player: He bring(’) in something for the window.

Player: You ever seen him?

Player: The window? Yeah.

Player: No. But he see(s) us, man.

Fly: Come on, man. Y’all don’t wanna play ball?

Player: All right.

Fly: Wake up.

(b) Absence of copular/auxiliary is, are

General absence of copula:

Standard English uses copula in many cases, example: You are going to college. However, in AAVE the copular is often missing. The absence of copula may occur in following cases: in future tense, in progressive tense, before a noun and before adjectives or expressions of location.

Example in Save the last dance:

Derek: I got my own problems. Snook

Snook: Problems? What problems? We ain’t got no damn problems. You (are) going to college, doctor college after that. You (are) the man, dog.

The first “are” is in case of future tense and the second “are” is in case of before noun.

Example in Finding Forrester:

Terrell: Yo, T. What (‘s) up, fly? How (are) you, baby? Maintainin’. Look. You (are) lookin’ for tickets, little bro? Dead tonight. Sorry ‘bout that, fellas.  

Fly: Come on, man. We know you got tickets.

Terrell: I got four words for you. Bos-ton red sox. All right? The yanks and sox tickets, they damn near been sold out almost a month now. All right, Mr. Fly? And by the way, why don’t you… Go tell Camry boy over there that he need to go and back up … his little cheap ass bumper on that Mercedes over there. Go handle that. Let’s go, Fly! Let’s go. What the hell, Jamal? Moms called. Tell me about the test you took. What’s up with that?

Jamal: Nothin’, man.

The first “is” and the second “are” are in case of before noun. The third “are” is in case of progressive.

General absence of auxiliary: (in perfect tense.)

In AAVE, “have” or “has” may be deleted in “perfect tense.”. This is quite different from Standard English.

Example in Finding Forrester:

Mr.s Wallace: Hey, Jamal! Jamal, you awake? Jamal, I know you hear me, boy. Jamal, I’m writin’ all this down, but I’ve got that thing with your teacher. And they got me workin’ late, so you’re gonna have to take care of yourself for dinner. Okay? Okay?

Jamal: Okay.

Mr. Wallace: Hey, I thought you wanted to get up by 7:30.

Player: Play the ball. Hey, baby, you hear the chains singin’? Check that up, man. Stop cryin’.

Fly: Hold on, hold on. What up, J? Where (have) you been, man?

Example in Save the last dance:

Friend: How you doin’, man?

Friend: Whassup, baby?

Friend: Oh, no love. No love.

Friend: I hear you (have) been traveling in new circles. What’s up with that?

Malakai: You tappin’ that white girl?

Malakai: That’s why you ain’t got no more time for your boys no more? Too busy fronting?

(c) Multiple negations

AAVE allows negation to be marked in more than one position in a sentence, e.g. Don’t kill nobody. It also uses ain’t to negate the verb in a simple sentence, e.g. I ain’t no fool. Moreover, AAVE also has a special negative construction called “negative inversion.” Example: Wasn’t nobody in there but me and him. In negative inversion, a negative auxiliary (wasn’t) is moved in front of the subject (nobody).            

Example in Save the last dance:

Chenille: Where you going?

Derek: Stay out of my business, Chenille.

Chenille: I know what Malakai wants you to do. Why are you trippin’ off him, Derek? All you’re trying to do is get the hell up out of here. Ain’t no shame or blame in that.

Derek: It’s getting cold out here. Take that baby inside.

Example in Finding Forrester:

Jamal: Thank you.

William: The title is still mine, isn’t it?

Jamal: I guess.

William: Now, it was the neighborhood that changed, not me.

Jamal: Man, please. I ain’t seen nothing change.

William: “Ain’t seen nothing”? What in the hell kind of sentence is that? When you’re in here, don’t talk like you do out there.

Jamal: I was messing with you, man. It was a joke.

(d) The absence of possessive “-s’” and plural marker

According to Rickford (1997) the possessive “-s’” and the plural marker “s” after a noun are often absent in AAVE. For example: This dog (‘s) tail is very long. I got many book(s). However, we fail to find examples from Save the last dance and Finding Forrester.



Nowadays, AAVE has been seen as a kind of cultural phenomenon. Many white children like to chat in Black English. They think it’s cool. In fact, the slang of Black English also affects American pop music. The following examples are taken from the scripts of the films, and the Internet.

(a) “Shit

Shit – 1. “Shit” can be used as a pronoun to refer to anything mentioned before.

Example in Finding Forrester:

Jamal: You ever read your own book?

William: In public? Hell no! Barely read it in private.

William: You know those things they do, that, uh, coffee shop reading shit? (pronoun) You know why they do it?

Jamal: Sell books, I guess.

Example in Save the last dance:

Chenille: Look, I’m going to tell you like I’ve been telling you, you need to leave Malakai alone and let that scrub handle his own mess.

Derek: Chenille, scramble the CD, I ain’t trying to hear all that shit. (pronoun)

Sara: You guys, I live like five blocks that way, I’m just going to go home. I’ll see you later.

Shit – 2. "Filth, Refuse, Garbage." This meaning stretches throughout the other Germanic forms of the word as well. It is not certain which meaning came from the other.

Example in Save the last dance:

Snook: I.D. She thought she was getting in off your looks. Ha! No, no. Tour girl is weak, all right? I got my rep to watch. I can’t be getting any old toe-tapping, ass-shaking bandstand—

Sara: Snookie, you talk a lot of shit (garbage) for someone who never says anything.

Chenille: Oh!

Example in Finding Forrester:

William: Oh, really? You had to read a book to figure that out?

Jamal: Yeah, but Crowford’s messed uo on it anyhow. Says the guy having trouble after the war is really you. Some symbolism shit (garbage) for all the problems you were having with everybody.

William: Robert Crowford?

Jamal: Yeah. I think it’s bullshit, though. I think there really was somebody else.

Shit – 3. General Exclaimant. "Shit" is one of the two most common exclaimants, the other being "fuck." It is uttered in extreme pain, extreme horror, and in the throws of sexual extasy. Its exclaimant use comes from its taboo nature and is compounded by its easy, one-syllable pronunciation. Shit can also be used to stress speaker’s tone and express one’s displeasure.

Examples in Finding Forrester:

Fly: J, you see that window? He keeps that one cracked sometimes.

D: Yo, light’s been out for two hours, dog. You sure he asleep?

Fly: Man, listen. That methuselah’s like a thousand years old, man. That’s all he ever do.

Friend: Yo, J, man. For the reals, son, I don’t know about this.

Friend: I’m thinkin’—Shit! (General exclaimant) I think I’m gonna pull the call, yo.

Example in Save the last dance:

Sara: This is. This is where I live. This is my dad’s music room. He plays the trumpet.

Derek: No shit. (General exclaimant)

(b) “Ass”

The initial definition of ass is donkey, fool and idiot but in AAVE it refers to “hip.”. The usage of ass conveys someone’s dissatisfaction.


Example in Save the last dance:

Kai: Yo, Derek. Hey, yo.

Derek: Hey, man.

Kai: Medicine man.

Snook: What’s up, Kai? Man, baby, I was just asking about you, and I got a little emotional too about you being back and all.

Kai: Man, sit your punk ass down, fool. Matter of fact, step you lame ass off.

Example in Finding Forrester:

Jamal: Okay.

Mrs. Wallace: Hey I thought you wanted to get up by 7:30.

Player: Play the ball. Hey, bay, you hear the chains singin’? Check that up, man. Stop cryin’.

Fly: Hold on, hold on. What up, J? Where you been, man?

Jamal: Sleep, yo. What’s up, man? Up late, wondering how I was gonna save your ass out here.

Fly: What are you savin’?

(c) Y’all – "You All."

Examples in Save the last dance

Chenille: I gotta find my brother. Derek! Derek!

Shawana: It’s about to get real out here, y’all. Cops and shit, I’m gone.

Chenille: All right, girl. Derek! Derek! Yo, what the—

Derek: Go.

Example in Finding Forrester:

Player: Can’t give him that.

Jamal: I’m awake now, y’all.

Player: Come on, yo.

Jamal: Come on, man. You got something for me?

(d) Chill – "Relax." A slang word derived from the variant ideas of "cool," as in "cooling off," "cooling down," being cool," etc.

Example in Save the last dance:

Nikki: I’m pretty sure you came with one.

Chenille: Oh, no, wrech. You did not just call me a Negro!

Shawana: Y’all just chill, okay.

Chenille: Why don’t you tell her to chill?

(e) Fuck – "To Have Sex; Sexual Intercourse; Cheat, Trick; General Expletive."

The usage of “Fuck” is sometimes like “shit.” Fuck could be a pronoun, stuff, etc.

Example in Finding Forrester:

William: How about 5,000 words on why you’ll stay the fuck outta my home?

Woman: Fuck me! Fuck me!

The first “fuck” is a pronoun.

The second and the third “fuck” means “sexual intercourse”

Example in Save the last dance:

Sara: I’m gonna go home. Are you ready?

Malakai: No, he’s not ready. He’s talking to me. It’s an “a” and “b” conversation. You gotta go? See yourself home.

Sara: Fuck you!

Here, “fuck” is a general expletive.

(f) Slammin’– a stronger way of saying “cool” or “beautiful”

Example in Save the last dance:

Example 1:

Chenille: All right, I’m just gonna get my coat and then will be out.

Sara: Cool outfit.

Chenille: Slammin’. Slammin’ outfit.

Sara: Oh.

Here, “slammin’” represents beautiful.

Example 2:

Derek: I said I’ll walk you.

Sara: Well, what about you?

Chenille: We live right around the corner.

Derek: All right, well, I’ll be home in a minute.

Chenille: All right. So you was working it tonight, girl.

Sara: Yeah, right, slammin’.

Here, “slammin’” represents cool.              

(g) Whatcha –the abbreviation of "What Are You".

Example in Save the last dance:

Man: It was midnight at the party.

Malaki: So, whatcha gonna do? As you walk in looking nice. It’s payback time. Either you down or you not. Either you my boy or you ain’t. Simple as that.

Friend: Oh, ha! Hey, baby, we lit it up out there. I am serious. Did you see us, “d” man?

Malakai: Do you see us? We’re talking.

(h) Bitch a woman in General

Example in Save the last dance:

Nikki: what the hell was that?

Sara: I was trying to block the ball.

Sara: Stupid bitch

Here are some useful slangs in AAVE that do not exist in two script.

Honky–"White Person." A pejorative term. This term supposedly was originally directed against Southern White people who used to honk their horns at black pedestrians on the street and often try to run them down. Other etymologies have been suggested.

Homie – A contracted version of "homeboy." See "homeboy” below.

Homeboy, Homie – "Friend." Originally, someone from the same town, or hometown, as the speaker. Popular in Black Vernacular.

Aiight, A’ight, Aight – "Alright."

Ain’cha – "Aren’t You, Are You Not." A compound. See "ain" and "cha."

Chillin’ – "Being Cool." See "chill."

Dope – Dope has many meanings in American slang. It was supposedly first introduced to English from the Dutch "doop," meaning "sauce," Though I have not found this word in Dutch. It may be archaic. It is still sometimes used to denote "sauce" in certain regional dialects. It was later used to refer to any thick liquid. For instance, it was used to denote resin used to solidify airplane wings, etc. It was first used to denote drugs when it was used for heroin, which is injected as a thick liquid. It later came to mean any drug, or a drug user. The term "dopey" originally meant "stupid as if on drugs." Dope later acquired the meaning "cool" through its association with drugs. The meaning "knowledge," as in "the inside dope," comes from horse racing, and knowing which horses were doped up.

Em – "Them; Him." As in the rap song "Shut Em Down."

G – 1. "Guy." From Black Vernacular. Originally, "G" designated a member of your gang, short for "gangsta," but it has changed to mean something more like "bud." "Yo G!" = "Yo Bud!" The original connotation can be seen in the phrase "Ain’ nuthin but a G-thang!"

G – 2. "Grand, Money." For instance, "20G" = Twenty Grand = $20,000. The term has been expanded to mean "money" in general, as in "I gots no g’s, yo" = "I’m broke." See also "gees."

G – 3. "Gram." Mostly from drug terminology.
– "Grin." An internet abbreviation.

Na’mean? –"(Do You) Know What I Mean?" It is sometimes used alone and sometimes as "Ya na’mean?" or "y’namean." From Black Vernacular.

Phat, Fat – "Cool." This was supposedly adopted into Ebonic slang when the coat company "Triple Fat Goose" was in style in Black culture.


The website

In order to present the examples taken from the sample corpus interactively, we use Macromedia’s Dreamweaver 4 to create a website so that each of the examples can be retrieved easily together with the video clips.


The content of website include nine main sections – introduction, objectives, literature review, methodology, discussion, conclusion, reference, appendix, and teamwork information. We constructed a chart (See Appendix B. Figure 2) to describe the skeleton of the website and demonstrated a sample picture (See Appendix B. Figure 3) of the website. In the discussion of findings, we split them into five categories– outline, lexical variation, grammar, slang, and others. The scripts and the results of the concordance of the sample corpus are attached as appendices to the website. To investigate the useful statistics of words and phrases in two films, and to demonstrate the statistics more clearly to people, we make use of this software, Concordance 3, to count how many times the usages of AAVE are used by the Black people in their daily life. (See Appendix A. Table)


In order to present the examples interactively, video clips of the selected conversations are edited using the editing software, VCD Cutter. We hope that the words and phrases describing the usages of AAVE can thus be presented together with their original context.

We spent plenty of time in deciding the colors to be used for the presentation of the content while developing this website. We hope that our hard work has help make what we have done in this project be clearly presented and people can gain a great deal from what is available on this website.



Language is a dynamic system and is changing constantly. English gets a lot of changes in many countries and among users of different races. It may produce some variety, and that’s how dialects are formed. AAVE has a lot of different features from Standard English. The idioms in AAVE are unique, brief, and interesting, and they catch our attention deeply.


In order to get more information about African American Vernacular English, we selected two movies, “Save the last dance,” which describes the affection of a white woman and black man, and “Finding Forrester,” which describes the relationship between a white teacher and a black student as our sample corpus. From the sample corpus, we found out that there are some differences of usages between Standard English and Black English. Based on the literature review, we divided them into three parts: lexical variation, grammar, and slang usage. In lexical variation, we listed some variations of the usage of words, including “ain’t” (are not, am not, have not, has not), “gonna”(going to), “wanna”(want to), “yo”, “-in’”, and so on. In the grammar section, the absence of the suffix of the third person singular present verb tense, the absence of copular/auxiliary, and multiple negations are discussed. Finally, in the slang part, some slangy expressions of AAVE are discussed by using the examples taken from the sample corpus and the Internet.


In AAVE, the suffix of a verb is missing when the subject is the third person singular (he, she, it, or the name of the person or object). The copula (is, are) in AAVE followed by an adjective, adverb, verb, noun, or prepositional phrase are often omitted.  AAVE usually use multiple negations to represent negative meaning, which is AAVE allows negation to be marked in more than one position in the sentence. It also makes use of “ain’t” to negate the verb in a simple sentence. The absence of possessive “-s” and the absence of plural marker can also be frequently seen in AAVE.


Nowadays, AAVE has been seen as a kind of cultural phenomenon. Many white children like to chat in Black English. Black English not only affects American pop music but also has quite a lot of influence on the Standard English. It seems that everybody is regarding it as a trend. We hope that our project can help people to have more understanding about lexical and grammatical variations between Standard English and African American Vernacular English.

1.Bryan McLucas. African American Vernacular English. Published on the World Wide Web at


2.Ellen Johnson. (1998, October 27) Comments on Ebonics. Published on the World Wide Web at


3.Jack Sidnell. (1997, May 1). Structural differences. Published on the World Wide Web at

http://fsweb.berry.edu/academic/hass/ejohnson/eb/featur~1.txt e-mail:jsidnell@chass.utoronto.ca

4.John R. Rickford & Angela E. Rickford. (1975) Dialect Readers Revisited. Linguistics and

Education, 7.2, 107-128.

5..John R. Rickford. (1997) Suite for Ebony and Phonics. Discover magazine, December.

6..John R. Rickford. (1997, September 17) The Creole Origins of African American Vernacular

English: Evidence from copula absence. Department of Linguistics Stanford University.

7.Published on the World Wide Web at http://www.stanford.edu/~rickford/papers/CreoleOriginsOfAAVE.html

A.John R. Rickford. (1998, 99) The Creole Origins of African American Vernacular English:

B.Evidence from copula absence. Department of Linguistics Stanford University. Published on the

C.World Wide Web at http://www.stanford.edu/~rickford/papers/EbonicsInMyBackyard.html

D.John R. Rickford. Using the Vernacular to Teach the Standard1 Department of Linguistics,

E.Stanford University. Published on the World Wide Web at


8.Linguistic Society of America.(1997 January) LSA RESOLUTION ON THE OAKLAND

"EBONICS" ISSUE. Published on the World Wide Web at


9.William, Labov. (1972) Academic Ignorance and Black Intelligence. Published on the WorldWide

Web at http://www.theatlantic.com//issues/95sep/ets/labo.htm.

10.Wolfram, Walter A. and Nona Clarke, eds. (1971) Lsa Resolution on the Oakland "Ebonics" Issue.

11.Published on the World Wide Web at  




姓名:Dr Dre
NBA声望模板:Magic Johnson
歌曲名称:Nuthin But A “G” Thang
专辑名称:The Chronic

“现在每个人都一副有话要说的样子,好像他们真的能说出什么似的,但实际上他们一动嘴唇,出来的就全是些没有用的废话,*他妈的!他们都忘了谁是Dr Dre。”
Eminem在Forgot About Dre中为师傅渐渐失去的地盘报不平的时候,所有人都已经想起来了缔造美国Hip-hop辉煌的那只手就竟长在谁身上,那只手贪婪而变幻莫测,冷酷而呼风唤雨,任何名字沾上这只手就如同镀了金,麻雀变凤凰,蚯蚓变龙王,Still dre day ,still rule。
今天送上G-funk圣歌Nuthin But A “G” Thang(“就是一首流氓歌”),很多年前就已是老江湖的Dre和“还是个傻小子”(汤姆贾诺维奇语)的Snoop的合作天衣无缝。不要尝试理解歌词,进入音乐状态就好。


Nuthin But A “G” Thang歌词:

[Snoop Doggy Dogg]
One, two, three and to the fo’
Snoop Doggy Dogg and Dr. Dre are at the do’
Ready to make an entrance, so back on up
(Cause you know we ’bout had to rip shit up)
Gimme the microphone first, so I can bust like a bubble
Compton and Long Beach together, now you know you in trouble
Ain’t nothin’ but a G thang, baaaaabay!
Two loc’ed out G’s so we’re craaaaazay!
Death Row is the label that paaaaays me!
Unfadable, so please don’t try to fade this (Hell yeah)
But, uh, back to the lecture at hand
Perfection is perfected, so I’m ‘a let ‘em understand
From a young G’s perspective
And before me dig out a bitch I have ta’ find a contraceptive
You never know she could be earnin’ her man,
And learnin’ her man, and at the same time burnin’ her man
Now you know I ain’t wit that shit, Lieutenant
Ain’t no pussy good enough to get burnt while I’m up in it
(yeah) Now that’s realer than real-deal Holyfield
And now all you hookas and ho’s know how I feel
Well if it’s good enough to get broke off a proper chunk
I’ll take a small piece of some of that funky stuff

Hook: Snoop Doggy Dogg

It’s like this and like that and like this and uh
It’s like that and like this and like that and uh
It’s like this and like that and like this and uh
Dre, creep to the mic like a phantom

[Dr. Dre]
Well I’m peepin’, and I’m creepin’, and I’m creep-in’
But I damn near got caught, ’cause my beeper kept beepin’
Now it’s time for me to make my impression felt
So sit back, relax, and strap on your seatbelt
You never been on a ride like this befo’
With a producer who can rap and control the maestro
At the same time with the dope rhyme that I kick
You know, and I know, I flow some ol funky shit
To add to my collection, the selection
Symbolizes dope, take a toke, but don’t choke
If ya’ do, ya’ have no clue
O’ what me and my homey Snoop Dogg came to do

Hook: Snoop Doggy Dogg & Dr. Dre

It’s like this and like that and like this and uh
It’s like that and like this and like that and uh
It’s like this, and we ain’t got no love for those
So jus’ chill, ’til the next episode

[Snoop Doggy Dogg]
Fallin’ back on that ass with a hellified gangsta’ lean
Gettin’ funky on the mic like a’ old batch o’ collard greens
It’s the capital S, oh yes, the fresh N-double O-P
D-O-double G-Y D-O-double G ya’ see
Showin’ much flex when it’s time to wreck a mic
pimpin’ ho’s and clockin’ a grip like my name was Dolomite
Yeah, and it don’t quit
I think they in a mood for some mothafuckin’ G shit
So Dre. (What up Dogg?)
We gotta give ‘em what dey want (What’s that, G?)
We gotta break ‘em off somethin’ (Hell yeah)
And it’s gotta be bumpin’ (City of Compton!)

[Dr. Dre]
It’s where it takes place so I’m a ask your attention
Mobbin like a mothafucka but I ain’t lynchin
Droppin’ the funky shit that’s makin the sucka niggaz mumble
When I’m on the mic, it’s like a cookie, they all crumble
Try to get close, and your ass’ll get smacked
My mothafuckin homie Doggy Dogg has my back
Never let me slip, ’cause if I slip, then I’m slippin’
But if I got my Nina, then you know I’m straight trippin’
And I’m a continue to put the rap down, put the mack down
And if your bitches talk shit, I have ta’ put the smack down
Yeah, and ya’ don’t stop
I told you I’m just like a clock when I tick and I tock
But I’m never off, always on, ’til the break dawn
C-O-M-P-T-O-N, and the city they call Long Beach
Puttin’ the shit together
Like my nigga D.O.C., no one can do it better

Hook: Dr. Dre & Snoop Doggy Dogg

Like this, that and this and uh
It’s like that and like this and like that and uh
It’s like this, and we ain’t got no love for those
So jus’ chill, ’til the next episode

NBA声望模板:Patrick Ewing
歌曲名:One Mic

Nas,纽约皇后区说唱歌手,来自街头的桂冠诗人,独来独往,不喜欢在专辑中招揽一票哥们,配器也没什么特别的地方,现场表演的动作实在让人提不起精神。2Pac看他不顺眼,Eminem却把他当偶像,Jay-z跟他是死敌,Ja Rule也就伺机拉拢他。和AZ是好兄弟,与Mobb deep惺惺相惜,小个子,hip-hop的巨人。
请欣赏他2001年专辑Stillmatic中的催泪弹——One Mic(一支麦克)
all I need is one mic


One Mic歌词:

[speaking softly, gradually getting louder]
One time.. yeah.. yeah..

Yo, all I need is one mic, one beat, one stage
One nigga front, my face on the front page
Only if I had one gun, one girl and one crib
One God to show me how to do things his son did
Pure, like a cup of virgin blood; mixed with
151, one sip’ll make a nigga flip
Writin names on my hollow tips, plottin shit
Mad violence who I’m gon’ body, this hood politics
Ackowledge it, leave bodies chopped in garbages
Seeds watch us, grow up and try to follow us
Police watch us {*siren*} roll up and try knockin us
One knee I ducked, could it be my time is up
But my luck, I got up, the cop shot again
Bus stop glass bursts, a fiend drops his Heineken
Richochetin between the spots that I’m hidin in
Blackin out as I shoot back, fuck gettin hit! [more sirens]
This is my hood I’ma rep, to the death of it
’til everybody come home, little niggaz is grown
Hoodrats, don’t abortion your womb, we need more warriors soon
Sip from the star sun and the moon
In this life of police chases street sweepers and coppers
Stick-up kids with no conscience, leavin victims with doctors

[whispering again]
Yo, all I need is one mic..
All I need is one mic.. that’s all I need
All I need is one mic.. all I need niggaz
All I need is one mic.. yeah

[gradually getting louder]
All I need is one blunt, one page, and one pen
One prayer – tell God forgive for one sin
Matter fact maybe more than one, look back
at all the hatred against me, fuck alla them
Jesus died at age 33, there’s thirty-three shots
from twin glocks there’s sixteen apiece, that’s thirty-two
Which means, one of my guns was holdin 17
Twenty-seven hit your crew, six went into you
Everybody gotta die sometime; hope your funeral
never gets shot up, bullets tear through the innocent
Nothin is fair, niggaz roll up, shootin from wheelchairs
My heart is racin, tastin revenge in the air
I let the shit slide for too many years, too many times
Now I’m strapped with a couple of macs, too many nines
If y’all niggaz really wit me get busy load up the semis
Do more than just hold it explode the clip until you empty
There’s nothin in our way – they bust, we bust, they rust, we rust
Led flyin, feel it? I feel it in my gut

[whispering again]
All I need is one mic.. that’s all I need, that’s all I need
All I need is one mic.. there’s nuttin else in the world
All I need is one mic.. that’s all a nigga need to do his thing y’know
All I need is one mic..

[starting loud this time, getting quieter]
Or wanna see me on top, too egotistical
Talkin all that slick shit, the same way these bitches do
Wonder what my secrets is, niggaz’ll move on you
only if they know, what your weakness is I have none
Too late to grab guns I’m blastin cause I’m a cool nigga
Thought I wouldn’t have that ass done? Fooled you niggaz
What you call a infinite brawl, eternal souls clashin
War gets deep, some beef is everlastin
Complete with thick scars, brothers knifin each other
up in prison yards, drama, where does it start?
You know the block was ill as a youngster
Every night it was like a, cop would get killed body found in the dumpster
For real a hustler, purchased my Range, niggaz throwin dirt on my name
Jealous cause fiends got they work and complain
Bitches left me cause they thought I was finished
Shoulda knew she wasn’t true she came to me when her man caught a sentence
Diamonds are blindin, I never make the same mistakes
Movin with a change of pace, lighter load, see now the king is straight
Swellin my melon cause none of these niggaz real
Heard he was, tellin police, how can a kingpin squeal?
This is crazy, I’m on the right track I’m finally found
You need some soul searchin, the time is now

All I need is one mic.. yeah, yeah yeah yeah
All I need is one mic.. that’s all I ever needed in this world, fuck cash
All I need is one mic.. fuck the cars, the jewelry
All I need is one mic.. to spread my voice to the whole world

NBA声望模板:Tim Hardway
歌曲名:Gangsta’s Paradise
专辑名:Gangsta’s Paradise

Funk血统,pop走向,雷鬼发型加上一张苦瓜脸,这就是九十年代中期的rap英雄Coolio的光辉形象。也许是因为大器晚成,加上一直被贴上POP标签,Coolio从未在Hip-hop历史拥有过一个时代,甚至晚景凄凉,写满了携带大麻和被传讯的纪录。但他确实是在街头音乐与流行音乐中找到平衡的第一个人。Puff Daddy把舞曲成功融入Hip-hop,要感谢Coolio铺的路——让那些沉睡的古式funk乐和hardcore鼓点温和一点,以方便在年轻人中随心所欲地蔓延开来,这是他的成就,也是他被人诟病之处——商业痕迹重,讨好低龄听众,对(街头)音乐不够严肃(虽然我也说不出今天的Dre有多“严肃”)。Coolio的辉煌年代仅仅从1995年的“Gangsta’s Paradise”持续到1997的“C U when U get there”(很好的一首潜吟低唱作品,尽管专辑不卖)。
接下来说Gangsta’s Paradise(歹徒天堂)这首歌……


Gangsta’s Paradise歌词:

As I walk through the valley of the shadow of death
I take a look at my life and realize there’s nothin’ left
‘Cuz I’ve been blastin’ and laugin’ so long, that
even my Mama thinks that my mind is gone
But I ain’t never crossed a man that didn’t deserve it
Me be treated like a punk you know that’s unheard of
You’d better watch how you’re talkin’, and where you’re walkin’
Or you and your homies might be lined in chalk
I really hate to trip but I gotta, know
As they group I see myself in the pistol smoke, fool
I’m the kinda G the little homies wanna be like
On my knees in the night, sayin’ prayers in the street light

Been spending most their lives, living in the gangsta’s paradise
Been spending most their lives, living in the gangsta’s paradise
Keep spending most our lives, living in the gangsta’s paradise
Keep spending most our lives, living in the gangsta’s paradise

They got the situation, they got me facin’
I can’t live a normal life, I was raised by the knife
So I gotta be down with the hood team
Too much television watchin’ got me chasin’ dreams
I’m an educated fool with money on my mind
Got my 10 in my hand and a gleam in my eye
I’m a loc’d gangsta set trippin’ banga
And my homies is down so don’t arouse my anga, fool
Death ain’t nothin’ but a heartbeat away,
I’m livin’ life, do I die, what can I say
I’m 23 now, will I live to see 24
the way things is goin’ I don’t know

Tell me why are we, so blind to see
That the one’s we hurt, are you and me
Been spending most their lives, living in the gangsta’s paradise
Been spending most their lives, living in the gangsta’s paradise
Keep spending most our lives, living in the gangsta’s paradise
Keep spending most our lives, living in the gangsta’s paradise

Power and the money, money and the power
Minute after minute, hour after hour
Everybody’s runnin’, but half of them ain’t lookin’
What’s goin’ on in the kitchen, but I don’t know what’s cookin’
They say I gotta learn, but nobody’s here to teach me
If they can’t understand it, how can they reach me
I guess they can’t, I guess they won’t
I guess they front, that’s why I know my life is outta luck, fool

Been spending most their lives, living in the gangsta’s paradise
Been spending most their lives, living in the gangsta’s paradise
Keep spending most our lives, living in the gangsta’s paradise
Keep spending most our lives, living in the gangsta’s paradise
Tell me why are we, so blind to see
That the one’s we hurt, are you and me
Tell me why are we, so blind to see
That the one’s we hurt, are you and me







  说到维京人生活在1000多年前的北欧,今天的挪威、丹麦和瑞典。当时欧洲人更多将之称为Northman,即北方来客。维京是他们的自称,在北欧的语言中,这个词语包含着两重意思:首先是旅行,然后是掠夺。他们远航的足迹遍及整个欧洲,南临红海,西到北美,东至巴格达。但他们第一次在当地百姓面前出现,就是以海盗的身份抢劫掠夺。维京人是强悍的战士,他们的人数较少,于是就得依靠周密的策划与出其不意的突袭。在战斗中他们又表现得异乎寻常的狂热,悍不畏死,于是人们谈海盗色变。 他们的突击常分成两节:先在远距离上投掷长矛和发射火箭;然后用剑和战斧做近距离的了断。在海上相遇时,海盗遵守古老的传统,一声不吭地将船系在一起。在船头搭上跳板,然后依次上场单挑,每个走上跳板的人都面临这样的命运:或者将对方统统杀光,或者自己战死,由后面的同伴替自己复仇。如果感到害怕,可以转身跳进海里,没有人会追杀逃兵,但放弃战斗资格的人与死者无异,从此连家人都会忽视他的存在。因此排在船头第一个上阵的,通常是最精锐的战士,他们在战斗中赤裸上身,发着粗野的吼声,忘情地享受战斗的酣畅。他们知道,脚下的跳板浸透着祖辈的鲜血,自己的后代也会落脚在同一个地方。愤怒使维京海盗显得强大而骇人,这种战士被称为Berserker,即狂战士。没有人知道为什么,这种原始的战斗会激发出这么惊人的人类本性,狂战士的故事被代代相传。公元789年,一伙维京海盗洗劫了多赛特郡,从此英格兰就受到不断的骚扰。当地人与强盗们英勇地战斗过,但更多的时候,他们缴纳赎金,称为Danegeld(今天丹麦的赋税不叫tax,就叫Danegeld),让灾星快快离去。但钱不是总可以解决问题的,海盗有好几股,这个大王离去,另一个头领翩翩登场。在防守薄弱的地区,维京海盗很是猖獗。


  正是因为历史上维京人如此深刻地影响了欧洲大陆,所以与北欧海盗或者是北欧神话相关的游戏很多——维京武士、北欧海盗、维京战船、北欧天神奥丁……这些人物或者物品频频出现在各种各样的游戏里面。2001年,国内发行过一款名叫《维京物语》的画面优美的策略模拟游戏,就是让玩家创造一个强大的维京王国。而Human Head推出的采用了《虚幻锦标赛》引擎的第三人称战斗游戏《北欧战神》,则是以维京海盗的时代为背景,玩家扮演一个名叫Ragnar的维京海盗战士,寻找并消灭妄图毁灭世界的恶魔。在网络游戏方面,2001年Funcom推出过一款名叫《Midgard》的游戏,游戏中表现了斯堪的那维亚半岛的独特的海洋、峡湾、森林等场景和奇特的气候变化;而热衷于游戏开发的韩国人则在2003年推出了一款名叫《Midgard》的以北欧神话为背景的网络游戏。




















  小结:从公元前1350年至今,杀人不眨眼的恶魔逐渐演变成了我们人类文化的一部分。文学、动漫、影视作品里越来越多地出现了他们的身影——脚穿皮靴、腰间别着一把短火枪、戴着眼罩、肩膀上停靠了一只鹦鹉(《加勒比海盗》里站在巴布沙肩膀上的是一只猴子)……相较于以北欧时代为题材的游戏,这些后来者的海盗形象也要更丰富了些。与前面提到过的《大航海时代》系列相比,Bethesda推出的《海狗》系列则完完全全地可以说是海盗扮演游戏——优美的场景和华丽的海战,还有真实的船舰模型和复杂的游戏世界,将玩家送回了那个在大海上战火纷飞的时代。与《海狗》系列相类似的还有Ascaron发行的《新世界海盗》,这款策略游戏也是让玩家扮演海盗,通过商业、抢劫、海战等方式,最后成为海上的霸主。比较另类特别的则有Spririt公司开发的3D动作冒险游戏《巫毒岛》和Poptop公司的经营模拟游戏《海岛大亨:海盗湾》,前者是让玩家扮演海盗,并找到失落的“巫毒岛”和珠宝,后者则是让玩家经营一个海盗海岛。在网络游戏方面,美国的Flying Lab Software公司2003年推出了一款以18世纪航海时代为主题的3D游戏《Pirates of the Burning Sea》,玩家可以扮演航海家或者是海盗,为了探索新大陆和争夺财富而展开冒险,据说在游戏中可以当海盗。另外,据说光荣也会推出《大航海时代Online》,看来众多玩家们彻夜不眠地在浩瀚大海上扬帆远航的日子又要开始了,让我们为海盗梦想继续前行…… 













  大炮:黑火药出现不久,大炮也应运而生。其实,它的构造并不复杂。一根中空的粗管子,堵塞一头,就是它的全部。大铁球炮弹从空的一头填入炮管,推到底。而炮弹和底部之间,就是火药。 大炮的末端有点火孔,可以用火柴来点燃火药。大炮的威力是巨大的,大炮可以发射圆球弹、葡萄弹和铁链弹。圆球弹就是一个大铁球,用来在船板上打洞十分有效;葡萄弹是好多小炮弹,用于撕裂敌船的帆,或是对甲板上的人员造成大面积杀伤;至于铁链弹,则是用长铁链连接的两颗大铁球,打断敌船的桅杆好用得很。当时的大炮是用“磅”来分级的,例如十磅大炮,或是十二磅大炮等等。



  例一 巴沙洛缪·罗伯茨船长和他的船员所用的规章(由1724年查尔斯·詹森船长整理)











  例二 约翰·菲利浦船长和他的船员所用的规章(由1924年菲利浦·高瑟船长整理)























  在俄罗斯国内,黑帮则控制了一切。“体坛教父”托克塔霍诺夫,不仅在盐湖城冬奥会操纵裁判令旗下选手获得双人滑冠军,还把手伸向网球界。卡费尔尼科夫、萨芬、库尔尼科娃公开承认和这位“体坛教父”是朋友,但都拒绝深谈细节。库“辣妹”解释说:“我是一个俄罗斯人,我还要回到那去。” 活着的人只能保持沉默,敢谈论细节的体育人都死了。1996年,斯巴达克职业冰球俱乐部总经理被枪杀。不到一年,俄罗斯冰球协会负责人下了地狱。2个月后,莫斯科斯巴达克足球俱乐部总经理也见了阎王。


  * 俄罗斯职业杀手


  * 犯罪之都——圣彼得堡

















  在警方档案中最早出现的华裔黑帮,是20世纪70年代纽约唐人街的ABC(American-born Chinese,在美国出生的中国人)组织。ABC与黑手党进行了3年战争,令甘必诺家族失去了37名得力干将。据联邦调查局对保罗·甘必诺的窃听录音显示,这位教父认为黑手党已无法继续控制唐人街,不如放弃。就这样,ABC“解放”了唐人街,并在地下社会赢得了声誉。














































  纽约市的“小意大利”是昆士区,跟中国城比邻。同如今的景象有所不同,20世纪30年代前后,这里是所谓的“穷街陋巷”(mean streets)。因为两次大战和那次全球经济体系的崩溃,在“旧大陆”欧洲找不到活路的移民纷纷坐船来到美国,史为美国的第二次“移民潮”。