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近日,浙报集团对原属于盛大的边锋浩方的并购获批,这桩31.9亿(刚开始报价35个亿,后来做了调整)的交易算是完成,整个并购还有些后续的事务性操作,预计3月份将画上一个句号。

这算是传媒集团对外拓展的一个例子,而且动静还比较大。32个亿不是小数目,浙报自身总净资产也不到10个亿。而且,一个原先搞内容信息的,忽然大笔出手购买游戏公司,中间的缘由,值得琢磨一番。

浙报集团,旗下38家媒体,覆盖总量号称超500万份,是一个有一定规模的媒体公司。但在数字经济的冲击下,同样面临着媒体转型的问题。浙报的转型,相当有意思,因为它和中国通常意义上的媒体转型,非常不同。

一般而言,中国媒体转型路径本质上是转移存量。比如一份杂志有10万发行量,它就希望通过一些数字化载体的运作,将这10万读者转移到这些载体上。在基于这样的防守型策略上,如果还能获得一些新受众,那算是bonus。在我看来,甚嚣尘上的“全媒体战略”说穿了,其实就是这么一种转移存量的防守之道。

但一味防守是没啥用的,于是这种转移存量的转型路径,几乎没走通的(有个别依靠十分强势的品牌除外)。对于一个主要以新闻资讯为主的内容媒体来说,走全媒体道路,真得很危险。本来就体制也好、人员也好、思维方式也好都弱一些,还一味防守,不被打趴下才怪。(钛媒体注:浙报对外投资媒体的手笔中,最早为人所知的是耗资1亿元直接投资财新传媒的成立,财新在全媒体上的转型尝试也进行得颇早)

浙报算是一个异类,因为它依托一个名为传媒梦工场这样的投资机构,频频出击,投资了一些项目,比如科技博客虎嗅就是其中之一。。按照梦工场的逻辑:既然我的体制、我的人员、我的思维方式都有些“传统”,一时半会也改不过来,为什么不去用新的体制、新的人员、新的思维方式做一个全新的东西呢?因为我现在手上还有点钱,38家媒体500万发行量还能供应出一点收入,趁完成上市,资产证券化了的当口,赶紧的。

这就是做增量的战略,属于进攻型。虽然现在还不能说是成功的,但值得尝试。它的策略不是在微观的内容制作、载体选择上,而是直接走资本运作的道路。浙江人,又得了一回风气之先。

不过,梦工场投的项目大多都是startup性质,32个亿对边锋的投资却不是初创项目,就这个手笔,而且又是介入看似风马牛不相及的游戏领域,这是什么动机呢?

浙报真正看中的是边锋浩方的用户。一个媒体集团,所谓500万总发行量,并不代表真正意义上的500万用户。发行量是一个很单向的数字,媒体自己很难知道究竟谁是我的读者,他们都有什么行为,好恶又是什么。而另外一头是,媒体的商业模式其实对用户依赖性很强(不知道用户的具体情况,广告行为只好是漫无目的的广播了)。边锋浩方恰恰有3亿用户(其中活跃用户2000万),32个亿,其实是买了3亿用户了。

从32亿买3亿用户,单用户值10元人民币出头一点点,这笔生意做得过做不过?见仁见智。一个配套的例子是,微软拿出85亿美元买入skype,买到的是后者7亿用户,单个用户10美元多,差不多(这里不能用汇率来套算,中国市场用人民币,全球市场用美元)。

那为什么是游戏?感觉上一个搞媒体的,去买个搞游戏的,似乎有点远。浙报集团极有可能打的是“文化产业”的算盘,游戏也是文化的一部分。浙报本身属于新闻信息类的媒体公司,这个部分实在太窄,有这个必要向外延拓展一下,做大自己的产业规模。这话稍嫌有点虚。不过下面这句话很实在:边锋是一个本地化属性特别强的公司,浩方则有体育平台的可能。

边锋起于杭州,主要用户覆盖在江浙沪,有着很明显的本地特征。浙报在策略上想多涉足本地化服务,而我个人一直认为,对于中国很多都市媒体而言,本地化服务是一条可选可为的发展路径。而起于上海的浩方,有一个电子竞技平台,在这个资产上,据悉浙报会和国家体育总局合作,搞一把声势更大的电子竞技运作。

事实上,浙报一直在寻觅真正意义上有用户的平台,就我所知,内部有一个开玩笑说,腾讯也是可以考虑的——当然,一来买不起二来人也不卖。但这个玩笑话说明一点,浙报很看重用户。虎嗅的投入是一种内容的延伸,但也有些项目并非如此,比如它投资过一个名为“微拍”的app项目,和内容关系不大,更多意义上的,是希望能培养出用户来。我的感觉是:恐怕梦工场将来还会出手,虽然不大可能是那么大当量级的数十亿投入,但在“用户”这两个字上,还是很饥渴的。

梦工场还有一个投资方向属于数据挖掘,这和它购买用户是配套的:用户买来了就要分析。它投资过一个搞微博数据研究的公司,对于边锋浩方这3亿用户,浙报非常有可能动手做数据分析的事。

最后还得说一下的,浙报手笔虽然大,但风险意识不是没有。从公开消息里可以发现,这笔交易里有一笔7个亿的尾款,浙报扣在手中权当保证金。盛大想要拿到这笔钱,给出的承诺是未来三年总计得有9.6个亿的利润,如果不够,得贴钱补上。浙报购入的这两个公司,体量较大的边锋,11年的利润不过2个亿,看来,盛大还得努力努力帮助浙报好好运作一下而不是卖了捞了银子就能跑路的。

浙报这个生意,做得过。


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