2008年05月25日

由百度搜索得知:
哲学
Philosophy)传统包括了形而上学、知识论、伦理学的研究。这些学科试图回答对于世界起源,知识如何获得,以 及善恶等观念的问题。基本上,哲学的基本方法是运用理性对于这些问题提出论证。但是,哲学的实际范畴与定义到现在还没有一个确定的答案,“哲学是什么?” 在哲学传统之中是充满分歧与倍受争议的。
(一堆废话,没找到有用的)
简单来说,哲学研究就是在抽象的层面上反思世界、人生及思维之种种问题。大多数人都曾思考过哲学问题,可能只是不察觉自己在作「哲学思考」而已。兹举数例,或许你亦曾对以下问题感到困惑:
◆ 人生的目的是什麼?某些生活方式是否真的比另一些好?我为什麼要努力读书或工作?除了赚钱给自己享受之外,我还应该关心其他事情吗?什麼是幸福?
◆ 生存有什麼价值?一个常常遇到挫折的人,真的比一头快乐的小狗幸福吗?何以活著好过死去?
◆ 我们为何要遵循道德规条?道德规条由哪里来?是谁颁定的?
◆ 我们应该相信科学教科书或医生说的话吗?为什麼?我们又应否相信风水和星相学呢?
◆ 为什麼要有国家与政府?国家有没有权利干涉个人的私生活?人是为国家而生存的吗?抑或国家是为了保护公民的利益而存在?
◆ 神存在吗?如果神存在,为什麼这个世界上还有那麼多惨事发生?
 每个人对这些问题的回答却未必相同,这些答案可能来自父母或朋友的意见、师长与课本的教诲、宗教的启迪以至出自个人的思考。然而,这些答案是否正确?是 否有所根据?根据又能否成立?如果我们不反覆及认真反省自己的见解,想法就会变得武断,一些信念会变成教条,社会亦会因此变得僵化,甚至令文化陷入困境。 哲学探究的目的,就是以理性的批判精神,反省及审察生活的种种事物及价值。
(以上激发了我对哲学的兴趣?不管我提出什么答案,都会有为什么这个东西?)

由此可见,哲学主要是一种批判的思考活动。批判思考就是审慎考察我们的信念、价值及行动背後的理据。这种考察是很基本的哲学思维。具体而言,批判思考首先 要釐清一种见解究竟有什麼内容,或先弄清一个行动所为何事,并找出这些见解和行动的理据,继而考虑理据是否可靠。然後,我们可以再追问这些理据是否足以支 持那些见解或行动?或者这些理据本身是否合理或已充分确立,不用其他理由来支持?
(这里的哲学仅仅是哲学,不是马克思哲学。但从意义上来说哲学就是帮助我们去了解与认知这个社会,可是我不懂为什么是一种批判的思考方式??难道质疑就是批判嘛?可是难度质疑就不是批判嘛?有时候觉得世界就有一个圈◎!饶老绕去就是无法出来)

回答这些问题就等於在评估和反省自己的理据、看法、信念及行动;我们也可藉此尝试对这些理据和看法作出修正。如此一来,钻研哲学能助人确立信念、价值和作明智合理的抉择,令我们成为有理智自主的人,最终使人生更有意义。
(有意义的人生在乎你的感悟有多少,对世界,对生命? 对一样事物了解的多少,可是使意义的大小都有所变化!人不应糊里糊涂就活一辈子,时代与人是双向选择的)

哲学的基本问题

1、思维与存在的关系问题是哲学的基本问题

(1)所谓哲学的基本问题,是指这一问题贯穿于包括社会历史观在内的所有哲学问题之中,是人们认识世界的出发点,也是哲学的起点,其他所有哲学问题都是从这个问题中派生出来的。

(2)思维与存在的关系问题是哲学的基本问题,这是因为:

①这个问题是任何哲学派别都必须回答的问题。哲学作为世界观的理论,必然要对思维和存在(或意识与物质)两大类现象及其关系提出自己的看法。

②对这个问题的不同回答决定着一派哲学的基本倾向和性质。哲学作为一种理论体系,它的出发点和理论前提对它的思维方向起着至关重要的作用,规定着它的基本性质。而对基本问题的回答,就具有出发点和理论前提的意义。

③思维和存在的关系问题是人类实践的基本问题。

(3)把思维和存在的关系问题确定为哲学的基本问题的重要意义:

①它揭示了哲学作为世界观理论体系的根本特征。

②它揭示了哲学的根本路线和方向。

③它揭示了哲学斗争的焦点,给了我们理解哲学历史的线索。

④它揭示了人类实践的基本矛盾。

2、哲学基本问题的内容

哲学的基本问题,包括两个方面、两个层次:

(1)第一方面是关于思维和存在(或意识和物质)谁是第一性、何者为本源的问题。即物质决定意识,还是意识决定物质的问题。哲学基本问题的第一个方面,是划分哲学史上唯物主义与唯心主义两条路线的根本依据。
『首先,思维是人的思维?这使我想到一个主题?2个问题?思维与存在应该也就是唯物主义与唯心主义,主观与客观,感性与理性。 哲学也反映事物一般规律的,帮助我们认识世界的,在一定程度上说它是从事物规律总结的,是靠什么总结的,人的思考,人的发现,人的总结___是思考总结归纳得出的!不过,不同的人在不同角度得出的规律(哲学)不同罢了,个人觉得虽然哲学是反映物这个本体,但是经过人提炼(意识)的,“哲学”没有人的发现(意识的觉醒),是不可能有规律上升到哲学的。』

(2)第二个方面是物质和意识是否具有同一性的问题,即人的意识能否认识和反映物质世界的问题。这是哲学基本问题的“认识论”方面,是划分哲学史上的可知论和不可知论两条认识路线的根本依据。

(3)哲学基本问题的两个方面,是从不同侧面阐明了思维与存在的关系。

What is Philosophy?(什么是哲学?)

 

Quite literally, the term "philosophy" means, "love of wisdom." In a broad sense, philosophy is an activity people undertake when they seek to understand fundamental truths about themselves, the world in which they live, and their relationships to the world and to each other. As an academic discipline philosophy is much the same. Those who study philosophy are perpetually engaged in asking, answering, and arguing for their answers to life’s most basic questions.

不少从字面上说,哲学的意思就是“聪明的爱”,在广义上说,哲学就是一个人类总结概括的活动,当人类去寻找理解根本上的真实的他们居住的世界,与这个世界和其他人与自身的关系情感。在一个学术严谨上说,哲学是很相似的,学习哲学就是一个长期问,答和辩论以给予他们答案(回答生命中的基本问题)。

Metaphysics: At its core the study of metaphysics is the study of the nature of reality, of what exists in the world, what it is like, and how it is ordered. In metaphysics philosophers wrestle with such questions as:

形而上学:真正的自然存在这个世界

  • Is there a God?神的存在?
  • What is truth?什么是真实?
  • What is a person? What makes a person the same through time?
  • 什么是人?什么给予一个人相等的渡过时间?
  • Is the world strictly composed of matter?
  • 这是世界上严格组成的事?
  • Do people have minds? If so, how is the mind related to the body?
  • 人类有思想?如果有,如何联系我们的身体?
  • Do people have free wills?
  • 人类有自由的意愿?
  • What is it for one event to cause another?
  • 什么是可以使一件事件联系到另一件?

Epistemology: Epistemology is the study of knowledge. It is primarily concerned with what we can know about the world and how we can know it. Typical questions of concern in epistemology are:

认识论:知识的学习。这是初级的概念我们懂得这个世界和如何去了解它。

  • What is knowledge?
  • 什么是知识?
  • Do we know anything at all?
  • 我们知道所有的知识吗?
  • How do we know what we know?
  • 我们如何知道我们所知道的?
  • Can we be justified in claiming to know certain things?
  • 我们可以有理由在自称知道某些东西?

Ethics: The study of ethics often concerns what we ought to do and what it would be best to do. In struggling with this issue, larger questions about what is good and right arise. So, the ethicist attempts to answer such questions as:

伦理:关于我们应该做和我们最好怎么做!关于正义与正确。

  • What is good? What makes actions or people good?
  • 什么是正义?什么使得行为或人正义?
  • What is right? What makes actions right?
  • 什么是正确?什么使活动正确?
  • Is morality objective or subjective?
  • 是道德的客观或主观?
  • How should I treat others?
  • 我如何应该对待别人?

Logic: Another important aspect of the study of philosophy is the arguments or reasons given for people’s answers to these questions. To this end philosophers employ logic to study the nature and structure of arguments. Logicians ask such questions as:

逻辑:另一个学习哲学重要的一面就是原因与讨论给人类答案去回答这些问题?为此哲学家聘请的逻辑来研究的性质和结构的论点

  • What constitutes "good" or "bad" reasoning?
  • 什么构成正义和邪恶的原因?
  • How do we determine whether a given piece of reasoning is good or bad?
  • 如何去决定是否一个因素是正义还是邪恶?

History of Philosophy: The study of philosophy involves not only forming one’s own answers to such questions, but also seeking to understand the way in which people have answered such questions in the past. So, a significant part of philosophy is its history, a history of answers and arguments about these very questions. In studying the history of philosophy one explores the ideas of such historical figures as:

  • Plato     柏拉图
  • Aristotle 亚里士多德
  • Aquinas阿奎那
  • Descartes笛卡儿
  • Locke洛克
  • Hume 休谟
  • Kant康德
  • Nietzsche 尼采
  • Marx马克思
  • Mill轧机
  • Wittgenstein维特根斯坦
  • Sartre萨特

What often motivates the study of philosophy is not merely the answers or arguments themselves but whether or not the arguments are good and the answers are true. Moreover, many of the questions and issues in the various areas of philosophy overlap and in some cases even converge.

  • Philosophy of Law 哲学法学
  • Philosophy of Religion哲学信仰
  • Philosophy of Mind哲学思想
  • Political Philosophy政治哲学
  • Philosophy of History哲学历史
  • Philosophy of Feminism

    女性主义

  • Philosophy of Science哲学科学
  • Philosophy of Literature哲学文学
  • Philosophy of the Arts哲学艺术
  • Philosophy of Language哲学语言

回答为转移的。

2008年05月20日

写了这么多,眼也酸了。由于能力有限还请大家多多包含阿!『请大家支持原创,复制请声明』

在此先对汶川地震的同胞悼念默哀!!!

这几天,从新闻,网站以及各个渠道得知的信息使我想了很多,除了关心受灾人民的身体,精神状况以及家园重建以为,还想了想我们景观设计,中国景观设计的未来。

一个新时代的到来是是经过长期时间的演变,包括时代背景,突发事件等,但我想说的是旗帜口号!从一个大家都比较熟悉的例子开始,三国刘备,一个自己没有什么本事(实实在在的能力)但身边却有到时天下最勇猛之人(五虎大将)与最智慧之人(诸葛庞统);想想当时的曹操袁绍,他们本来就具有硬实力(名声,财富,人才),刘备又是如何成功成为三份天下之一呢?我看关键是他打起了旗帜,喊起了口号。(复兴汉室)先是说自己是宗室(我估计有假,当时汉刘姓子孙不说几万也有几千,中国古语“三代不往来”),然后用自己的“仁义”与“一哭二闹三上吊”开始积累民声与人才。慢慢后来成为了蜀王——三国中第一个称帝的人(曹操到死还都是挟天子的丞相)。在这里我不想说那些三顾诸葛亮与长坂坡不忍心丢弃人民的战术话题,只是想强调在实行战略中,打起旗帜是多么重要!大家现在可以想想我们景观行业的旗帜问题了,等我说之前,还要说一个现在的故事。比亚迪汽车,一个1995年成立做手机电池为主的公司从2002年收购汽车模具,到2005年进军汽车市场,然后在短短一两年间突破万辆,跟着2006年高官竟然喊出了“2025年要成为世界第一的汽车企业”。这就是口号,打出了旗帜。别人可能认为他是喊空话,出风头,但是早在2003年,比亚迪还没有生产一部车的时候,已经动员了400名技术人员开始研究汽车电池技术。也就在去年车展上,展出了混合动力汽车与电力汽车。电力车在一次充电后可以行使100公里,看看目前世界第一汽车企业丰田也只能行使25公里。关键我想说的是,在判断市场形势与未来,果断抓出前进方向,打出了前进方向。(汽车世界里,大家都知道汽油就是制约汽车界发展的瓶颈,只要解决这个问题,汽车就会有另个时代的到来了;想要解决这个问题,比亚迪又聪明地选择了自己的强项电池,而且还是自主研发,等这个口号喊出来,科员人员拼了,谁不想在创造新时代贡献自己;原型车拿出来,政府也乐了,“为国争光”,提供一切可以的支持。)就这样,比亚迪成功了。
现在可以说说我们景观行业了,在说到时代问题,我想俞孔坚先生的出现是一个时间点,在此之前,我们的景观也就是园林,那是一个很古老且很牢固的体系与传统,当然也有一些有识之士,但在考虑稳定改革,尊重资历,讲究辈分也只能默默的贡献。古时很多时,一些默默的战士都是在挑战名将或是猛人后一战成名的,先不说要成为这样的人多难,可打败击倒一个名将,名声,地位仲要比跟随一个名将要来的快的多!俞孔坚先生在选着跟着自己老师长辈与另起小灶果断选择与老头们对着干。这就是战术,下面我又要说旗帜问题了。开辟新的时代不是不行,也不是没有新的东西,美国的景观世界第一阿。可要没有门徒阿,只能选择让我们容易接受的事务。——提出了“世外桃源”才是我们中国景观的追求,从而从这个具有中国文化的诗文中引申自己对中国农耕文化的看法,而在后面的设计作品中又去反正它,“沈阳建筑学院”那个校园就是一个例子。这样即在国外国内的行业尖端树立了旗帜,又成为了新一代的偶像。
从莫种意义上来说,他是借用“民族主义”把国外先进理论,设计方法引入国内。这个旗帜好阿!使得人才觉得跟着他就有前途,这个与刘备与比亚迪的例子一样,只要满足别人的小小的想法,别人就会跟着你走,媒体也是。我们年轻的人才可都是被压的没办法阿,精神生活十分匮乏。跟着俞孔坚又开始给市长送书,寻求与政府对话,(想想刘备在积累了一些实力后,马上寻求更大的发展,与皇上人亲——刘皇叔;比亚迪也是,得到政府(当权者)的帮助使得人才更坚定与信任旗帜)
个人觉得,这几年,随着我们国家实力越来越强,人民生活过的一天比一天好,在过上温饱日子的之后,大家就想通过一些事情来表达自己的感情——“民族主义,民族情感”在这个时候可以特别容易地被唤醒,大家开始关心“文化流失”,“文化倾入”,“洋文化对抗”“国民在国外的生活对待”等,在国家崛起,民族自豪感在每个中国民族的心里被唤起,这时候任何行业打出的民族旗帜都容易得到响应与获得成功。特别是今年天灾人祸——年初的雪灾,三月西藏,还有火车事故,火炬传递在国外不公对待,包括现在四川的地震都使的我们民族团结一心,共同渡过难关。我想在等8月的奥运,民族自豪感将达到空前的宣泄;而且还会持续相当长的一段时间。我们行业在2008年奥运这个机遇下已得到相当大的发展,现在谁打出了民族的旗帜,谁就不会敗。我想俞孔坚先生们等会在相当长的时间内将中国景观发展下去,毕竟是我们民族自己的景观。
大家肯定目前会有个目标和方向了,要向俞靠齐或是跟随他,这很好,至少有了方向,有了动力。可我要说的,做人要有超前意识,超前思维,要有战略性思考,要不你只能为此别人的兵了。记得我前面讲过的“一战成名”的故事吗?与其跟随别人不如击败别人。
这时,就需要一个旗帜。可是有朋友要说要问了。刚不是分析了“民族主义”吗?我只是说这个阶段是,可下个阶段呢!等我来分析一下,看能不能找个可以开小灶的旗帜来。首先看看当今地球的形势,无非是2个一个是资源短缺,一个是环境恶化。其他什么地区冲突,疾饿,疾病等都是这2个主题所引起的,看看最近说有条河上游是在中国,下游在印度,中国要将在上游建水坝这个项目上马,印度不管是政府还是民众都强烈反对,并且说要用举国之力与中国斗争,这个什么,水资源争夺阿!还有美国为什么老盯着中东阿,不就是石油。还有环境恶化所导致的全球变暖,灾难,疾病等!这些都是一个个与人类生存息息相关的问题阿,我们政治书上的当今世界的主题是“和平与发展”早已过时了。且不说资源会引起战争,生存都成问题了,还怎么发展阿。
世界上每个国家都想着自己的国家利益却忘记了,大家都是人类阿,都是生活在一个地球。所为占世界人口最大比重的中国,当我们真的在20年后可以与美国相提并论呢,能不能重新树立一个旗帜呢(关心我们自己人类的生存)。那时我们可能已经得到了全球人民的认可了,可是我们更要兼顾起作为地球人的责任阿!
所以,很明显,我们景观也是这样,在与环境恶化这个问题上,我们可以做的更多,我们的旗帜也要打起来,请关心我们地球村!
这才是我们的未来!!!
(如何从景观领域来打起旗帜)

写了这么多,眼也酸了。由于能力有限还请大家多多包含阿!『请大家支持原创,复制请声明』

2008年04月23日

This 30 acre park, constructed on a landfill between 1988-1992, has several earthworks and land art pieces on it, designed by the park designers,  George Hargreaves, Peter Richards, and Michael Oppenheimer. A series of mounds, a series of poles, and other berms and concrete zigzags. Palo Alto meets the Bay in an interesting collection of terminal sites around the park. An active landfill for the city lies next to the wastewater treatment plant for the region, which discharges into the adjacent slough. Up until a few years ago, gold from the area’s high-tech firms was extracted from the wastewater and sold. Now companies using gold capture it themselves.

Byxbee Park is both perfectly obvious and perfectly bizarre. Obvious, because it’s in the middle of the Baylands and offers spectacular views of the bay in all directions. Perfectly bizarre, because it is full of machinery and mysterious artifacts that have an allure similar to Stonehenge. Clearly these things were built by humans, and at some effort, but to what earthly purpose?

The artifacts include a carefully planted forest of wooden poles, as well as a piece of equipment that looks like a cross between a rugby goal and wind chimes. K-rail is laid out in chevrons on one hillside. In a dip on the other side, stands a chugging, churning device that looks to have sagged out of plumb a generation ago. A trail of shimmery heat waves comes out the top.

Most startlingly, the place breathes, though not always in the same rhythm. A few years ago, you had to listen carefully for the long-drawn-out, despondent sigh it cast upon the air every two minutes or so. When I visited more recently, the park breathed almost in synch with myself, a little stertorously perhaps, as if suffering from some minor pulmonary obstruction.

 

 

 

There’s a simple explanation for the mystery: Byxbee Park is repurposed landfill, a small section of the Palo Alto city dump that was decommissioned some time in the 1980s. Its artificial hills are studded with pipes and pumps for the capture of leachate and methane. The leachate goes to the purification plant down the road, while the methane is burned off by a flare, that rusty device described above. Construction rubble peeks out of the grassy knolls behind the “habitat reconstruction” signs. The pole forest is in fact “land art,” and so are the K-rail and the rugby chimes.

 

If you don’t already know, then it’s not so easy to find out what Byxbee Park is. A plaque near the entrance to the park says: "The design of Byxbee Park is the result of a collaboration between the City of Palo Alto, landscape architects Hargreaves Associates, and artists Michael Oppenheimer and Peter Richards. The project was funded in part by the City of Palo Alto refuse collection fees and the Public Art Commission’s Art in Public Places program." A map identifies the installations by name but declines all effort at explanation. And not a word about garbage apart from those collection fees.

Byxbee’s tight-lipped stance, the likely legacy of the 20th-century’s long romance with "sanitation," is perhaps understandable. Sanitation was about garbage removal as a public health measure, about whisking garbage away from the curb and making it disappear. It was about burying garbage where nobody had to worry about it except the sanitation department. It was about creating a world where you could pretend that garbage didn’t really amount to any of your business. That time has passed.

The sanitation romance is fading and reality asserts itself. What may once have counted as innocence would now only look like wanton blindness. Most of us are uncomfortably aware of the fact that natural resources are finite and landfill space harder and harder to come by. Sanitary engineering has given way to environmental engineering, and ordinary people are handling (and worrying about) their trash, at least a little. When we drag our garbage cans to the curb and the lid won’t quite go down, we probably don’t feel too good about it.

 

All the same, it’s still awkward to talk about garbage publicly. The instinct still is to pull away from the subject as if it were sex and we Victorians. Garbage isn’t quite taboo, but it isn’t approved cocktail party conversation either—or something easily owned up to in park signage. It’s not just Byxbee Park where the "habitat restoration" signs don’t specify what type of habitat it is exactly that’s being restored. Bayfront Park, in Menlo Park, doesn’t have a single sign telling you it’s the old town dump. The Sunnyvale dump has signs all over it that say "Sensitive Wildlife Area." Indeed.

Garbage dumps are just more comfortable telling you how to comport yourself than pointing out what it is you’ve already accomplished.

But perhaps a new era is dawning, in which we can learn to think about garbage and to discuss it in polite society—if only because we actually feel a little guilty about the amounts of trash we get rid of every week. Because we suspect that, whatever happens to it precisely, it’s not a pretty story. And if we dig our garbage back up out of the twilit reaches of a guilty conscience, then perhaps the signage at our landfills can be a little more straightforward too.

At Byxbee right now, the best hint of what’s underfoot is the active fill next door. Its mounds rise at a startling rate, even though only a portion of Palo Alto’s garbage ends up here now. Every time I visit Byxbee, the new dump is a little more present. One day, a new hill rises in the back. Another time, fill activity is going on in front, where there used to be a miscellany of trucks, rubble, equipment, and temporary storage. A third time, a little setup of pumps and other machinery has been moved out of the hollow in which it sat, and the hollow itself is now a big hill.

With only a few years of space left in it, the active dump is expected to reach capacity in 2011, and the entire area will become parkland. As garbage hills go, Byxbee won’t be very large. Nevertheless, if it’s your garbage in there, how is it not special?

Even when you know what it is made of, Byxbee is quite lovely. Or maybe it is actually more lovely. In summer, when the grass is a bright strawberry blond and the sky intensely blue, the garbage is more a distant memory than a looming presence. Christmastime is different. The park has a leaden quality, even on the brighter days. The dull green of the grass and the relatively low light lend the hills an ominous air far more suggestive of the putrid mess underfoot.

In winter, the geese come through on their way south. Large groups, sometimes hundreds of them, camp out for a day or so to rest. The younger members of the flock occupy their time with incessant honking, squawking, and squabbling to rearrange the social order, while the more sedate and peaceable members of the congregation contentedly snack on the new grass.

The pelicans like to doze near Adobe Creek, neatly folded into small, blazing white packages from which occasionally a gawky long neck and beak protrudes. They could be a demonstration of the amazing ingenuity of a high-tech camping gadget. An occasional loner on the wing, flying low over the water, demonstrates the size and power of the animal when fully folded out.

 

At sunrise the wading birds and other water fowl are out at first light, always already there by the time I arrive. Most of the smaller ones I don’t recognize, although I am familiar with the names: terns, grebes, willets, western sandpipers, curlews, greater and lesser yellowlegs. They roll on the tongue like burbling water, out of time and history, comforting like the birds themselves.

They offer us a little hope: no matter how artificial the environment, no matter how degraded, life goes on. For now at least.

2008年04月06日

Sustainable Urbanization in the Information Age

信息时代的可持续的城市化
The Sustainable Urbanization in conference addresses the global challenges posed by rapid urbanization and its impact on global warming and the natural environment – from poverty and inequality to natural and manmade disasters – by calling for better sustainable planning for urban growth.

Global warming and climate change pose serious threats to all nations in the 21st century.

The Sustainable Urbanization conference seeks to create opportunities to share best practices between nations, as well as the political means to bring about change.

It is imperative that the problem of worldwide urbanization be faced in an informed and inspired way, in order to create the preconditions for a sustainable environment and healthy and fulfilling life for millions of people around the world.

The Conference will be held in New York City during Earth Week on 23 April 2008, at the United Nations Headquarters.

The conference will be linked to other events planned in New York on the celebration of Earth Day (22 April) and Earth Week – the anniversary of Mayor Bloomberg’s PlaNYC 2030, as well as the 2008 Regional Assembly of the Regional Planning Association on "Oil and Water, Adopting to Society" to be held on 18 April 2008, and the Go Green Expo on 27 April 2008.

The World Urban Forum organized by UN-HABITAT, which will take place in China in October 2008, will concentrate on the sustainability of cities.

"As a landscape architect, the ability to work with spaces and to find a solution to a problem or challenge, while at the same time creating something aesthetically pleasing, is really inspirational…"

Significant Points:

  • More than 26 percent of all landscape architects are self-employed—more than 3 times the proportion for all professionals.
  • A bachelor�s degree in landscape architecture is the minimum requirement for entry-level jobs; many employers prefer to hire landscape architects who also have completed at least one internship.
  • Landscape architect jobs are expected to increase due to a growing demand for incorporating natural elements into man-made environments, along with the need to meet a wide array of environmental restrictions.

Nature of the Work

Everyone enjoys attractively designed residential areas, public parks and playgrounds, college campuses, shopping centers, golf courses, parkways, and industrial parks. Landscape architects design these areas so that they are not only functional, but also beautiful, and compatible with the natural environment. They plan the location of buildings, roads, and walkways, and the arrangement of flowers, shrubs, and trees.

Landscape architects work for many types of organizations—from real estate development firms starting new projects to municipalities constructing airports or parks—and they often are involved with the development of a site from its conception. Working with architects, surveyors, and engineers, landscape architects help determine the best arrangement of roads and buildings. They also collaborate with environmental scientists, foresters, and other professionals to find the best way to conserve or restore natural resources. Once these decisions are made, landscape architects create detailed plans indicating new topography, vegetation, walkways, and other landscaping details, such as fountains and decorative features.

In planning a site, landscape architects first consider the nature and purpose of the project and the funds available. They analyze the natural elements of the site, such as the climate, soil, slope of the land, drainage, and vegetation; observe where sunlight falls on the site at different times of the day and examine the site from various angles; and assess the effect of existing buildings, roads, walkways, and utilities on the project.

After studying and analyzing the site, landscape architects prepare a preliminary design. To account for the needs of the client as well as the conditions at the site, they frequently make changes before a final design is approved. They also take into account any local, State, or Federal regulations, such as those protecting wetlands or historic resources. In preparing designs, computer-aided design (CAD) has become an essential tool for most landscape architects. Many landscape architects also use video simulation to help clients envision the proposed ideas and plans. For larger scale site planning, landscape architects also use geographic information systems technology, a computer mapping system.

Throughout all phases of the planning and design, landscape architects consult with other professionals, such as civil engineers, hydrologists, or architects, involved in the project. Once the design is complete, they prepare a proposal for the client. They produce detailed plans of the site, including written reports, sketches, models, photographs, land-use studies, and cost estimates, and submit them for approval by the client and by regulatory agencies. When the plans are approved, landscape architects prepare working drawings showing all existing and proposed features. They also outline in detail the methods of construction and draw up a list of necessary materials. Landscape architects then mainly monitor the implementation of their design, with general contractors or landscape contractors usually directing the actual construction of the site and installation of plantings.

Some landscape architects work on a variety of projects. Others specialize in a particular area, such as residential development, street and highway beautification, waterfront improvement projects, parks and playgrounds, or shopping centers. Still others work in regional planning and resource management; feasibility, environmental impact, and cost studies; or site construction. Increasingly, landscape architects are becoming involved with projects in environmental remediation, such as preservation and restoration of wetlands or abatement of stormwater run-off in new developments. Historic landscape preservation and restoration is another important area where landscape architects are increasingly playing an important role.

Most landscape architects do at least some residential work, but relatively few limit their practice to individual homeowners. Residential landscape design projects usually are too small to provide suitable income compared with larger commercial or multiunit residential projects. Some nurseries offer residential landscape design services, but these services often are performed by design professionals with fewer formal credentials such as landscape designers, or by others with training and experience in related areas.

Landscape architects who work for government agencies do site and landscape design for government buildings, parks, and other public lands, as well as park and recreation planning in national parks and forests. In addition, they prepare environmental impact statements and studies on environmental issues such as public land-use planning. Some restore degraded land, such as mines or landfills. Other landscape architects use their skills in traffic-calming, the �art� of slowing traffic down through use of traffic design, enhancement of the physical environment, and greater attention to aesthetics.

Working Conditions

Landscape architects spend most of their time in offices creating plans and designs, preparing models and cost estimates, doing research, or attending meetings with clients and other professionals involved in a design or planning project. The remainder of their time is spent at the site. During the design and planning stage, landscape architects visit and analyze the site to verify that the design can be incorporated into the landscape. After the plans and specifications are completed, they may spend additional time at the site observing or supervising the construction. Those who work in large national or regional firms may spend considerably more time out of the office traveling to sites away from the local area.

Salaried employees in both government and landscape architectural firms usually work regular hours; however, they may work overtime to meet a project deadline. Hours of self-employed landscape architects vary depending on the demands of the projects on which they are working.

 

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

A bachelor�s or master�s degree in landscape architecture usually is necessary for entry into the profession. A bachelor�s degree in landscape architecture takes 4 or 5 years to complete. There also are two types of accredited master�s degree programs. The most common type of master�s degree is a 3-year first professional degree program designed for students with an undergraduate degree in another discipline. The second type of master�s degree is a 2-year second professional degree program for students who have a bachelor�s degree in landscape architecture and who wish to teach or specialize in some aspect of landscape architecture, such as regional planning or golf course design.

In 2004, 59 colleges and universities offered 77 undergraduate and graduate programs in landscape architecture that were accredited by the Landscape Architecture Accreditation Board of the American Society of Landscape Architects. College courses required in these programs usually include technical subjects such as surveying, landscape design and construction, landscape ecology, site design, and urban and regional planning. Other courses include history of landscape architecture, plant and soil science, geology, professional practice, and general management. The design studio is another important aspect of many landscape architecture curriculums. Whenever possible, students are assigned real projects, providing them with valuable hands-on experience. While working on these projects, students become more proficient in the use of computer-aided design, geographic information systems, and video simulation.

In 2004, 47 States required landscape architects to be licensed or registered. Licensing is based on the Landscape Architect Registration Examination (L.A.R.E.), sponsored by the Council of Landscape Architectural Registration Boards and administered in two portions, graphic and multiple choice. Each portion of the testing is conducted over two days. Admission to the exam usually requires a degree from an accredited school plus 1 to 4 years of work experience under the supervision of a registered landscape architect, although standards vary from State to State. Currently, 14 States require that a State examination be passed in addition to the L.A.R.E. to satisfy registration requirements. State examinations, which usually are 1 hour in length and completed at the end of the L.A.R.E., focus on laws, environmental regulations, plants, soils, climate, and any other characteristics unique to the State.

Because State requirements for licensure are not uniform, landscape architects may not find it easy to transfer their registration from one State to another. However, those who meet the national standards of graduating from an accredited program, serving 3 years of internship under the supervision of a registered landscape architect, and passing the L.A.R.E. can satisfy requirements in most States. Through this means, a landscape architect can obtain certification from the Council of Landscape Architectural Registration Boards, and so gain reciprocity (the right to work) in other States.

In the Federal Government, candidates for entry positions should have a bachelor�s or master�s degree in landscape architecture. The Federal Government does not require its landscape architects to be licensed.

Persons planning a career in landscape architecture should appreciate nature, enjoy working with their hands, and possess strong analytical skills. Creative vision and artistic talent also are desirable qualities. Good oral communication skills are essential; landscape architects must be able to convey their ideas to other professionals and clients, and to make presentations before large groups. Strong writing skills also are valuable, as is knowledge of computer applications of all kinds, including word processing, desktop publishing, and spreadsheets. Landscape architects use these tools to develop presentations, proposals, reports, and land impact studies for clients, colleagues, and superiors. The ability to draft and design using CAD software is essential. Many employers recommend that prospective landscape architects complete at least one summer internship with a landscape architecture firm in order to gain an understanding of the day-to-day operations of a small business, including how to win clients, generate fees, and work within a budget.

In States where licensure is required, new hires may be called �apprentices� or �intern landscape architects� until they become licensed. Their duties vary depending on the type and size of the employing firm. They may do project research or prepare working drawings, construction documents, or base maps of the area to be landscaped. Some are allowed to participate in the actual design of a project. However, interns must perform all work under the supervision of a licensed landscape architect. Additionally, all drawings and specifications must be signed and sealed by the licensed landscape architect, who takes legal responsibility for the work. After gaining experience and becoming licensed, landscape architects usually can carry a design through all stages of development. After several years, they may become project managers, taking on the responsibility for meeting schedules and budgets, in addition to overseeing the project design. Later, they may become associates or partners of a firm, with a proprietary interest in the business.

Many landscape architects are self-employed because start-up costs, after an initial investment in CAD software, are relatively low. Self-discipline, business acumen, and good marketing skills are important qualities for those who choose to open their own business. Even with these qualities, however, some may struggle while building a client base.

Those with landscape architecture training also qualify for jobs closely related to landscape architecture, and may, after gaining some experience, become construction supervisors, land or environmental planners, or landscape consultants.

 

Employment

Landscape architects held about 25,000 jobs in 2004. Almost 6 out of 10 workers were employed in firms that provide architectural, landscape architectural, engineering, and landscaping services. State and local governments were the next largest employers. About 1 out of 4 landscape architects was self-employed.

Employment of landscape architects is concentrated in urban and suburban areas throughout the country; some landscape architects work in rural areas, particularly those employed by the Federal Government to plan and design parks and recreation areas.

Job Outlook

Employment of landscape architects is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2014. In addition to growth, the need to replace landscape architects who retire or leave the labor force will produce some additional job openings. Employment will grow because the expertise of landscape architects will be highly sought after in the planning and development of new residential, commercial, and other types of construction to meet the needs of a growing population. With land costs rising and the public desiring more beautiful spaces, the importance of good site planning and landscape design is growing. In addition, new demands to manage stormwater run-off in both existing and new landscapes, combined with the growing need to manage water resources in the Western States, should cause increased demand for this occupation�s services.

New construction also is increasingly contingent upon compliance with environmental regulations, zoning laws, and water restrictions, which will spur demand for landscape architects to help plan sites that meet these requirements and integrate new structures with the natural environment in the least disruptive way. Landscape architects also will be increasingly involved in preserving and restoring wetlands and other environmentally sensitive sites.

Continuation of the Transportation Equity Act for the Twenty-First Century also is expected to spur employment for landscape architects, particularly through State and local governments. This Act, known as TEA-21, provides funds for surface transportation and transit programs, such as interstate highway construction and maintenance, and environment-friendly pedestrian and bicycle trails.

In addition to the work related to new development and construction, landscape architects are expected to be involved in historic preservation, land reclamation, and refurbishment of existing sites. They are also doing more residential design work as households spend more on landscaping than in the past. Because landscape architects can work on many different types of projects, they may have an easier time than other design professionals finding employment when traditional construction slows down. Opportunities will vary from year to year, and by geographic region, depending on local economic conditions. During a recession, when real estate sales and construction slow down, landscape architects may face greater competition for jobs and sometimes layoffs.

New graduates can expect to face competition for jobs in the largest and most prestigious landscape architecture firms, but should face good job opportunities overall as demand increases, while the number of graduates of landscape architecture holds steady or only goes up slightly. Opportunities will be best for landscape architects who develop strong technical skills—such as computer design—and communication skills, as well as knowledge of environmental codes and regulations. Those with additional training or experience in urban planning increase their opportunities for employment in landscape architecture firms that specialize in site planning as well as landscape design. Many employers prefer to hire entry-level landscape architects who have internship experience, which significantly reduces the amount of on-the-job training required.

 

Earnings

In May 2004, median annual earnings for landscape architects were $53,120. The middle 50 percent earned between $40,930 and $70,400. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $32,390 and the highest 10 percent earned over $90,850. Architectural, engineering, and related services employed more landscape architects than any other group of industries, and there the median annual earnings were $51,670 in May 2004.

In 2005, the average annual salary for all landscape architects in the Federal Government in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions was $74,508.

Because many landscape architects work for small firms or are self-employed, benefits tend to be less generous than those provided to workers in large organizations.

[Please note that the earnings and salary data listed here is usually from government sources and may be dated, so please make adjustments accordingly. If you would like to access current salary data for literally thousands of occupations, access our Salary Wizard.

Related Occupations
Landscape architects use their knowledge of design, construction, land-use planning, and environmental issues to develop a landscape project. Others whose work requires similar skills are architects, except landscape and naval; surveyors, cartographers, photogrammetrists, and surveying technicians; civil engineers; and urban and regional planners. Landscape architects also must know how to grow and use plants in the landscape. Some conservation scientists and foresters and biological scientists study plants in general and do related work, while environmental scientists and geoscientists work in the area of environmental remediation.

Sources of Additional Information

Additional information, including a list of colleges and universities offering accredited programs in landscape architecture, is available from:

  • American Society of Landscape Architects, Career Information, 636 Eye St. NW., Washington, DC 20001-3736. Internet: http://www.asla.org

General information on registration or licensing requirements is available from:

  • Council of Landscape Architectural Registration Boards, 144 Church Street NW., Suite 201, Vienna, VA 22180-4550. Internet: http://www.clarb.org

*Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Used by permission.


WHAT DO LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS DO?

Green roofs are just one type of project landscape architects work on.

Look at your community. How did the parks, residential developments, campuses, shopping centers, gardens, transportation facilities, and, trails and bike paths take shape? Planning, designing, and land use management is the work of landscape architects.

Landscape architects analyze, plan, design, and manage the natural and built environment. They are also problem solvers–they analyze the impact of a proposed project to be sure that it benefits the environment.

2008年03月27日

我们的奥体公园已经完工了,伦敦的2012年奥体公园又开始大张旗鼓的进行着了。
没有新奇的,还是提倡可持续,生态啊,旧工业区改变成新的休闲区啊!呵呵,今天太累了,等那天有空找些关于这个的方案出来大家讨论一下。顺便可以聊聊我们北京奥体公园的方案哦,也是被洋鬼子拿去了!呵呵!

不过从平面的流线感还是能看出,景观奇才Hargreaves对奥林匹克的理解的,毕竟他也是大师级人马,悉尼那个也是经他之手哦!其实想想现在景观设计与建筑一样,都注重国际化,一个设计团队可以全世界的跑,这时候大师(所谓大师)就可以发挥自己的影响力了。
建 筑行业很难找到我们中国人(大师)的影子,充其量也是些过客名人(非常事务所老板们,小马同志),与真正大师还是有点距离。但景观设计,中国有自己的大师 (老俞同志),看看他的作品与影响就知道。关键是提出与别人不同的东西(土地的艺术,『大家看看书就知道』)并得到行业前沿的认可,他不仅提出自己的东 西,在与别的传统大师的对比中,并没有露掉什么,伦敦的2012奥体公园提出的生态,呼吸,多样性,工业遗址,区域改造这些概念性的东西早就在我们土人的 作品中提出并实践过……!从一定意义上,他得确走在行业的前端了,要不,人家国际组织也不会请我们老俞作评委了!呵呵!!不过可惜这样一位人才确被中国园 林协会打压(没办法,老俞一回来就枪对那些专家们)……!

(翻译不好不要见怪,注意事项就不翻译了(累了),请大家尊重我的辛勤劳动成果,转贴请注明,呵呵!!!)
世界顶尖的景观建筑师去设计有生命会呼吸的奥林匹克公园(2012年)伦敦

The ODA announced that world leading landscape architects LDA Design • Hargreaves Associates has been selected to design the Olympic Park for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games, which will become a new kind of park promoting sustainable and active living.
奥林匹克发展委员会发表世界景观设计师领航者乔治.合格里福斯已经被确定(选择)去设计2012年英国奥林匹克公园,这个设计将是一个充满活力的生态与可持续的公园。

The designers will develop detailed proposals for the open spaces in the Olympic Park for the Games and legacy using their combined experience designing groundbreaking parks in London, the UK and across the world, including the Sydney 2000 Olympic Park.
他提议一个详细的发展计划关于在结合世界上的开创性公园(包括悉尼的2000奥体公园)的设计经验,如何设计奥体公园游戏与遗产公共空间。

The 2.5 kilometre square Olympic Park is currently being been cleared and cleaned ready for construction to start in the summer. In 2009 work will start creating the parklands and public spaces that will enhance the experience of the London 2012 Games and form the largest new urban park in London since the great Victorian era of park building.
2.5平方公里的奥体公园是最近(这个夏天)才被清理和确定为工地。2009年的工作将开始创造公园基地与公共空间,这些将增加伦敦2012年奥运会的经验和形成在维多利亚时代伦敦最大最新的城市公园。

Early plans for the legacy Olympic Park envisage nine character areas that enhance the ecology and biodiversity of the park, and create a vibrant mix of leisure and recreational activities. These will potentially include:
早些的奥体遗产公园规划展望9个个性区域,增加了生物多样性与生态化的公园,创造了鲜艳悦目的混合休闲与再创造活动。这些潜在包括:

* allotments and other food growing areas;
* meadows, wetlands, wooded valleys, orchards and viewing hills;
* new wildlife habitats;
* areas and facilities for a range of sports such as canoeing, mountain biking, climbing and cricket;
* revitalised waterways, towpaths and river walks;
* natural amphitheatres and lawns for events and festivals; and
* new cycle and footpaths connecting the Lower Lea Valley with the Thames for the first time.
×副业生产地(菜地)和别的生长食物的区域
×草场,湿地,植物流域,果园与景观小山
×新的田园栖息地
×一系列的体育设施区域,玩独木舟,骑山地车,爬山与板球
×有活力的水道,田园小道和水边漫步
×自然的圆形剧场和事件与节日的草坪
×新的单车道与步行道首次将泰晤士河与低洼的草地流域连接起来

The ODA and LDA Design • Hargreaves Associates will be consulting the public further on the detailed legacy plans in partnership with the London Development Agency ahead of a planning application later this year.
奥林匹克发展委员会与乔治.合格里福斯就遗产的进一步详细规划与伦敦发展协会进行磋商并在之后几年规划应用的中建立合伙关系。

ODA Chief Executive David Higgins said: ‘We want to create an Olympic Park that enhances the experience of the London 2012 Games for spectators, athletes and the global audience and then becomes a living, breathing new urban park in legacy. Our world leading design team will help develop our plans to transform this former industrial area into a thriving park that boosts sustainable and active living, creates new wildlife habitats and anchors the regeneration of a neglected part of east London.’
奥林匹克发展委员会的执行会长David Higgins(大卫,西格斯)说:我们想创造一个为可以带来给观众,运动员和全球观众更高感受的奥林匹克运动会和一个具有生命可呼吸的城市遗产公园。我 们世界级的设计队伍将帮助我们将一个伦敦东边被忽视的前工业区域变成一个蒸蒸日上的,可持续的,活力生命的,新的野外栖息地和再生支柱。

ODA Head of Parklands and Public Realm John Hopkins said: ‘The Olympic Park will be the centrepiece of the London 2012 Games and its legacy. It is an opportunity to create a landmark park for the 21st century. We will be working with our design team to create a groundbreaking park that provides high quality open and green space to encourage a range of sporting, leisure, social and educational activities for existing and new communities.’
奥林匹克发展委员会公共公园区域部部长John Hopkins 说:奥体公园将变成2012年奥运会与遗产公园的中心标志物。这是在21世纪创造地标性公园的机会。我们将协同我们的设计团队去创造一个具有开创性的公 园。这个公园提供高质量的开放空间与绿地,去鼓励 在这个新和使人兴奋的区域进行一系列的体育,休闲,社会与教育活动。

ODA Chief Adviser on Architecture and Urbanism Ricky Burdett said: ‘LDA Design • Hargreaves Associates team will bring a level of imagination and skill to the Olympic Park that will create an exciting and dynamic natural environment in this fast-changing part of East London. The design team has already created some of the most elegant, modern and sculpted designs for parks across the world. The team will bring a fresh design approach to the Olympic Park that will make the most of the site’s existing natural features and water courses with confident and robust solutions for the Games and after.’
奥林匹克发展委员会主席的建筑与城市顾问Ricky Burdett 说乔治.合格里福斯的设计队伍(’LDA Design • Hargreaves Associates team)将用一个充满想象力的档次和技巧在伦敦东部快速变化中创造出一个令人惊喜和活力的自然环境。他们在世界上已经创造出一些一流的,现代和雕刻性的 公园设计。信心与使用的解决方案为奥运会和奥运会之后。他们将带来这个新鲜的设计并探讨在奥运会中和奥运会之后奥体公园的大部分的基地的令人惊叹的自然特 征与水源的实用与有信心解决方案。

LDA Design • Hargreaves Associates Managing Partner Andrew Harland said: ‘The Olympic Park is the UK’s most significant landscape project in years, and is likely to be so for many years to come. It is the centrepiece of Europe’s largest regeneration programme and will have a positive economic and social impact on the area while also demonstrating exemplar sustainability.’
乔治.合格里福斯的设计队伍的合伙人Andrew Harland说奥体公园是英国今年以及这几年没见过最大的景观方案。这是欧洲最大的再生方案的中心标志物和可持续的典范,将为这个区域经济与设计带来积极的影响。

Design Director George Hargreaves said: ‘The close collaboration with LDA Design, and the great team we’ve put together, means we can help give Britain a unique and fabulous park that will be just as wonderful for people to use after the event as it will be during 2012.’
方案负责人 George Hargreaves说:与LDA Design共同研究合作是一个很强的队伍,意味着我们可以帮英国带来一个唯一伟大的公园,对于人们来说,在将要到来2012年和奥运会之后去使用这个公园是多么美好啊!

Notes to editors:(注意事项)……

1. LDA Design • Hargreaves was selected following a competitive procurement through the English Partnership design panel. The design team includes two up-and-coming London-based design firms BBUK and Kinnear Landscape Architects and Sarah Price Landscapes. Kinnear are based in Hackney, a London 2012 host borough.

2. LDA Design has worked on many of the country’s most innovative and significant park and public realm projects including Gunpowder Park, Lea Valley, London; the People’s Playground, Blackpool seafront and has worked with the Royal Parks Agency for the last decade.

3. International landscape architecture firm, Hargreaves Associates, delivered the Sydney Olympic Public Realm and Legacy Parkland. Other major schemes include the waterfront park in Lisbon for Expo ’98 and Crissy Field, which involved the restoration of the famous San Francisco Bay waterfront.

4. The ODA has recently shortlisted for the contract to manage the landscaping of the north of the Olympic Park and will issue a contract to manage the landscaping in the south of the Park later in 2008.

5. The Olympic Park will provide over 100 hectares of Metropolitan open space in legacy.

– Ends –

For further information please contact the Olympic Delivery Authority Press Office on +44 (0)203 2012 700.

2008年03月25日

 designboom met zaha hadid in cologne on january 16th, 2007

was born in bagdad, 1950. she studied maths at the american university of beirut (1968 – 1971) and then later architecture at the architectural association school (AA) in london, UK (1972 – 1977). after graduating she joined OMA (office of metropolitan architecture) and became a partner in 1977. she left to start her own practice ‘zaha hadid office’ in 1980. hadid has has lectured across europe and america, she is currently a professor at the university of applied arts in vienna. in 2004 hadid became the first female recipient of the ’pritzker architecture prize’. projects include:vitra fire station (1994) in weil am rhein, germany;rosenthal center for contemporary art (1998) in cincinnati,usa; bergisel ski jump (2002) in innsbruck, austria;BMW building (2005) in leipzig, germanya winner of many international competitions, but a number of hadid’s winning designs were never built.hadid has designed furniture and objects for swarovski, dupont, sawaya & moroni, alessi and established & sons. along with ineriors for the guggenheim museum in new york,the vienna kunsthalle, the hayward gallery in london…her work has been shown in exhibitions worldwide among the many museums, we cite here the MoMA in new york, the MoMA in san francisco and the deutsches architektur museum in frankfurt. in 2006, hadid was honoured with a retrospective spanning her entire work at the guggenheim museum in new york.
what is the best moment of the day?

it used to be very late in the evening …
if I’m in london it can be different than if I‘m somewhere else.


what kind of music do you listen to at the moment?

classic.

what books do you have on your bedside table?
none! no books at the moment.

do you read design and architecture magazines?
we have lots of these magazines in the office but we usually
don’t read them.

where do you get news from?
newspapers.

are there any clothes that you avoid wearing?
vintage clothing.
also I don’t like the masculine style, jeans.
I like issey miyake,… and black dresses.

do you have any pets?
no.

when you were a child, did you want
to become an architect and designer?

yes, since I was eleven years old.

who would you like to design something for?

it would be very interesting to design objects for everyday life,
something where the ideas that are expressed can be
launched into society. with products the form is almost the
finished piece, but with architecture its not.
I’ve also always been interested in combining architecture
with a social agenda, and I really think you can invest
and be inventive with hospitals and housing.

do you discuss your work with other
designers or architects?

within the office of course.
with other designers… I don’t like to talk about myself so much.
one discusses the ideas of friends.

where do you usually work on your projects?
anywhere.
I don’t use the computer.
I do sketches, very quickly, often more than 100 on the
same formal research.

describe your style as a good friend of
yours might describe it
virtuoso of elegance.
personal investigation, research, it’s laden with so many
ideas that one cannot extrude a single one, there is no
formal repertoire.

can I explain this?
two years ago I focused on one apartment to see how
many variations you can come up with in a given space
with the same parameters. I would work on this repeatedly
for days and you see that there is maybe seven hundred
options for one space. this exercise gives you an idea of
the degree at which you can interoperate the organization
of space, its not infinite but it’s very large.
imagine if you multiply that to the scale of a bigger space,
and the to the scale of a city.
its like a pianist constantly practicing – it’s the same level
of intensity. it increases the repertoires immensely
- its unpredictable. some people really live and work within
the same doctrine, the same diagram with the same logic.
we produce many diagrams to start with and that’s why
we have a large repertoire.

which of your projects has given you the
most satisfaction?

‘the peak project’, because that was a very important departure
for me. there are many, every time you make a discovery…
I cant really say because different projects give you
satisfaction in different ways.
the BMW centre in leipzig and the phaeno science center in
wolfsburg, they were very exciting.
I just went to see the contemporary arts centre in rome
which translates many ideas that I have been wanting to do.

can you describe an evolution in your work?
there are some very similar moments in the early work where
the focus was on drawing, abstraction and fragmentation.
then it moved to the development of ideas.
lately it has become what architecture should be,
which is more fluid organization.
there has not been so much ‘a change’ but ‘a development’
over the years.

what was the basic concept behind your installation
‘ideal house’ at this year’s imm cologne fair?

it is a reaction to an object in the middle of a building.
we felt that it had to be transparent and open the idea
was about carving away space a sort of erosion.
its like taking a volume and eroding it. it’s related to
a piece called ‘z-scape’ where the starting point is a block.
there was a big discussion in the office some years back
where we talked about carving, the act of carving away space.
it allows light to come in. this lead to thoughts on exploring
geology, archeology and topography. larger pieces are informed
by landscapes, and the erosion of them. with this house the idea
was that one can move from the chair to the bed to the sofa,
as if they were one continuous piece. its a concept of living,
as it is on two floors you can move up and down, look back
on where you have come from.
this piece is not in isolation of the other work, forms always
come out of what we are looking at, at that time.
sometimes there is a departure, but it is usually a product of
what we a researching at the time, what’s taking place at
that moment.

do you prefer open living spaces?
I think that when technology moves on maybe walls will
move, the kitchen will move. eventually you might not even
have to have a fixed place for a bathroom.
some people like to live in a house where there are three
or four rooms, all the same size, because they like to live
in a confined space.
other people might like to have an open plan house
where there is no rigidity, built walls,…
it was in the seventies in new york when people went
and took these really big raw spaces and lived throughout
the room, now there is more separation.
no-one has really invented the perfect open house … yet.
different societies use things in different ways some like
sleeping on a futon and in others it could be that the beds
are very high. it depends on the scale of the house,
the light, where the house is – if it is by the sea or in the
mountains. I think that people should be able to interpret
certain things and elaborate an architecture of space
that suits them. a platform where everything can be moved
around.

is there a designer or architect from the past that has
influenced you or that you particularly appreciate the
work of?

yes, there are a lot.
erich mendelsohn, mies van der rohe, le corbusier,
the constructivists…

and contemporary designers and architects?
many. but too many are too obsessed by method.
it becomes a dogma.

you are working in a man’s world…
like many women today, I am travelling a lot
and I work crazy hours. working on an architecture project
means perseverance. but no matter how much progress has
been made, there is still a world that for women is taboo.

do you have any advice for the young?
you have to be very focused and work very hard,
but it is not about working hard without knowing what
your aim is!
you really have to have a goal.
the goal posts might shift, but you should have a goal.

is there anything that you are afraid of
regarding the future?

yes, the conservative values that are emerging,
it may not effect architecture immediately but it will
effect society and that’s what worries me.
the world is looking more and more segmented,
the difference between people is becoming greater.
one has to strive for a very open liberal society.
know what it is that you are trying to find out.

2008年03月23日

dkan

lonnandreas.jpg

We were fortunate enough to get a sneak preview of the latest edition of AnOther Magazine, which as per usual is chock full of the stunning photography and clever editorial that always makes the book our go-to resource to find out what’s happening across the pond. From the stunning cover featuring Uma Thurman bedecked with a dramatic butterfly wing to an interview with cheeky YBAs the Chapman Brothers, there’s a lot to love. But we’re always particularly drawn to the people working on the fringes and milliner Justin Smith, accessories designer Letitia Crahay and shoe-maker Andrea Lonn, all in this month’s "Insiders" feature well, are worth noting.

Adding mops of hair, architectural details and other sculptural elements to footwear, Swedish designer Andreas Lonn’s shoes effortlessly straddle the divide between streetwear and high fashion. Unabashadly now, the tribal heels look like a mix between "Bladerunner" and "Elephant Man."

justinsmith_another.jpg

Channeling the current neo-Edwardian vibe and elevating it to new heights of theatricality and whimsy, Justin Smith’s hats continue in fellow Brit Philip Treacy’s well-trodden footsteps. The spectacular hats in his graduation show—"feathered headresses that turned into burlesque fans, stiff hand-painted "tattooed" pigskin berets" and more—were only rivalled by the "gothic circus" of jugglers, midgets and acrobats that made up the event. The man’s got quite the armsfull of tattoos to boot.

laetitiacahay.jpg

Having cut her teeth studying architecture and art directing Olivier Theyskens (and as a consequence dressing Madonna), Laetitia Cahay made the leap into designing by joining ranks at Chanel. "The more you create, the more creative you become," she says.

When it comes to creating the landscape design for your home and garden, no one is better suited that you are to come up with a concept. After all, it is your property and you know better than anyone else how you and your family most enjoy using the spaces in the garden and the lawns around your home. The best landscape design always starts with the wants and the needs of the family.

If you are planning to improve the landscaping around your home, then the best thing you can do is gather everyone around who enjoys using the lawns and the gardens and have a brainstorming session. Have everyone feel free to throw out their ideas no matter how off-the-wall or unrealistic they may seem. Sometimes those “out there” ideas are the ones that will inspire the whole direction of the landscaping design project.

Starting off the landscape improvement plans this way will give you a number of great ideas for the ways that the family can make the most of the “outdoor living room.” This can be a really fun exercise for the family to do together and it will probably generate some new ideas. The results will be an attractive garden landscaping plan that will also be a very special place to gather for family fun and action.

Of course, there are always situations when it is difficult for a family, especially one that has members with strong opinions, to come to an agreement about the best way to approach the project. In these kinds of cases you can always look to professionals to help finalize your ideas. Landscape architects and landscape contractors can provide wonderful resources, helpful and creative ideas for your landscaping concept, and can often help families find compromising solutions, if there’s a disagreement over the plans for the garden or yard.