hom Mayne (b. January 19, 1944 in Waterbury, Connecticut) is a widely recognized Los Angeles based architect. Educated at University of Southern California (1969)[1] and the Harvard University Graduate School of Design, Mayne helped found the Southern California Institute of Architecture (SCI-ARC) in 1972. Since then he has held teaching positions at both SCI-ARC and UCLA. He is principal of Morphosis, a renowned architectural office located in Santa Monica, California. Mayne received the Pritzker Prize in March 2005.

Design Philosophy

Morphosis’s design philosophy arises from an interest in producing work with a meaning that can be understood by absorbing the culture for which it was made. This is in opposition to typical architectural philosophies which overlay meaning from outside influences and are distant from the question at hand.

The word “metamorphosis” (from which the name Morphosis is derived) means a “change in form or transformation.” For Morphosis this reflects a design process intuitively embedded within an increasingly groundless modern society that is exemplified by the shifting landscape of Los Angeles (the firm’s home). Their working method values contradiction, conflict, and change, and understands each project as a dynamic entity.

The work of Morphosis has a layered quality. The designs often include multiple organizational systems which find unique expression while contributing to a coherent whole. Visually, the firm’s architecture includes sculptural forms which often appear to arise effortlessly from the landscape. In recent years this has been increasingly made possible through the use of computational design techniques which simplify the construction of complex forms.


What is Philosophy?


by Professor Walter Sinnott-Armstrong

Well, what do you think philosophy is? Most people can’t answer this question. It’s too abstract. It’s also controversial. Philosophers themselves can’t agree on any answer. Sure, the name "philosophy" derives from the Greek for "love of wisdom", but what’s that? There has been a long and glorious history of people called philosophers, but they talk about all kinds of topics in all kinds of ways. It is not clear what, if anything, they have in common that makes them all philosophers.


Still, though many philosophers would dispute what I say, I will give you one model of philosophy. For me, philosophy is defined by a goal and a method.


Philosophy’s goal is nothing less than a systematic world view. Other fields study particular kinds of things. Philosophy asks how it all fits together. For example, if you want to learn about bodies, take a course in physics or biology. If you want to learn about minds, take a course in psychology. But if you want to learn about how minds are related to bodies, or how physics is related to psychology, then philosophy (of mind) is for you. Similarly, economics, political science, and art and music courses study different values (welfare, justice, and beauty). Then moral philosophers ask how these values are similar or different, when one may be traded off against another, and where any of these values fit into the physical world. Again, historians try to discover knowledge of the past and astronomers try to discover knowledge of stars and planets, but only philosophers ask what makes any of these beliefs knowledge, and how (or whether) we can have any knowledge at all. Such philosophical questions are very abstract, but that is what enables them to cover so many different fields at once.


This goal also means that you can study anything under the name of philosophy. Philosophy encompasses subfields called philosophy of religion, of law, of economics, of biology, of physics, of mathematics, of computers, of psychology, of art, of music, of literature, and so on. Any and all of these topics can be studied in a philosophical way when one asks how they are related to each other in an overall world view.

这个目标还意味这你可以在哲学的定义下学习任何东西。哲学包含的子目录 信仰哲学,法律哲学,经济哲学,生物哲学,数学哲学,电脑哲学,心理哲学,音乐哲学,物理哲学,和文学哲学等等。当一个人问他们如何在一个整体的世界观被相互联系在一起时,所有的题目都可以用哲学的方法去回答。

When such disparate topics are raised, conflicts and paradoxes are bound to arise. One famous example is the paradox of freedom: Science, including psychology, leads us to believe that (1) Every act is determined by a prior cause. Law and common practices of blaming and punishing wrongdoers then lead us to believe that (2) Some acts are free. But the very definition of "free" suggests that (3) Nothing that is determined is free. Unfortunately, (1)-(3) cannot all be true, so any world view that includes all three of these claims is incoherent.


Paradoxes like this are both loved and hated by philosophers. Philosophers love them for their stimulation but hate them for their incoherence, so philosophers try hard to get rid of paradoxes. One prevalent way to resolve paradoxes is conceptual analysis. In response to the paradox of freedom, for example, some philosophers try to analyze freedom in a way that makes it compatible with determinism and thereby undermines (3). Other philosophers give accounts of blame and punishment that do not presuppose freedom, so they can reject (2). Still others analyze determinism and causation in ways that cast doubt on (1). One of these claims has to go. Conceptual analysis tries to help us decide which claim to give up.


The method of conceptual analysis might sometimes seem picky, but unclarity or imprecision in our concepts is often what leads us into paradoxes and incoherence in our world views. That is why the philosophical goal of a coherent overall world view makes philosophers adopt the method of conceptual analysis.

Philosophers use other methods as well. Many philosophers employ empirical discoveries in psychology, biology, and physics to illuminate traditional philosophical issues. (Can our moral beliefs be understood as a product of evolution?) Others use formal developments in logic and mathematics. (Does the incompleteness of arithmetic, proven by Gödel, show that computers cannot think in the way humans do?) Still others turn to literature and first-person narratives to express their ideas. (Is the position of oppressed groups best understood by listening to their own stories?) Since it is puzzling how the abstract world of numbers or the lived world of personal experience is related to the physical world of subatomic particles, the variety of methods used by philosophers reflects the issues that must be faced in formulating a coherent overall world view.

One feature is shared by almost all methods used by philosophers: Philosophers question authorities. Whereas legislators or judges have the authority to declare what the law is, and specific texts determine what is required by some religions, philosophers do not grant any special authority to anyone or anything. Every claim, no matter where it comes from, is subject to scrutiny. Even common sense is not taken for granted, which leads philosophers to put forward some very weird views.

In place of authorities, philosophers try to justify their views with arguments. Indeed, philosophers love arguments. One of the earliest examples of philosophy was an argument by Zeno, which runs like this: "The slow runner [a tortoise] will never be overtaken by the swiftest [Achilles], for it is necessary that the pursuer should first reach the point from which the pursued started, so that necessarily, the slower is always somewhat in advance." If you think about it for a while, Zeno’s argument should be clear. What is not clear is how to respond. One popular reaction is, "That’s silly. Of course, Achilles can overtake a tortoise. It happens all the time." Philosophers retort, "Everybody assumes that Achilles can overtake the tortoise, and it does appear that swift runners overtake slow runners, but how do you know what is really going on? And what is wrong with Zeno’s argument to the contrary? You cannot reject the argument just because you don’t like the conclusion." In such debates, philosophers try to uncover our basic assumptions, evaluate our reasons (if any) for these assumptions, and speculate on what our world view would be like if we gave up those assumptions. This process can be liberating and fascinating, even when (or maybe because) it leads to results that seem hard to believe.

In seeking this goal through these methods, philosophers address a wide variety of problems, which can be classified into three main areas:

Metaphysics or the theory of existence addresses the questions of whether God exists, whether we have free will, how our minds are related to our bodies, what reality is, and so on. Epistemology or the theory of knowledge asks whether and how we can know or be justified in believing anything; and it also investigates particular areas or sources of (supposed) knowledge, such as perception, memory, and science. Ethics or moral philosophy studies which acts are morally right or wrong and which people or character traits are morally good or bad; then other values, such as beauty, are studied in other areas of value theory, such as aesthetics. Some of the most exciting philosophical issues (such as those raised by existentialists, phenomenologists, feminists, and philosophers of language) do not fit neatly under any of these traditional categories.

True philosophers will not rest until they combine theories about all of these various topics into a single coherent system of thought that is justified without appeal to authority. Because this ideal is so demanding, the process of doing philosophy can be frustrating, but it is also something that can fill and fulfill one’s entire life.


Philosophy)传统包括了形而上学、知识论、伦理学的研究。这些学科试图回答对于世界起源,知识如何获得,以 及善恶等观念的问题。基本上,哲学的基本方法是运用理性对于这些问题提出论证。但是,哲学的实际范畴与定义到现在还没有一个确定的答案,“哲学是什么?” 在哲学传统之中是充满分歧与倍受争议的。
◆ 人生的目的是什麼?某些生活方式是否真的比另一些好?我为什麼要努力读书或工作?除了赚钱给自己享受之外,我还应该关心其他事情吗?什麼是幸福?
◆ 生存有什麼价值?一个常常遇到挫折的人,真的比一头快乐的小狗幸福吗?何以活著好过死去?
◆ 我们为何要遵循道德规条?道德规条由哪里来?是谁颁定的?
◆ 我们应该相信科学教科书或医生说的话吗?为什麼?我们又应否相信风水和星相学呢?
◆ 为什麼要有国家与政府?国家有没有权利干涉个人的私生活?人是为国家而生存的吗?抑或国家是为了保护公民的利益而存在?
◆ 神存在吗?如果神存在,为什麼这个世界上还有那麼多惨事发生?
 每个人对这些问题的回答却未必相同,这些答案可能来自父母或朋友的意见、师长与课本的教诲、宗教的启迪以至出自个人的思考。然而,这些答案是否正确?是 否有所根据?根据又能否成立?如果我们不反覆及认真反省自己的见解,想法就会变得武断,一些信念会变成教条,社会亦会因此变得僵化,甚至令文化陷入困境。 哲学探究的目的,就是以理性的批判精神,反省及审察生活的种种事物及价值。

由此可见,哲学主要是一种批判的思考活动。批判思考就是审慎考察我们的信念、价值及行动背後的理据。这种考察是很基本的哲学思维。具体而言,批判思考首先 要釐清一种见解究竟有什麼内容,或先弄清一个行动所为何事,并找出这些见解和行动的理据,继而考虑理据是否可靠。然後,我们可以再追问这些理据是否足以支 持那些见解或行动?或者这些理据本身是否合理或已充分确立,不用其他理由来支持?

(有意义的人生在乎你的感悟有多少,对世界,对生命? 对一样事物了解的多少,可是使意义的大小都有所变化!人不应糊里糊涂就活一辈子,时代与人是双向选择的)















『首先,思维是人的思维?这使我想到一个主题?2个问题?思维与存在应该也就是唯物主义与唯心主义,主观与客观,感性与理性。 哲学也反映事物一般规律的,帮助我们认识世界的,在一定程度上说它是从事物规律总结的,是靠什么总结的,人的思考,人的发现,人的总结___是思考总结归纳得出的!不过,不同的人在不同角度得出的规律(哲学)不同罢了,个人觉得虽然哲学是反映物这个本体,但是经过人提炼(意识)的,“哲学”没有人的发现(意识的觉醒),是不可能有规律上升到哲学的。』



What is Philosophy?(什么是哲学?)


Quite literally, the term "philosophy" means, "love of wisdom." In a broad sense, philosophy is an activity people undertake when they seek to understand fundamental truths about themselves, the world in which they live, and their relationships to the world and to each other. As an academic discipline philosophy is much the same. Those who study philosophy are perpetually engaged in asking, answering, and arguing for their answers to life’s most basic questions.


Metaphysics: At its core the study of metaphysics is the study of the nature of reality, of what exists in the world, what it is like, and how it is ordered. In metaphysics philosophers wrestle with such questions as:


  • Is there a God?神的存在?
  • What is truth?什么是真实?
  • What is a person? What makes a person the same through time?
  • 什么是人?什么给予一个人相等的渡过时间?
  • Is the world strictly composed of matter?
  • 这是世界上严格组成的事?
  • Do people have minds? If so, how is the mind related to the body?
  • 人类有思想?如果有,如何联系我们的身体?
  • Do people have free wills?
  • 人类有自由的意愿?
  • What is it for one event to cause another?
  • 什么是可以使一件事件联系到另一件?

Epistemology: Epistemology is the study of knowledge. It is primarily concerned with what we can know about the world and how we can know it. Typical questions of concern in epistemology are:


  • What is knowledge?
  • 什么是知识?
  • Do we know anything at all?
  • 我们知道所有的知识吗?
  • How do we know what we know?
  • 我们如何知道我们所知道的?
  • Can we be justified in claiming to know certain things?
  • 我们可以有理由在自称知道某些东西?

Ethics: The study of ethics often concerns what we ought to do and what it would be best to do. In struggling with this issue, larger questions about what is good and right arise. So, the ethicist attempts to answer such questions as:


  • What is good? What makes actions or people good?
  • 什么是正义?什么使得行为或人正义?
  • What is right? What makes actions right?
  • 什么是正确?什么使活动正确?
  • Is morality objective or subjective?
  • 是道德的客观或主观?
  • How should I treat others?
  • 我如何应该对待别人?

Logic: Another important aspect of the study of philosophy is the arguments or reasons given for people’s answers to these questions. To this end philosophers employ logic to study the nature and structure of arguments. Logicians ask such questions as:


  • What constitutes "good" or "bad" reasoning?
  • 什么构成正义和邪恶的原因?
  • How do we determine whether a given piece of reasoning is good or bad?
  • 如何去决定是否一个因素是正义还是邪恶?

History of Philosophy: The study of philosophy involves not only forming one’s own answers to such questions, but also seeking to understand the way in which people have answered such questions in the past. So, a significant part of philosophy is its history, a history of answers and arguments about these very questions. In studying the history of philosophy one explores the ideas of such historical figures as:

  • Plato     柏拉图
  • Aristotle 亚里士多德
  • Aquinas阿奎那
  • Descartes笛卡儿
  • Locke洛克
  • Hume 休谟
  • Kant康德
  • Nietzsche 尼采
  • Marx马克思
  • Mill轧机
  • Wittgenstein维特根斯坦
  • Sartre萨特

What often motivates the study of philosophy is not merely the answers or arguments themselves but whether or not the arguments are good and the answers are true. Moreover, many of the questions and issues in the various areas of philosophy overlap and in some cases even converge.

  • Philosophy of Law 哲学法学
  • Philosophy of Religion哲学信仰
  • Philosophy of Mind哲学思想
  • Political Philosophy政治哲学
  • Philosophy of History哲学历史
  • Philosophy of Feminism


  • Philosophy of Science哲学科学
  • Philosophy of Literature哲学文学
  • Philosophy of the Arts哲学艺术
  • Philosophy of Language哲学语言