2006年09月30日

经典英语学习网站


http://www.edunet.com/elt
主题:是一个全方位的学英语作为第二语言的网站
功能:聊天室,语法讲解,练习,小测试,成语讲解
特色:特别深入地介绍了语法,听力,沟通技巧等
对象:ESL教师和学英语人士

《世界日报》北美版-生活美语
http://www.chineseworld.com/publish/37_9999.r/r.htm
主题:生活化和实用化的英语网页
功能:分主题讲解英语的实用方法,还有母语非英语人士闹的语言笑话
特色:灵活生动,有许多实例
对象:英语基础教好的人士

Edunet.com
http://www.englishtown.com
主题:是目前网上最有深度的英语学习网站
功能:非常好的语法讲解,练习,和阅读材料
特色:正宗英国英语
对象:学英语人士

English-at-Home
http://www.english-at-home.com/
主题:是一个全方位的学英语作为第二语言的网站
功能:聊天室,语法讲解,练习,小测试,成语讲解
特色:特别深入地介绍了语法,听力,沟通技巧等
对象:ESL教师和学英语人士

English, baby!
http://www.englishbaby.com/
主题:是一个年轻人学习交流的美国英语网站
功能:每天不同的网上课程,以美国流行文化为主题
特色:可以学到很多美国俚语和方言
对象:面向年轻人

Englishclub.net
http://www.englishclub.net/
主题:丰富齐全的商业性英文网站
功能:语法讲解,练习,参考资料,教师材料
对象:ESL教师和学英语人士

Englishpage
http://www.englishpage.com/index.html
主题:针对英文基础较好的学习人士和教师的网站
功能:阅读,游戏。语法讲解,讨论等
特色:深入讲解了时态用法,每周有新课程推出,旧课程可以在存档中找到
对象:ESL教师和学英语人士

The English Zone
http://members.home.net/englishzone/index.html
主题:非商业性英文学习网站
功能:语法讲解,练习,小成语讲解,英文笑话,阅读和写作
对象:学英语人士

ESL Flow
http://www.homestead.com/ESLflow/Index.html
主题:内容组织得很好的英文网站
功能:语法讲解,口语,英语对话,阅读和课程安排
特色:用流程图的方式讲解英语语法概念
对象:ESL教师和学英语人士

ESL House
http://www.eslhouse.com/
主题:内容广泛,参考资料甚多
功能:大量词汇讲解,课程安排和参考资料
特色:多媒体中心可播放课程
对象:ESL教师和学英语人士

ESL Partyland
http://www.eslpartyland.com/default.htm
主题:自学和互相交流
功能:75个互动式测试和15个论坛,让学生互相交流,教师可以下载课程材料
特色:互动式
对象:ESL教师和学英语人士

ESL STUDY HALL
http://gwis2.circ.gwu.edu/~gwvcusas/
主题:由George Washington University的Professor Christine Meloni维护的ESL链接网页
功能:有学多学习英语的链接
对象:ESL教师和学英语人士

To Learn English.com
http://www.ToLearnEnglish.com
主题:内容广泛,资源丰富,值得一看
功能:聊天室,语法讲解,练习,小测试,图片,论坛
特色:做完练习可以得到评语,老师可以在线制作试题
对象:ESL教师和学英语人士

LinguaCenter Home Page
http://deil.lang.uiuc.edu/
主题:包括了网上学英语的一些最基本的内容
功能:语法讲解,练习,互动式3听力训练,笔友交换,教师参考
对象:ESL教师和学英语人士

Longman English Language Teaching
http://www.longman-elt.com/index.html
主题:为中国朋友所熟知的朗曼英语教学方法
功能:测试,专题文章,链接,小窍门
对象:ESL教师和学英语人士

Parlo – Language, Culture, Life
http://www.parlo.com/index.asp
主题:学语言的网站
功能:对语言结构,国际文化作出探讨
特色:教你怎样学语言,而不仅是英语
对象:ESL教师和学英语人士

Peak English
http://www.peakenglish.com
主题:在线的远程英语学习网站 功能:词汇,阅读,听力(用REALAUDIO),语法课程,
特色:所教英语是用于美国的
对象:学英语人士

Schmooze University
http://schmooze.hunter.cuny.edu:8888/
主题:英语学习个网站,可以一对一或分小组进行对话
功能:在线字典,语言游戏,USENET
对象:学英语人士

Tower of English
http://members.tripod.com/~towerofenglish/index.htm
主题:非常友好的英文学习网站
功能:设计专业的网站,大量的有用资源
对象:学英语人士

 英语阅读和写作经典句型与短语    经典句型   

78. From what has been discussed above, we may safely draw the conclusion that, although extra studies indeed enjoy many obvious advantages, its disadvantages shouldn’t be ignored and far outweigh its advantages. It is absurd to force children to take extra studies after school.

 

通过以上讨论,我们可以得出结论:尽管额外学习的确有很多优点,但它的缺点不可忽视,且远大于它的优点。因此,放学后强迫孩子额外学习是不明智的。

 

115. Meanwhile, the numbers of people, who have access to their own cars, have risen sharply in the recent years.

 

同时,拥有私人轿车的人数这几年却在快速增加。

 

27. Now, it is generally accepted that no college or university can educate its students by the time they graduation.

 

现在,人们普遍认为没有一所大学能够在毕业时候教给学生所有的知识。

 

151. On no account can we ignore the value of knowledge.

 

我们绝对不能忽视知识的价值。

 

101. In addition to the obvious problem–loneliness, another major obstacle, in my opinion, is the alien environment of campus.

 

除了孤独这一明显的问题之外,我认为另一个困难是对校园环境的不熟悉。

 

23. In fact, we have to admit the fact that the quality of life is as important as life itself.

 

事实上,我们必须承认生命的质量和生命本身一样重要。

 

50. For people who want to adopt a healthy and meaningful life style, it is important to find time to learn certain new knowledge. Just as an old saying goes: it is never too late to learn.

 

对于那些想过上健康而有意义的生活的人们来说,找时间学习一些新知识是很重要的,正如那句老话:活到老,学到老。

 

142. An advantage of using the solar energy is that it won’t create any pollution.

 

使用太阳能的优点是它不会产生任何污染。

 

88. Those who are in favor of artistic and cultural projects advocate that cultural environment will attract more tourists, which will bring huge profits to local residents. Some people even equate the build of such projects with the improving of economic construction.

 

那些赞成建设文化艺术项目的人认为文化环境会吸引更多的游客,这将给当地居民带来巨大的利益。一些人甚至把建设文化艺术项目与发展经济建设等同起来。

 

144. So precious is time that we can’t afford to waste it.

 

时间是如此珍贵,我们不能浪费它。

 

197. I am always amazed when I heard people saying that sport creates goodwill between the nations, and that if only the common peoples of the world could meet one another at football or cricket, they would have no inclination to meet on the battlefield.

 

每当我听说体育运动能够在国家间建立起友好感情,说世界各地的普通人只要能在足球场或板球场上相遇就会没有兴趣在战场上相遇的话,我都倍感诧异。

 

14. Any government, which is blind to this point, may pay a heavy price.

 

任何政府忽视这一点都将付出巨大的代价。

 

79. Any parents should place considerable emphasis on their children to keep the balance between play and study. As an old saying goes: All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.

 

任何家长都应非常重视保持孩子在学习与玩耍的平衡,正如那句老话:只工作,不玩耍,聪明的孩子会变傻。

 

158. The progress of the society is based on harmony.

 

社会的进步是以和谐为基础的。

 

193. Long before children are able to speak or understand a language, they communicate through facial expressions and by making noises.

 

儿童在能说或能听懂语言之前,很久就会通过面部表情和靠发出噪声来与人交流了。

 

182. Tourism brings

China a lot of benefits. First, it enables the Chinese people to know more about the outside world and promotes friendship and understanding. Second, it is financially beneficial to

China, which needs more foreign currencies for its modernization program.

 

旅游业给中国带来许多好处。首先,它使中国人了解外界,并有助于促进友谊和理解。其次,在经济上也有利于我国,因为中国现代化建设需要大量的外汇。

 

58. At the same time, along with the benefits of such machines, employees must study knowledge involved in such machines so that they are able to control them.

 

同时,随着这些机器带给我们的好处,员工们也必须要学习与之相关的知识以便使用它们。

 

167. We should do our best to achieve our goal in life.

 

我们应尽全力去达成我们的人生目标。

 

53. Although people’s lives have been dramatically changed over the last decades, it must be admitted that, shortage of funds is still the one of the biggest questions that students nowadays have to face because that tuition fees and prices of books are soaring by the day.

 

近几十年,尽管人们的生活有了惊人的改变,但必须承认,由于学费和书费日益飞涨,资金短缺仍然是学生们面临的最大问题之一。

 

91. Those urban planners who are blind to this point will pay a heavy price, which they cannot afford it.

 

那些城市的规划者们如果忽视这一点,将会付出他们无法承受的代价。

 

128. From what has been discussed above, we may safely draw the conclusion that both of day schools and boarding schools are important to train young students for our society.

 

通过以上讨论,我们可以得出结论,寄宿学校和日制学校对我们社会培养年轻学生都是重要的。

 

187. When an opportunity comes, it brings a promise but never realizes it on its own.

 

每当机遇降临,伴之而来的是成功的希望,但是机遇不能自行实现成功。

 

149. By taking exercise, we can always stay healthy.

 

通过体育锻炼,我们能够始终保持健康。

 

179. There is no doubt that the increase in demand caused the rise in prices.

 

毫无疑问,需求的增长导致了价格的上涨。

 

171. From what I have mentioned above, we can see clearly that violence on TV has great influence on youngsters’ behavior.

 

从上面我所提到的,我们可以清楚地看到,电视暴力对青少年的影响是极其深远的。

 

6. When it comes to education, the majority of people believe that education is a lifetime study.

 

说到教育,大部分人认为其是一个终生的学习。

 

37. Bicycle can’t be compared with other means of transportation like car and train for speed and comfort.

 

在速度和舒适度方面,自行车是无法和汽车、火车这样的交通工具相比的。

 

10. Many city residents complain that it is so few buses in their city that they have to spend much more time waiting for a bus, which is usually crowded with a large number of passengers.

 

许多市民抱怨城市的公交车太少,以至于他们要花很长时间等一辆公交车,而车上可能已满载乘客。

 

156. It is conceivable that knowledge plays an important role in our life.

 

可想而知,知识在我们的一生中扮演一个重要的角色。

 

123. What’s more, living in school can save them a great deal of time on the way between home and school everyday, so they would be able to concentrate more time and energy on their academic work.

 

而且,生活在学校里能节省大量每天往返于学校和家的路上的时间,这会使他们有更多的时间和精力放在学习上。

 

162. The condition of our traffic leaves much to be desired.

 

我们的交通状况令人不满意。

 

35. Using bicycle contributes greatly to people’s physical fitness as well as easing traffic jams.

 

使用自行车有助于人们的身体健康,并极大地缓解了交通阻塞。

 

155. Since the examination is around the corner, I am compelled to give up doing sports.

 

既然考试迫在眉睫,我不得不放弃作运动。

 

77. Moreover, children will have less time to play and communicate with their peers due to extra studies, consequently, it is difficult to develop and cultivate their character and interpersonal skills. They may become more solitary and even suffer from certain mental illness.

 

而且,由于要额外地学习,孩子们没有多少时间和同龄的孩子玩耍和交流,很难培养他们的个性和交际能力。他们可能变得孤僻甚至产生某些心理疾病。

 

122. Students attend a boarding school would cultivate their independence as apart from their parents.

 

离开父母上寄宿学校的学生将会培养他们的独立性。

 

133. In the second place, many values of traditional technology are out of date and should be replaced by modern science.

 

第二点,许多传统技术方法已经过时,应被现代科技所取代。

 

39. There is a general discussion these days over education in many colleges and institutes. One of the questions under debate is whether education is a lifetime study.

 

当前在高校和研究机构对教育存在着大量争论,其中一个问题就是教育是否是个终身学习的过程。

 

108. There is a general discussion over fashion in recent years. One of the questions under debate is whether a person should choose comfortable clothes, which he or she likes, regardless of fashion.

 

近些年,关于时尚存在着广泛的争论。其中一个问题就是一个人是否应选择他喜欢的舒适的衣服,而不管是否时尚。

 

139. There is no denying that the qualities of our living have gone from bad to worse.

 

无可否认,我们的生活品质已经每况愈下。

 

175. It is desirable to build more hospitals, shopping centers, recreation centers, cinemas and other public facilities to meet the growing needs of people.

 

人们希望建立更多的医院、购物中心、娱乐中心、电影院和其他公用设施来满足人们日益增长的需求。

 

48. An investigation shows that many older people express a strong desire to continue studying in university or college.

 

一项调查显示许多老人都有到大学继续学习的愿望。

 

141. There is no doubt that our educational system leaves something to be desired.

 

毫无疑问,我们的教育制度令人不满意。

 

112. Furthermore, people who addict to fashion clothes have to spend more time going shopping and pay more attention to the impression they make on others. As a result, it is impossible to devote enough time and energy in their study and job.

 

而且,沉湎于时尚服装的人们不得不花费更多时间逛商店,更加注意自己给别人的印象。因此,他们不可能有足够的时间用于学习或工作。

 

189. The difference between a man who succeeds and one who does not lies only in the way each treats opportunities. The successful person always makes adequate preparations to meet opportunities as they duly arrive. The unsuccessful person, on the other hand, works little and just waits to see pass by.

 

成功者与失败者的区别在于处理机遇的态度。成功者做好充分准备迎接机遇的适时来临。而失败者工作懒散,眼看机遇悄然而过。

 

7. Many experts point out that physical exercise contributes directly to a person’s physical fitness.

 

许多专家指出体育锻炼直接有助于身体健康。

 

74. Children are undergoing fast physical development; lack of physical exercise may produce disastrous influence on their later life.

 

孩子们正处于身体快速发育时期,缺乏体育锻炼可能会对他们未来的生活造成严重的影响。

 

46. It is commonly thought that our society had dramatically changed by modern science and technology, and human had made extraordinary progress in knowledge and technology over the recent decades.

 

人们普遍认为我们的现代科技使我们的社会发生了巨大的变化,近几十年人类在科技方面取得了惊人的进步。

 

125. Due to high tuition fee, most of ordinary families cannot afford to send their children to boarding schools.

 

因为较高的学费,大部分普通家庭支付不起他们的孩子上寄宿学校的费用。

 

107. In conclusion, we must lay emphasis on this problem and make our maximum contribution to help them spend their first day on campus smoothly.

 

总之,我们应重视这个问题,尽最大努力帮助他们平稳度过他们最初的校园生活。

 

138. We cannot emphasize the importance of protecting our eyes too much.

 

我们再怎么强调保护眼睛的重要性也不为过。

 

150. Listening to music enables us to feel relaxed.

 

听音乐能使我们放松。

 

100. As for me, it is essential to know, at first, what kind of problems young students possible would encounter on campus.

 

我认为,首先应看看学生们在校园可能遇到哪些问题。

 

61. Millions of people have to spend more time and energy on studying new skills and technology so that they can keep a favorable position in job market.

 

成千上万的人们不得不花费更多的精力和时间学习新的技术和知识,使得他们在就业市场能保持优势。

 

25. People believe that computer skills will enhance their job opportunities or promotion opportunities.

 

人们相信拥有计算机技术可以获得更多工作或提升的机会。

 

47. Now people in growing numbers are beginning to believe that learning new skills and knowledge contributes directly to enhancing their job opportunities or promotion opportunities.

 

现在越来越多的人开始相信学习新的技术和知识能直接帮助他们获得工作或提升的机会。

 

119. Many survey show that people in increasing numbers are beginning to recognize that boarding school provides better environment and facilities for children.

 

许多调查显示越来越多的人开始意识到寄宿学校能给他们的孩子提供较好的学习环境和设施。

 

21. People equate success in life with the ability of operating computer.

 

人们把会使用计算机与人生成功相提并论。

 

195. Television, the most pervasive and persuasive of modern technologies, marked by rapid change and growth, is moving into a new era, an era of extraordinary sophistication and versatility, which promises to reshape our lives and our world.

 

电视,这项从迅速变化和成长为标志的最普及和最有影响力的现代技术,正在步入一个新时代,一个极为成熟和多样化的时代,这将重塑我们的生活和世界。

 

109. This issue is becoming a matter of concern for more and more people, especially for parents and experts in education.

 

这一问题已被越来越多的人所关注,尤其是父母和教育专家。

 

113. No one can doubt the essential fact that the traffic problem over the last years has caused wide public concern all over the world. Experts in increasing numbers are beginning to believe that such situation would produce unfavorable effects on economic growth of local areas.

 

没有人能否认这一重要事实:最近几年交通问题在全世界受到了普遍关注。越来越多的专家开始相信这种状况将对当地的经济发展产生不利影响。

 

45. Even the best possible graduate needs to continue learning before she or he becomes an educated person.

 

即使最优秀的毕业生,要想成为一个博学的人也要不断地学习。

 

69. For lack of distinct culture, some places will not attract tourists any more. Consequently, the fast rise in number of foreign tourists may eventually lead to the decline of local tourism.

 

由于缺乏独特的文化,一些地方不再吸引旅游者。因此,国外旅游者数量的快速增加可能最终会导致当地旅游业的衰败。

 

136. At the time when technology means ever more harmful carbon in the air we breathe, we need these forests now more than ever.

 

当技术的发展意味着我们会吸入更多有害气体时,我们比任何时候更需要森林。

 

177. Let’s take cars for example. They not only pollute the air in cities, but make them crowded. Furthermore, they are responsible for a lot of traffic accidents. The noise made by cars disturbs the residents living on both sides of streets all day and night.

 

就拿汽车为例。汽车不仅污染城市空气,而且使城市拥挤不堪。此外,汽车造成许多交通事故。汽车所产生的噪音使居住在街道两旁的居民日夜不得安宁。

 

121. On the one hand, it is indisputable that boarding schools are exerting a growing important effect, especially in last few years.

 

一方面,寄宿学校正在发挥越来越重要的作用,尤其是最近几年,这是无可争辩的。

 

83. Although parent would be able to devote much more time and energy to their children, it must be admitted that, parent has less experience and knowledge about how to educate and supervise children, when compared with professional teachers working in kindergartens or nursery schools.

 

尽管父母能在他们孩子身上投入更多时间和精力,但是必须承认,与工作在幼儿园的专职教师相比,他们在如何管理教育孩子方面缺乏知识和经验。

 

4. People seem to fail to take into account the fact that education does not end with graduation.

 

人们似乎忽视了教育不应该随着毕业而结束这一事实。

 

55. From what has been discussed above, we may safely draw a conclusion that part-time job can produce a far-reaching impact on students and they should be encouraged to take part-time job, which will benefit students and their family, even the society as a whole.

 

通过上面的讨论,我们不难得出结论:业余工作对学生们会产生深远的影响,我们应鼓励学生从事业余工作,这将有利于学生和他们的家庭,甚至整个社会。

 

81. Parents are firmly convinced that, to send their child to kindergartens or nursery schools will have an unfavorable influence on the growth of children.

 

父母们坚定地相信把孩子送到幼儿园对他们的成长不利。

 

49. For the majority of people, reading or learning a new skill has become the focus of their lives and the source of their happiness and contentment after their retirement.

 

对大多数人来讲,退休以后,阅读或学习一项新技术已成为他们生活的中心和快乐的来源。

 

67. As for me, I’m firmly convinced that the number of foreign tourists should be limited, for the following reasons:

 

就我而言,我坚定地认为国外旅游者的数量应得到限制,理由如下:

 

172. There are two reasons for the improvement in people’s living conditions. In the first place, we have been carrying out the reform and opening-up policy. Secondly, there has been a rapid expansion of our national economy. Furthermore, the birth rate has been put under control.

 

人民生活状况的改善原因有两点。首先,我们一直在贯彻执行改革开放政策。其次,国民经济正在迅速发展,而且出生率已经得到控制。

 

52. By taking a major-related part-job, students can not only improve their academic studies, but gain much experience, experience they will never be able to get from the textbooks.

 

通过做一份和专业相关的工作,学生不仅能够提高他们的专业能力,而且能获得从课本上得不到的经验。

 

178. It is generally believed that the chief reason for the increase in population in developed countries is not so much the rise in birth rates as the decline in death rates as a result of the improvement in medical care.

 

普遍认为,在发达国家人口增长的主要原因与其说是出生率的上升,还不如说是由于医疗保健的改善使死亡率下降了。

 

168. Weather a large family is a good thing or not is a very popular topic, which is often talked about not only by city residents but by farmers as well.

 

家庭人口多好还是家庭人口少好是一个非常通俗的主题,不仅是城里人,而且农民都经常讨论这个问题。

 

161. We should get into the habit of keeping good hours.

 

我们应该养成早睡早起的习惯。

 

131. In the first place, some aspects of the traditional technology and methods are harmful and hampering the development of modern technology science.

 

首先,传统技术方法有些部分是有害的,并且会阻碍现代科技的发展。

 

165. Overwork does harm to health.

 

工作过度对健康有害。

 

19. Although this view is wildly held, this is little evidence that education can be obtained at any age and at any place.

 

尽管这一观点被广泛接受,很少有证据表明教育能够在任何地点、任何年龄进行。

 

159. We should bring home to people the value of working hard.

 

我们应该让人们知道努力的价值。

 

105. The senior and junior students could share their own experience about how to overcome the difficulty they have ever met, how to adjust to the new environment with the new students.

 

高年级学生可以与新生一起分享他们的经历:如何克服遇到的困难,如何适应新的环境。

 

120. At the same time, there are still many people who live under the traditional ideas that day schools play an extremely important role in children’s study.  

 

同时,仍有许多人持传统观点认为日制学校对孩子的学习发挥着极其重要的作用。

 

188. If you want to achieve something or intend to fulfill one of your ambitions, you must work hard, make efforts and get prepared. Otherwise, you will take no advantage of opportunities when they come to visit you.

 

假如你要取得成就或要实现你的雄心壮志,你必须努力工作、艰苦奋斗、准备好条件。否则,机遇来临你却无法利用。

 

124. On the other hand, the contribution of day schools can’t be ignored.

 

另一方面,日制学校的贡献是不能忽视的。

 

42. A large number of people tend to live under the illusion that they had completed their education when they finished their schooling. Obviously, they seem to fail to take into account the basic fact that a person’s education is a most important aspect of his life.

 

许多人存在这样的误解,认为离开学校就意味着结束了他们的教育。显然,他们忽视了教育是人生重要部分这一基本事实。

 

76. It is hard to imagine a student focusing their energy on textbook while other children are playing.

 

当别的孩子在玩耍的时候,很难想象一个学生能集中精力在课本上。

 

103. Most important of all, apart from their hometown and parents, students couldn’t catch sight of any familiar face and have to suffer from homelessness, which can cause certain serious mental disease.

 

更重要的是,离开了家乡和父母,看不到任何熟悉的面孔,他们不得不忍受思家之苦,这可能会导致严重的精神疾病。

 

59. No one can deny the basic fact that it is impossible for average workers to master those high-technology skills easily.

 

194. Children with parents whose guidance is firm, consistent, and rational are inclined to possess high levels of self-confidence.

 

父母的教导如果坚定,理性,始终如一,孩子就有可能充满自信。

 

没有人能否认这一基本事实:对于一般工人来讲,轻松掌握这些技术是不可能的。

 

57. It is widely acknowledged that computer and other machines have become an indispensable part of our society, which make our life and work more comfortable and less laborious.

 

人们普遍认为计算机和其他机器已经成为我们社会必不可少的一部分。它们使我们的生活更舒适,减少了大量劳动。

 

140. It is universally acknowledged that trees are indispensable to us.

 

全世界都知道树木对我们是不可或缺的。

 

18. It is indisputable that there are millions of people who still have a miserable life and have to face the dangers of starvation and exposure.

 

无可争辩,现在有成千上万的人仍过着挨饿受冻的痛苦生活。

 

56. These days, people in growing numbers are beginning to complain that work is more stressful and less leisurely than in past. Many experts point out that, along with the development of modern society, it is an inevitable result and there is no way to avoid it.

 

现在,越来越多的人们开始抱怨工作比以前更有压力。许多专家指出这是现代社会发展必然的结果,无法避免。

 

163. Smoking has a great influence on our health.

 

抽烟对我们的健康有很大的影响。

 

26. The information I’ve collected over last few years leads me to believe that this knowledge may be less useful than most people think.

 

从这几年我搜集的信息来看,这些知识并没有人们想象的那么有用。

 

80. There is a growing tendency for parent these days to stay at home to look after their children instead of returning to work earlier.

 

现在,父亲或母亲留在家里照顾他们的孩子而不愿过早返回工作岗位正成为增加的趋势。

 

106. At the same time, young people should be encouraged to communicate with their peers and develop their interpersonal skills, which may help them greatly to reduce dependence on their parents and are essential in the maintenance of healthy mental condition.

 

同时,应该鼓励年轻人和他们的同龄人交往,发展他们的交际能力,这将帮助他们极大地减少对父母的倚赖并且保持健康的精神状态。

 

40. This issue has caused wide public concern.

 

这个问题已经引起了广泛关注。

 

191. Anthropologists have discovered that fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise are universally reflected in facial expressions.

 

人类学家已经发现,恐惧,快乐,悲伤和惊奇都会行之于色,这在全人类是共通的。

 

118. When asked what kind of school they are willing to send their children to attend, many parents say they would choose a boarding school rather than day schools for their children.

 

当问到愿意将孩子送到哪种学校的时候,许多父母认为他们会选择寄宿学校而不是日制学校。

 

20. No one can deny the fact that a person’s education is the most important aspect of his life.

 

没有人能否认:教育是人生最重要的一方面。

 

200. Adler is correct in this assertion that education does not end with graduation.

 

阿得勒这句话很正确,教育不能随着毕业而结束。

 

2. The latest surveys show that quite a few children have unpleasant associations with homework.

 

最近的调查显示相当多的孩子对家庭作业没什么好感。

 

174. People differ in their attitudes towards failure. Faced with it, some of them can stand up to it, draw useful lessons from it and try hard to fulfill what they are determined to do. Others, however, lose heart and give in.

 

人们对失败持有不同的态度。面对失败,有人能够经得起考验,从失败中汲取教训,并努力去完成他们下定决心要做的事情。然而,另一些人却丧失信心并退却了。

 

186. A much better and brighter future awaits us.

 

我们期望有一个更加光明的未来。

 

169. As is known to all, fake and inferior commodities harm the interests of consumers.

 

众所周知,假冒伪劣商品损害了消费者的利益。

 

147. The more books we read, the more learned we become.

 

我们书读得越多,我们越有学问。

 

117. The number of private cars in urban areas should be limited while the number of public buses should be increased.

 

在城市私人轿车的数量应得到控制而公交车的数量应该增加。

 

154. There is no one but longs to go to college.

 

人们都希望上大学。

 

102. Freshmen often get lost on campus; fail to find the way to dormitory or library.

 

新生常常在校园迷路,不知道去宿舍或图书馆该怎么走。

 

99. Although many experts from universities and institutes consistently maintain that it is an inevitable part of an independent life, parents in growing numbers are starting to realize that people, including teachers and experts in education, should pay considerable attention to this problem.

 

尽管来自高校和研究院的许多专家坚持认为这是独立生活不可避免的一部分,然而越来越多的家长开始意识到包括教师和教育专家在内的人们应该认真对待这一问题。

 

28. This is a matter of life and death–a matter no country can afford to ignore.

 

这是一个关系到生死的问题,任何国家都不能忽视。

 

43. As for me, I’m in favor of the opinion that education is not complete with graduation, for the following reasons:

 

就我而言,我同意教育不应该随着毕业而结束的观点,有以下原因:

 

8. Proper measures must be taken to limit the number of foreign tourists and the great efforts should be made to protect local environment and history from the harmful effects of international tourism.

 

应该采取适当的措施限制外国旅游者的数量,努力保护当地环境和历史不受国际旅游业的不利影响。

 

15.Nowadays, many students always go into raptures at the mere mention of the coming life of high school or college they will begin. Unfortunately, for most young people, it is not pleasant experience on their first day on campus.

 

当前,一提到即将开始的学校生活,许多学生都会兴高采烈。然而,对多数年轻人来说,校园刚开始的日子并不是什么愉快的经历。

 

110. Many young people always go into raptures at the merely mention of buying fashion clothes. And they seem to be attracted by colorful material, various styles of fashion clothes. There is nothing, they maintain, that can’t be compared with fashion clothes. In fact, fashion clothes had become indispensable part of youngster’s life.

 

许多年轻人一提到时尚服装就兴高采烈。他们似乎被时尚服装那多彩的面料,各种不同的款式所吸引。

 

132. Although modern science and technology have proved that such methods are absurd, there are still millions of people use such methods in many remote places nowadays.

 

尽管现代科学技术已经证明了这些方法是愚昧的,然而在许多偏僻的地方,仍有成千上万的人们在使用这些方法。

 

146. The harder you work, the more progress you make.

 

你越努力,你越进步。

 

181. With the opening and reform policy being carried out, thousands upon thousands of foreign visitors are crowding into our country. They are eager to see this old mysterious land with a splendid culture of more than 5,000years.

 

随着改革开放政策的贯彻执行,数以万计的外国游人涌入中国。他们渴望参观这个有着5000多年灿烂文化的神秘古国。

英语阅读和写作经典句型与短语    经典句型   

63. From what has been discussed above, I am fully convinced that the leisure life-style is undergoing a decline with the progress of modern society, it is not necessary a bad thing.

 

通过以上讨论,我完全相信,随着现代社会的进步,幽闲的生活方式正在消失并不是件坏事。

 

192. The greater the population there is in a locality; the greater the need there is for water, transportation, and disposal of refuse.

 

一个地方的人口越多,对其水。交通和垃圾处理的需求就会越大。

 

95. Although rural emigrants contribute greatly to the economic growth of the cities, they may inevitably bring about many negative impacts.

 

尽管民工对城市的经济发展做出了巨大贡献,然而他们也不可避免的带来了一些负面影响。

 

44. It is commonly accepted that no college or university can educate its students by the time they graduate.

 

人们普遍认为高校是不可能在毕业的时候教会他们的学生所有知识的。

 

41. It must be noted that learning must be done by a person himself.

 

必须指出学习只能靠自己。

 

137. Nothing is more important than to receive education.

 

没有比接受教育更重要的事。

 

72. Many parents believe that additional educational activities enjoy obvious advantage. By extra studies, they maintain, their children are able to obtain many kinds of practical skills and useful knowledge, which will put them in a beneficial position in the future job markets when they grow up.

 

许多家长相信额外的教育活动有许多优点,通过学习,他们的孩子可以获得很多实践技能和有用的知识,当他们长大后,这些对他们就业是大有好处的。

 

180. Additional social stresses may also occur because of the population explosion or problems arising from mass migration movements-themselves made relatively easy nowadays by modern means of transport.

 

由于人口的猛增或大量人口流动(现代交通工具使这种流动相对容易)引发的种种问题也会对社会造成新的压力。

 

170. Today an increasing number of people have realized that law education is of great importance. In order to keep law and order, every one of us is supposed to get a law education.

 

现在,愈来愈多的人认识到法制教育的重要性。为了维护社会治安,我们每人都应该接受法制教育。

 

93. An investigation shows that many emigrants think that working at city provide them with not only a higher salary but also the opportunity of learning new skills.

 

一项调查显示许多民工认为在城市打工不仅有较高的收入,而且能学到一些新技术。

 

30. Before giving my opinion, I think it is important to look at the arguments on both sides.

 

在给出我的观点之前,我想看看双方的观点是重要的。

 

127. Furthermore, students living in their own home would have access to a comfortable life and have more opportunities to communicate with their parents, which have beneficial impact on development of their personal character.

 

而且,学生生活在自己家中,有舒适的生活,并有更多机会和父母交流,这对他们个性的培养是有利的。

 

62. According to a recent survey, a growing number of people express a strong desire to take another job or spend more time on their job in order to get more money to support their family.

 

根据最近的一项调查,越来越多的人表达了想从事另外的工作或加班以赚取更多的钱来补贴家用的强烈愿望。

 

97. It is suggested that governments ought to make efforts to reduce the increasing gap between cities and countryside. They ought to set aside an appropriate fund for improvement of the standard of peasants’ lives. They ought to invite some experts in agriculture to share their experiences, information and knowledge with peasants, which will contribute directly to the economic growth of rural areas.

 

建议政府应该努力减少正在拉大的城乡差距。应该划拨适当的资金提高农民的生活水平;应该邀请农业专家向农民介绍他们的经验,知识和信息,这些将有助于发展农村经济。

 

38. From what has been discussed above, we may safely draw the conclusion that advantages of bicycle far outweigh its disadvantages and it will still play essential roles in modern society.

 

通过以上讨论,我们可以得出结论:自行车的优点远大于缺点,并且在现代社会它仍将发挥重要作用。

 

111. Many people seem to overlook the basic fact: the major function of clothing is to keep us warm and comfortable.

 

许多人似乎忽视了这个基本事实:衣服的基本功能是保持我们舒适和温暖。

 

29. For my part, I agree with the latter opinion for the following reasons:

 

我同意后者,有如下理由:

 

51. There is a general debate on the campus today over the phenomenon of college or high school students’ doing a part-time job.

 

对于大学或高中生打工这一现象,校园里进行着广泛的争论。

 

96. Many sociologists point out that rural emigrants are putting pressure on population control and social order; that they are threatening to take already scarce city jobs; and that they have worsened traffic and public health problems.

 

许多社会学家指出民工正给人口控制和社会治安带来压力。他们正在威胁着本已萧条的工作市场,他们恶化了交通和公共卫生状况。

 

17. The majority of students believe that part-time job will provide them with more opportunities to develop their interpersonal skills, which may put them in a favorable position in the future job markets.

 

大部分学生相信业余工作会使他们有更多机会发展人际交往能力,而这对他们未来找工作是非常有好处的。

 

22. In the last decades, advances in medical technology have made it possible for people to live longer than in the past.

 

在过去的几十年,先进的医疗技术已经使得人们比过去活的时间更长成为可能。

 

196. Television is more than just an electronic appliance; it is a means of expression, as well as a vehicle for communication, and as such becomes a powerful tool for reaching other human beings.

 

电视不仅仅是一件电器;它是表达的手段和交流的载体,并因此成为联系他人的有力工具。

 

3. No invention has received more praise and abuse than Internet.

 

没有一项发明像互联网一样同时受到如此多的赞扬和批评。

 

190. In my opinion, there are plenty of opportunities for everyone in our society, but only those who are prepared adequately and qualified highly can make use of them to achieve purpose.

 

我的观点是:在我们的社会里,人人都有许多机遇,但是只有那些做好充分准备并且高度称职的人才能利用机遇达到目的。

 

87. But is it really the case? The information I’ve collected over last few years leads me to believe that artistic and cultural projects may be less useful than many governments think. In fact, basic infrastructure projects are playing extremely important role and should be given priority.

 

这是真的吗?这些年我收集的信息让我相信这些文化、艺术项目并没有许多政府想象的那么重要。事实上,基础设施建设非常重要,应该放在首位。

 

64. The problem of international tourism has caused wide public concern over the recent years.

 

近些年,国际旅游的问题引起了广泛关注。

 

85. Parents should be encouraged to send their children to nursery schools, which will bring about profound impacts on children and families, and even the society as a whole.

 

应该鼓励父母将他们的孩子送到幼儿园,这将对孩子,家庭,甚至整个社会产生深远的影响。

 

65. Many people believe that international tourism produce positive effects on economic growth and local government should be encouraged to promote international tourism.

 

许多人认为国际旅游对经济发展有积极作用,应鼓励地方政府发展国际旅游。

 

135. From what has been discussed above, I firmly believe that time will prove that traditional technology and methods would die out with the development of modern science and technology. The maintenance of the traditional technology and methods is futile.

 

通过以上讨论,我坚定地相信时间会证明传统技术方法将会随着现代技术的发展而消亡,坚持传统技术方法是徒劳的。

 

104. In the first place, school authorities should provide far more services to help freshmen to get used to the new life as soon as possible.

 

首先,学校应提供更多的服务,帮助新生尽快适应新的生活。

 

75. In the second place, from psychological aspect, the majority of children seem to tend to have an unfavorable attitude toward additional educational activities.

 

第二,从心理上讲,大部分孩子似乎对额外的学习没有什么好感。

 

71. This phenomenon has caused wide public concern in many places of world.

 

这一现象在全世界许多地方已引起了广泛关注。

 

145. Rich as our country is, the qualities of our living are by no means satisfactory.

 

虽然我们的国家很富有,但是我们的生活质量却令人很不满意。

 

9. An increasing number of experts believe that migrants will exert positive effects on construction of city. However, this opinion is now being questioned by more and more city residents, who complain that the migrants have brought many serious problems like crime and prostitution.

 

越来越多的专家相信移民对城市的建设起到积极作用。然而,越来越多的城市居民却怀疑这种说法,他们抱怨民工给城市带来了许多严重的问题,像犯罪和卖淫。

 

31. This view is now being questioned by more and more people.

 

这一观点正受到越来越多人的质疑。

 

82. However, this idea is now being questioned by more and more experts, who point out that it is unhealthy for children who always stay with their parents at home.

 

然而,这一想法正遭受越来越多的专家的质疑,他们指出,孩子总是呆在家里,和父母在一起,是不健康的。

 

32. Although many people claim that, along with the rapidly economic development, the number of people who use bicycle are decreasing and bicycle is bound to die out. The information I’ve collected over the recent years leads me to believe that bicycle will continue to play extremely important roles in modern society.

 

尽管许多人认为随着经济的高速发展,用自行车的人数会减少,自行车可能会消亡,然而,这几年我收集的一些信息让我相信自行车仍然会继续在现代社会发挥极其重要的作用。

 

86. Many leaders of government always go into raptures at the mere mention of artistic and cultural projects. They are forever talking about the nice parks, the smart sculptures in central city and the art galleries with various valuable rarities. Nothing, they maintain, is more essential than such projects in the economic growth.

 

只要一提起艺术和文化项目,一些政府领导就会兴奋不已,他们滔滔不绝地说着美丽的公园,城市中心漂亮的雕塑,还有满是稀世珍宝的艺术展览馆。他们认为在经济发展中,没有什么比这些艺术项目更重要了。

 

98. In conclusion, we must take into account this problem rationally and place more emphases on peasants’ lives. Any government that is blind to this point will pay a heavy price.

 

总之,我们应理智考虑这一问题,重视农民的生活。任何政府忽视这一点都将付出巨大的代价。

 

5. An increasing number of people are beginning to realize that education is not complete with graduation.

 

越来越多的人开始意识到教育不能随着毕业而结束。

 

148. To average people, they often tend to live under the illusion that English often means a good opportunity for one’s career, is this really the case?

 

对于一般人来说,他们常常以为掌握英语就意味着一份好的工作,然而这是真的吗?

 

157. Summer is sultry. That’s the reason why I don’t like it.

 

夏天很闷热,这就是我不喜欢它的原因。

 

90. From what has been discussed above, it would be reasonable to believe that basic projects play far more important role than artistic and cultural projects in people’s life and economic growth.

 

通过以上讨论,我们有理由相信在人们的生活和经济发展方面,基础建设比艺术文化项目发挥更大的作用。

 

160. Taking exercise is closely related to health.

 

作运动与健康息息相关。

 

130. As for me, the declining of traditional technology and methods is not a bad thing; it is the natural result of progress of society.

 

我认为,传统技术方法的消亡不一定是坏事,这是社会进步的自然结果。

 

183 Tourism, however, gives rise to a number of problems. For instance, it becomes a burden to inefficient transportation system.

 

旅游业也引起许多问题。例如,它增加了我国本来效率不高的运输系统的负担。

 

176. As a popular saying goes, "everything has two sides." Now the public are benefiting more and more from scientific and technological inventions. On the other hand, the progress of science and technology is bringing us a lot of trouble. People in many countries are suffering from public hazards.

 

常言道:事情总是一分为二的。如今人们从科技发明中得到越来越多的好处。另一方面,科技进步也给我们带来了许多麻烦。现在许多国家的人民饱受公害之苦。

 

66. But what these people fail to see is that international tourism may bring about a disastrous impact on our environment and local history.

 

但是这些人忽视了国际旅游可能会给当地环境和历史造成的灾难性的影响。

 

60. In the second place, there seem to be too many people without job and not enough job position.

 

第二方面,失业的人似乎太多而又没有足够的工作岗位。

 

34. In view of such serious situation, environmental tools of transportation like bicycle are more important than any time before.

 

考虑到这些严重的状况,我们比以往任何时候更需要像自行车这样的环保型交通工具。

 

11. There is no denying the fact that air pollution is an extremely serious problem: the city authorities should take strong measures to deal with it.

 

无可否认,空气污染是一个极其严重的问题:城市当局应该采取有力措施来解决它。

 

114. There are several reasons for this problem. One of the main reasons is that the number of vehicles is increasing much more rapidly than building of roads. Another primary reason is that there seem to be too many private cars and not enough public buses.

 

关于这个问题,有很多原因。一个主要原因是车辆增加的数量远快于道路的建设。另一个主要原因是私家车过多而公交车不够。

 

199. "The people who get on in this world are the people who get up and look for circumstances they want, and if they cannot find them, make them." Such is the remark made by Bernard Shaw, a great writer. This view has been shared now by more and more people.

 

著名作家萧伯纳曾说过:在这个世界上取得成功的人,都努力去寻求他们想要的机会,如果找不到时,他们就自己创造机会。这一观点现在正在被越来越多的人所接受。

 

185. As for me, with the development of our national economy, all these problems will certainly be solved step by step.

 

至于我,我相信,随着我国经济的发展,这些问题必将逐步解决。

 

24. We should spare no effort to beautify our environment.

 

我们应该不遗余力地美化我们的环境。

 

184. Besides, the living standard of the average Chinese is still not high enough to be able to afford the many different sorts of expensed during long distance travels.

 

此外,中国人民的生活水平还没有高到足以使普通中国人有钱支付长途旅行的各种开支。

 

152. It is time the authorities concerned took proper steps to solve the traffic problems.

 

该是有关当局采取适当的措施来解决交通问题的时候了。

 

94. It must be noted that improvement in agriculture seems to not be able to catch up with the increase in population of rural areas and there are millions of peasants who still live a miserable life and have to face the dangers of exposure and starvation.

 

必须指出,农业的发展似乎赶不上农村人口的增加,并且仍有成千上万的农民过着缺衣挨饿的贫寒生活。

 

126. Since it is unnecessary to consider student’s routine life, day school can lay stress on teaching instead of other aspects, such as management of dormitory and cafeteria.

 

由于无需考虑学生的日常生活,日制学校可以将重点放在教学上而不是放在像宿舍和食堂管理这些方面。

 

16. In view of the seriousness of this problem, effective measures should be taken before things get worse.

 

考虑到问题的严重性,在事态进一步恶化之前,必须采取有效的措施。

 

33. Environmental experts point out that increasing pollution not only causes serious problems such as global warming but also could threaten to end human life on our planet.

 

环境学家指出:持续增加的污染不仅会导致像全球变暖这样严重的问题,而且还将威胁到人类在这个星球的生存。

 

12. An investigation shows that female workers tend to have a favorable attitude toward retirement.

 

一项调查显示妇女欢迎退休。

 

70. There is a growing tendency for parents to ask their children to accept extra educational programs over the recent years.

 

近些年,父母要求他们的孩子接受额外的教育呈增长的势头。

 

92. There is a growing tendency these days for many people who live in rural areas to come into and work in city. This problem has caused wide public concern in most cities all over the world.

 

农民进城打工正成为增长的趋势,这一问题在世界上大部分城市已引起普遍关注。

 

166. Pollution poses a great threat to our existence.

 

污染对我们的生存造成巨大威胁。

 

198. One of the great early writers wrote that: Work is the grand cure of all the maladies and miseries that ever beset mankind. If this is true, then the present situation should make us wonder whether the measure that the average worker is obliged to retire at the age of 50 is reasonable.

 

一位伟大的作家曾写到:工作是医治人间一切病痛和疾苦的万应良药。如果是这样的话,那么现在的状况应使我们想一想,强迫普通工人在50岁退休是否合理。

 

173. My suggestions to deal with the problem are as follows. To begin with, it is urgent to create nature reserves. Secondly, certain rare wild animals that are going to be extinct should be collected, fed and reproduced artificially. Finally, those who hunter them must be punished severely.

 

我对解决这个问题的建议如下:首先,迫在眉睫的是建立自然保护区。其次,有些濒临灭绝的珍稀野生动物应该收捕、人工喂养并繁殖。最后,对于捕猎珍稀野生动物的人必须严惩。

 

54. Consequently, the extra money obtained from part-time job will strongly support students to continue to their study life.

 

因此,业余工作挣来的钱将强有力地支持学生们继续他们的求学生活。

 

1. According to a recent survey, four million people die each year from diseases linked to smoking.

 

依照最近的一项调查,每年有4000000人死于与吸烟有关的疾病。

 

84. From what has been discussed above, we may safely draw a conclusion that, although the parents’ desire to look after children by themselves is understandable, its disadvantages far outweigh the advantages.

 

通过以上讨论,我们可以得出如下结论:尽管家长想亲自照看孩子的愿望是可以理解的,但是这样做的缺点远大于优点。

 

68. In addition, in order to attract tourists, a lot of artificial facilities have been built, which have certain unfavorable effects on the environment.

 

另外,为了吸引旅游者,大量人工设施被修建,这对环境是不利的。

 

89. Unfortunately, there is very few evidence that big companies are willing to invest a huge sums of money in a place without sufficient basic projects, such as supplies of electricity and water.

 

然而,很少有证据表明大公司愿意把巨额的资金投到一个连水电这些基础设施都不完善的地方去。

 

13. A proper part-time job does not occupy students’ too much time. In fact, it is unhealthy for them to spend all of time on their study. As an old saying goes: All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.

 

一份适当的业余工作并不会占用学生太多的时间,事实上,把全部的时间都用到学习上并不健康,正如那句老话:只工作,不玩耍,聪明的孩子会变傻。

 

73. In the first place, extra studies bring about unhealthy impacts on physical growth of children. Educational experts point out that, it is equally important to take some sport activities instead of extra studies when children have spent the whole day in a boring classroom.

 

首先,额外的学习对孩子们的身体发育是不利的。教育专家指出,孩子们在枯燥的教室里呆了一整天后,从事一些体育活动,而不是额外的学习,是非常重要的。

 

134. Although many people tend to live under the illusion that traditional technology and methods are still playing extremely important role in people’s life, an increasing evidences show that it is less useful than many people think.

 

尽管许多人保持着传统观念,认为传统技术方法在人们生活中仍发挥着重要作用,但是越来越多的证据显示它并没有人们想象的有用。

 

164.

Reading does well to our mind.

 

读书对心灵有益。

 

129. There is much discussion over science and technology. One of the questions under debate is whether traditional technology and methods are bound to die out when a country begins to develop modern science and technology.

 

关于科学技术存在许多争论,其中一个问题是当国家发展现代科学技术时,传统的技术方法是否可能会消亡?

 

153. Those who violate traffic regulations should be punished.

 

违反交通规则的人应该受到处罚。

 

143. The reason why we have to grow trees is that they can supply fresh air for us.

 

我们必须种树的原因是它们能供应我们新鲜的空气。

 

36. Despite many obvious advantages of bicycle, it is not without its problem.

 

尽管自行车有许多明显的优点,但是它也存在它的问题。

 

116. Moreover, many people, including drivers and cyclists, do not obey the traffic rules properly, especially at busy intersections. And this undoubtedly worsens the already grave situation.

 

而且,许多人,包括司机和骑自行车的人,不能很好地遵守交通规则,特别是在繁忙的十字路口,这无疑使本已严重的状况雪上加霜。

 

扩大词汇学好英语的42个经典要诀

第一要诀:收听英语气象报告
  有些教学录音带为配合初学者的学习,故意放慢语速,这对英语听力的训练是不够的。如果听语速正常的英语,初学者又会感到力不从心。英语气象报告的速度虽快,但词汇简单固定,内容单纯,重复的可能性大,而且在生活中随时都可以印证,是听力入门的好教材。
  
  
第二要诀:收听中国国际广播电台的英语广播
  http://www.ok590.com/radio.htm
  中国国际广播电台(China Radio International)每天早上7:00–8:00,中午11:00–12:00各有一小时的英语节目。内容包括国内外新闻,剪报集锦和各类系列的专题报道。除了英语标准流利的国内播音员担任广播之外,也有向外侨或访客就某一话题而做的录音访问。内容广泛,但词汇较简单,语速亦适中,可以藉此训练或增进英语的听力。
  
  第三要诀:善用录音带锻炼听说能力
  有些学习者总是习惯于一边看书一边听磁带,把磁带当成阅读的辅助工具,这样打不到锻炼听力的目的。录音带应该是以听说能力的训练为主。学习者要选用与自己能力相适应的听力磁带,不要急于求成,以免产生受挫心理。先反复聆听磁带内容,起先只要抓住梗概,多听几次后,对细节的了解便越来越多。听力较差的人,可先阅读课文,然后再集中精力领会每段每句的意思。这样练习有助于培养倾听时注意力的集中,使您的听力迅速进步。
  
  第四要诀:听正常语速的英语,才能加速听力的进步
  很多广播教学和听力教材总是为了配合听众或学习者的程度而故意放慢语速,这虽是无可厚非的变通方法,但也会产生一些不良的副作用。例如:1.听惯了语速放慢的英语,在与外国人的实际交往中,就很难适应,甚至听不懂他们用正常语速讲的英语。2. 故意放慢语速时,通常会把一句中每个词都清楚的读出来,但在正常的会话中会出现很多同化(assimilation),减弱(reduction),连音(liaision)的现象。所以,听语速正常的英语对于听力和会话极为重要。
  
  第五要诀:从电视,电影中学习英语
  看英文电视,电影不仅能了解西方人的文化和生活,而且也是学习地道英语和提高英语听力的好机会。选取的影片最好是以现代生活为背景的文艺片或喜剧片。如果您的听力不错,要养成不看字幕的习惯。程度稍差的就不要勉强自己,否则英语没学成反倒破坏了欣赏电影的好心情。这种情况下,您可以先看字幕了解剧情(如果是电视节目那就要先录下来),再重新看一至数遍,您的听力就可在轻松的心情下,随着您对剧情了解的增多而迅速提高。
  
  第六要诀:和朋友表演影片情节
  在英语学习中,我们经常会与朋友或同学相约用英语交谈来提高英语会话能力,但经常感到自己的语言贫乏,所谈内容有限。现在不妨试试这种方法:配合前节所讲的“从电视,电影中学习英语”,先依据电影情节节选一个或多个片段,个人选定一个角色,然后在影片看熟之后试着把台词誊录成文字并背下来,最后进行排练表演。经常做这种练习,不仅对英语会话和听力大有好处,而且对语法和写作也是很好的锻炼。
  
  第七要诀:朗诵英文诗
  英语是否流利取决于对节奏的正确掌握。英语是按单词和句子的重音来分节奏的。英文诗是练习英语节奏的最好材料之一。例如 Worsworth 著名的“The Daffodils”(水仙花):“I wandered lonely as a cloud/That floats on high o”er vales and hills…”(我象一片白云孤独的游荡,飘越过溪谷和群山……)便是典型的弱强节奏。读熟之后,大声朗诵,一定获益非浅。
  
  第八要诀:唱歌学英语
  比朗诵英文诗更有效的是唱英文歌曲。唱英文歌可以帮您练习发音(pronunciation),语调(intonation)和节奏(rhythm),又可以让您在很愉快的心情下背会很多单词和句型,真是一举数得。所选的英文歌曲最好语言优美,语法正规。起先可以从童谣入手,再渐渐的学唱抒情歌曲。学唱之前先要将歌词朗读几遍再跟着磁带学唱,唱熟后能背更好。
  
  第九要诀:特别注意中文没有的发音
  英语中有些读音是中文中没有的,这些也是我们英语学习者最困惑的读音,例如“th”的发音,发这种音时要特别注意口型的正确。
  
  第十要诀:背诵名人演说词,找机会复诵出来
  好的演说在用字遣辞上不但求其优美而且特别注重沟通力和说服力,是练习英语表达的最佳教材。学习者不必将演说词从头到尾的背诵,只要选择自己喜欢的段落或句子来背即可。例如:肯尼迪总统的名言“Ask not what your country can do for you,ask what you can do for your country.”(不要问你的国家能为你做什么,要问你能为你的国家做什么。)这类的妙言嘉句背多了之后,对于说话,写作都会有不少的帮助。
  
  第十一要诀:用英语绕口令克服发音的缺点
  绕口令(tongue twisters)常把容易混淆或念错的音放在一起。但因他们常以歌谣或押韵的形式出现,因此读熟之后也会觉得顺口好听。所以英语绕口令可以作为练习英语发音和会话的辅助教材。
  
  第十二要诀:多记一些幽默笑话,准备随时应用
  爱听笑话是人的天性,在社交场合中随时的插上几句笑话,可以使气氛轻松活泼,更容易赢得友谊。使用英语的场合,更可利用笑话来消除自己讲话的不自在,增强自己对英语会话能力的信心。
  听,讲和研究英语笑话的好处还远不止如此。更重要的是,您可以藉着幽默或笑话中精简的文字或语言增加对西方国家文化和社会的了解。请看下面两个例子:
  1.Teenager:”I”m off to the party.”(少年:“我要去参加聚会了”。)
  Father:”Well,have a good time.”(父亲:“祝你玩的高兴。”)
  Teenager:”Look Dad,don”t tell me what to do!”(少年:“哎,爸爸,不要告诉我应该做什么。讽刺美国一些青少年过于强调独立自主,不受管束的性格。)
  2.The policeman stopped the driver and said,”I”m afraid your wife fell out your car about one kilometer back.”
  ”Thank godness,”said the driver,”I thought I had gone deaf.”(警察让司机停下车来,对他说:“你的妻子从你的车上掉下来恐怕已有一公里的路程了”。“感谢上帝”司机说“我还以为我已经聋了呢”。)讽刺美国太太们的长舌唠叨。
  
  第十三要诀:听英语时,口中跟着复诵
  听英语演讲,看英语电视和电影时,要耳朵一边听,口中一边复诵。这样既有利于注意力的集中,增进对内容的了解,又可同时模仿母语是英语的人们(native speakers)的发音和语调。做这种练习时,如果句子长而复杂难以复诵,不必勉强,可以先从较短或较简单的句子开始。练习多了,就会养成习惯。另外一种有益的练习是逐句口译(consecutive interpretation)。把听到的句子逐一译成汉语,这对于听力,正确的理解及反应能力也是很好的锻炼。
  
  第十四要诀:练习朗读,好处多多
  英语学习者往往对朗读不太重视。事实上朗读的妙用大矣!1.锻炼英语的发音,语调与节奏;2.使口腔各发音部位灵活,增进说英语时的流利程度;3.使耳朵增加听英语的机会,从而提高英语听力;4.充分应用读书四到:眼到,口到,耳到,心到——比默读时更能记住所读的教材。我们也可以说朗读是会话的基本练习,没有朗读习惯的人是很难学成会话的。
  
  第十五要诀:练习朗读时要从后面往前推演
  练习朗读时,我们有时会觉得很难将一个长句朗读的流利顺口。例如里根总统第二任就职演说词:“So we go forward today,a nation still mighty in its youth and powerful in its purpose.”(因此我们今天要前进。我们的民族仍因年轻而有力量,因目标确定而强大。)遇到这种情况,我们建议您从最后的一个单词读起,每次向前加一个单词。例如:“…purpose”“…it”s purpose”“…in it”s purpose”“powerful in its purpose”。这种从后向前推的朗读联系法旨在帮助您把握正确的语调。我们知道,语调的上扬或下降在句尾表现的最明显。这样的练习可让您在每次的朗读时都能顾及正确的语调。
  
  第十六要诀:朗读长句时,可在“词组”之间稍做停顿
  在朗读中可能出现的另一个问题就是断句。由于句子长,无法一口气读完,往往有急促或断续的现象,句子被读的支离破碎,非常不自然。也有人在句中随意停顿,或停顿的地方不当,自己读起来极不通顺悦耳,听的人也会觉得不知所云。例如里根总统第二任就职演说词:“We must do what we know is right,and do it with all our might.”(我们必须做我们知道是正确的事,而且要全力去做。)决不能读成“We/must/do what/we/know/is right,/and do/it with all/out might.”
  长句中有短暂的停顿,藉以调和呼吸,这是自然的现象,但停顿的地方必须恰到好处。通常在:1. 有标点符号的地方;2.词组或思想单元之间。短语,从句等思想单元必须各自成一单位,但它们之间可以短暂停顿。例如:“We must do/what we know is right,/and do it/with all your might.(斜线为可以稍做停顿之处)。
  
  第十七要诀:为了兴趣而阅读
  寒窗苦读式的学习方法不但枯燥无味,而且效果往往不佳。如果是为了兴趣甚至“消遣”而阅读的话,一定会趣味盎然,并能在无形之中进步。例如:喜欢爵士乐的人读起爵士乐方面的英文书刊会比看英文教科书效率高的多。同样的,喜欢汽车的人看介绍汽车的英文书刊,喜欢烹饪的人看介绍汽车的英文书刊,不仅能满足自己的爱好,而且又可以提高英语能力,真是一举两得。
  假如没有特别的兴趣,那不妨阅读故事,小说尤其是侦探小说更能使人全神贯注,而且有一气呵成之感。这可算是一种愉快的学习方法。
  
  第十八要诀:精读和泛读并行
  精读的教材不必贪多,最好选择短小精悍的文章,把里面的词汇,语法结构等全部弄清楚,然后大声朗读,再加背诵,最后能够默写几遍更好。
  有一个可以兼顾精读和泛读的方法,是从返读的材料中选择一些最优美,读来最顺口的句子加以精读。
  应该尽量将背诵,默写过的段落和句子在会话或写作时应用出来。应用也有助于对他们的理解和记忆。
  
  第十九要诀:阅读英文报刊杂志
  报刊杂志上登载的最新消息,所用的词汇也是最现代,最实用的。常常阅读英文报刊杂志能够通过生活化,实用性的学习,迅速提高您的英文能力。
  现在国内最常见的英文报纸是中国日报(China Daily) 和21世纪英语(21st Century)。如果您抱着增大词汇量,提高英语阅读能力的目的看报纸,那么就不要局限于您所感兴趣的部分。最好通读报纸的每个栏目和版面。包括新闻,社论甚至广告等。值得一提的是刊登在报纸上的英文连环画,它不仅能培养您的幽默感,而且让您在会心一笑之余还能了解一个国家的文化和社会信息。英文程度稍差的人可以在阅读英文报纸之前先看看当天的中文报纸,这对理解英文报纸很有帮助。
  此外,您还可以借助报纸来提高写作能力。选取一篇社论(或其中的一段或数段)把它译成中文,测验自己对社论理解的精确程度。然后将这篇译文倒译回英文,再于原文比较,找出那些在语法和修辞方面有待改进的地方。通过这种练习,您一定会受益非浅。
  
  第二十要诀:暂时忘掉字典
  我们在阅读英文小说或报刊时,不免会遇到一些生词。如果总是停下来查字典会很令人扫兴,读书的兴趣也会被消磨掉。因此我们建议您,有时可以暂时忘掉字典。
  首先,选择的读物要与您的英文水平相当,令您感兴趣。随便翻阅数页,浏览一下,如果每页您可以看懂八成以上,便可认定这本书适合您。
  其次,在阅读中遇到生词,不要急着查字典。先联系上下文猜猜看,做到这一点就够了。等从头到尾看完之后,再去查字典深入研究。
  看这类读物,贵在多读,速读。同学或朋友之间不妨相互借阅,即可省钱,又可以养成快速阅读的习惯。
  
  第二十一要诀:查字典之前,要猜猜看
  学习一种语言一定要查字典,但一定要讲究方法。在这里先说两件事:第一:不要盲目的查;第二:不要查的太快;换句话说,在查字典以前要先想一想,甚至猜一猜。
  很多学习英语的人,在文章中一看到生词抓起字典就查,结果往往是每个生词都查过了,却看不懂整句或整段的意思。假如在查字典以前,先根据上下文的意思猜猜看,再翻开字典,就不会感到无所适从了。例如在(A)句:“Will this small car negotiate that steep hill?”(这辆小汽车能翻过那个陡峭的山丘吗?)和(B)句:“I”m sorry.Our bank doesn”t negotiate foreign checks.”(对不起,我们银行不兑现外国支票。)中出现的negotiate,我们不能选取多数字典对它下的第一个定义“交涉”。如果不假思索翻开字典就抄下“交涉”这个定义,这句话就无法看懂了。所以,遇到生词先不要忙着查字典,应该先结合上下文,前后句,整个段落来推敲它的意思,再查字典证实一下,有时甚至用不着查字典意思就清楚了。这种查字典的方法还有一个好处,由于先经过猜,想的过程,对于这个生词有了观察和分析,印象已很深刻,查字典之后就很容易就记住这个词了。
  第二十二要诀:查字典不要只看词义
  很多人查字典只为了了解词义,这充其量只能弄懂生词在那句话里的意思,根本无法积极掌握那个词汇,更谈不上活用了。
  查字典除了要找出适当的定义,还要查1)读音:读的出音的词才能记得牢,也才能用的出来。2)相关的定义:一个单词可能会有几个或几十个定义。浏览一下相关的定义可更广泛的了解这个单词。3)用法和例句:您可以从字典中的例句中学到该词的正确用法。4)反义词,近义词和词类变化。查字典时兼顾这许多方面才能增进您对该生词的理解,增强对该生词的记忆和活用该生词的能力。
  
  第二十三要诀:多查几本字典,互相印证,互为补充
  从上面要诀我们可以看出,查字典不能只看字义,还要注意发音,用法,例句,词类变化(衍生词),近义词,反义词,辨义以及相关词汇等,一本小小的英汉字典是远远不够的。  内容不同的较大字典最好准备两本以上,以便互相印证,互为补充。例如有的字典收录的词汇特别多,有的字典偏重例句,有的偏重短语,也有的字典对句型的分类和说明特别清楚,有的详细列出近义词,反义词和同义词的分辨等。多查一本字典往往就多一分收获。
  
  第二十四要诀:读的出,才能记得牢
  记单词的第一个步骤是把它大声的读出来。先将整句话读几遍,然后把单词单独的读几遍。读的时候,脑海中要根据它的发音来“描绘”它的字型。经常做这种练习的人,只要口中朗读单词的读音,心里就会浮现出这个单词的形貌。要注意您看到的是整个字,而不是个别的字母。在这个阶段,即使错漏了一两个字母也没关系,千万不要一个字母一个字母的背。 接着,眼睛离开书本,把整个句子复诵一两遍,然后复诵您要背的单词。这样记忆单词才能记得牢。
  
  第二十五要诀:字典查过之后,暂时别合起来
  查过的字典不要马上合起来。下次再查另一个单词时,可以先把摊开的这页再看一看,这对于上次所查的字是一种很有效的复习,往往使您印象深刻,永志不忘。
  有的人喜欢把查过的单词抄在本子上一个一个的背,作为复习这是可以的,但效果恐怕不如从文章中,字典中记忆单词那么明显。因为大部分单词只能在句子里才有确定的意思,把它孤立起来,一来是很难记住,二来是即使记住了往往也不会应用。
  
  第二十六要诀:要培养英语的语感,请用英英字典
  完全依赖英汉字典的人,有时无法查到一个单词精确的定义。在模糊概念的影响下,说出的话或写出的句子往往模棱两可,语焉不详甚至造成人家的误会。
  克服这个缺点的方法之一是使用英英字典。英英字典常给出比较详尽而确切的定义。有时在字面意义(denotation)之外还给出它的涵义(connotation)。请看下面这个例子:sofa:英汉字典解释为“沙发”。但无法告诉我们“sofa”是什么东西。查查英英字典就会得到比较清楚的印象:“a comfortable seat wide enough for two or three people to sit on ”原来沙发上可供二或三人并排坐的舒适坐椅。
  当然我们也不能说英英字典一定比英汉字典好。英汉字典也有它方便的地方,尤其当我们查动植物或某些物品名称的时候,例如:“cockroach”这个单词查英英字典得“a large black insect which lives in dark wet placesand likes dirty houses”(是一种体形偏大,喜欢生活在阴暗潮湿的地方和脏屋子里的黑色昆虫)。这就不如英汉字典里的“蟑螂”一目了然了。
  
  第二十七要诀:利用前缀和后缀扩充词汇
  大部分的英语单词是由前缀,后缀与词根组合而成。对前缀,后缀的了解可帮助我们记忆单词,从而扩大我们的词汇量。
  例如:respond(反应)这个单词,加上后缀ent形成形容词或名词:respondent反应的或回答者。加上ence或er成为名词 respondence反应和responder回答者。加上前缀co成为correspondence符合,通讯等。从上面例子可以看出,学习前缀和后缀对增加词汇量极有帮助。
  
  第二十八要诀:留心英文的词汇搭配
  每种语言都有它的个性,往往不能靠着单纯的翻译来套用。英文学习者要特别注意词汇搭配(collocation),才不至画虎类犬例如常用词open,中文翻译是“开”,但是中文要表达的“开”却不能一律用open来表达。“开门,开窗” 是open the door/window,“开灯,开收音机”却是turn on the light/radio,“开会”变成hold a meeting,“开支票”是write a check,但“银行开户”则又能用open an account。这些搭配虽然有点让初学者眼花缭乱,但却体现了语言文字的特性,也是它灵活而有趣的地方。
  
  第二十九要诀:把被动词汇转变为主动词汇
  被动词汇(passive vocabulary)是您看的懂,认得出的词汇,而主动词汇(active vocabulary)则是您在说话写作中用的出来的词汇。英文程度越好,说明他的主动词汇越多,在实际应用中越能得心应手所以学习英语的人要尽快把他所拥有的被动词汇转变成主动词汇。  转变的原则就是要常用(You must learn to use a word by using it )。光认识字义是不够的,您一定要熟读例句,然后利用适当的时机(会话,写信,甚至自言自语,胡思乱想时)使用它,多用几次,您就掌握这个词汇了。
  
  第三十要诀:用自由联想法复习学过的单词
  在等车,等人的无聊时刻,复习英语单词也许是很好的消遣。您可以靠周围事物来触发灵感发挥您的“自由联想”。这样做既可以锻炼脑力,温习英语单词,又可以打发时间,真是一举数得。
  例如:您看到穿蓝色衣服的女孩,从蓝色(blue)想到blues(布鲁斯:蓝调),bluebird(知更鸟)blue-blooded(贵族的);或从blue想到red(红色)pink(粉红色),crimson(深红色),scarlet(猩红色)等等。可以说是“上穹碧落下黄泉”,让您觉得其乐无穷。
  
  第三十一要诀:利用生活中的小插曲或社会上的偶发事件学习英文
  我们也可以将“联想”运用到一些生活的小插曲中。例如:您在马路上走着,不小心扭伤了脚踝。您就可以想象如何用英语把它表达出来。首先,您会查汉英字典德知扭伤是sprain,脚踝是ankle。可是您还需要查一下英汉字典或英英字典关于这些单词的用法,以避免误用。最后您会写出这个句子“I sprained my ankle this morning.”
  从生活中学习会得到一些立即的成就感,不信你就试试看!
  
  第三十二要诀:累积实用的佳句,整理制作成卡片
  提高英语会话能力,同时又增加词汇量的有效方法之一是将您从书本上,报刊杂志上看到的精彩文句抄录下来,制成卡片。视需要可以分成政治,经济,文学,艺术,体育等类。平时随身带着几张,空闲时就拿出来背背。在会话和写作时往往能真的派上用场。这是增加词汇的有效方法,更是练习英语表达能力的良方。收录的句子不一定要长,有时短句更能言简意赅。
  
  第三十三要诀:把当天发生的事情,用英语写成日记
  既然说是日记(diary),最好能够每天写。英文能否写的通顺还是次要的问题,能够持续的每天用英文记日记(keep a diary in English)才是最重要的。
  日记主要是给自己看的,因此体裁可以较为自由。例如(I got)up at six.((我)早上六点钟起床。)(I)went to the zoo this afternoon.((我)今天下午去了动物园。)(I was)bitten by a dog around noon.(大约中午时候(我)被一条狗咬了。)这些句子中括号内的单词都是在记日记时可以省略的。若因时间关系或其他原因无法写出句子或段落,即使只列出一些单词也总比完全不写的好。下面是一篇写的比较完整的日记:
  It was already eight o”clock,and I was still on the bus to school.I was sure to get into trouble with the teacher.I suddenly remembered she was going to test us.I didn”t study at all since I slept too well last night.Now what should I do?
  When I walked into the classroom,I looked out of the window.The bees were busy making honey from flowers.The birds also were busy making nets.The sun was shining brightly.As I saw this,a thought struck me:I wished to leave the
  school at once,to throw my books aside,and to hide in the beautiful world of nature.But I realized I could not do so.If even the bees and birds were so busy at work,then I,a human being,should be ashamed of being idle.I therefore changed my mind and faced the music.
  (已经八点钟了,但我还坐在开往学校的汽车上。我知道一定会挨老师批评。突然我想了起来,她今天要测验我们。昨天晚上我睡的很香,根本就没有复习。那现在该怎么办呢?我走进教室后,向窗外望去。蜜蜂正在花丛间忙着采蜜,小鸟们也在忙着筑巢,阳光一片明媚。看到这一切,我突然有个念头。我但愿能马上逃离教室,把书本扔到一边,躲藏到美丽的大自然中。但我意识到,我不能这样做。甚至连小鸟和蜜蜂都在忙着工作,我,作为一个人,应该为无所事事而感到羞耻。因此,我改变了注意,准备接受批评。)
  
  第三十四要诀:用英文写阅读摘要
  在当今这种国际化的社会里,用英文写报告,札记,备忘录的机会越来越多,尤其是从事国际贸易或其他国际事务的人士更需要培养这种能力。
  这种英文写作能力的培养,要靠平时一点一滴努力的积累。我们可以把在工作和休闲时阅读到的外国文献,小说故事,或英文报刊杂志报道,评论的内容作成摘要。尽可能不要照抄原文,而是要用自己的英文把已理解的内容简要的整理出来,然后念给家长,老师,朋友们听。这样做可以发现摘要的内容是否正确,自己的发音是否清晰,是一种可以立即见效的练习方式,对于思绪的整理和文字的锻炼帮助很大。
  
  第三十五要诀:把生活体验写成英文作文,或做口头发表
  每星期一至二次,每次用一两个小时的时间将一星期来生活或工作上的心得和感想写成三五百字的英文作文。斟酌修改之后,再背诵,然后在适当的时候象做演讲一样复诵给同学,同事或朋友听。
  说给别人听的目的一方面是训练自己的胆量,另一方面是试试自己的表达能力,看能否让别人充分了解自己的意思。为了要说出来,自然要留意发音,语调,节奏等各方面的问题。
  您也可以把积极学习英语的同学,同事或朋友组织起来轮流主讲,轮流做听众。讲完之后,彼此用英语进行讨论。有个主题做中心可以使会话练习的内容具体而充实,远胜于空洞不着边际的自由讨论(free talk)。每周坚持做这样的练习,一年之后在说,写方面一定会进步神速。
  
  第三十六要诀:随时用英文思考,用英文记录
  英文程度的好坏,是看您能否在日常生活或工作中随心所欲的运用英文听,说,读,写的四种技能。而这四种技能的总根源便是用英文思考的能力。
  作到用英文思考不是一蹴可及的事。最重要的养成用英语思考的习惯。我们必须从生活中的点点滴滴作起。比如我们在走路时,或排队买票时把所看到的事物,所听到的谈话或想到的生活琐事在脑海中用英文表达出来。即使不是完整的句子,用单词或短语也可以。环境许可的话,把它们记入笔记本里。
  这种练习最需要注意的,是尽量避免经过中文翻译的程序。要把看到,听到,想到的用英文直接记录下来。这是锻炼英文思考习惯的第一个步骤。
  
  第三十七要诀:作个吹毛求疵的人
  为了自己学好英文,有时甚至是为了帮助别人学好英文,不得不做个吹毛求疵的人。在路旁的广告牌上,在日用品的说明书上,在出版商的广告传单上,只要是用英文书写的都可以留意一下,看能不能挑出错误。这样做有助于训练您细心和精确的习惯。碰到有疑问的地方不妨抄录下来,和老师,朋友讨论一番。当然如果能使出错的人改正了错误,则是额外的收获了。
  
  第三十八要诀:随时记得从听,读,过渡到说,写
  中国人大都比较沉默含蓄,普遍都有喜欢听,不喜欢说,喜欢读,不喜欢写的心理。即使在口语课上也常常是少数几个学生在讲话,多数只是默默的听。这种心理如果不突破,是难以让英语更上一层楼的。
  所以在心理上要抱有积极进取的态度,随时提醒自己,听和读是为了说和写作准备。在听录音带,广播,或听人谈话时,要抱着高度的兴趣和好奇的心理,随时找出有疑问的地方,用英语提出问题,然后设想一些可能的答案。如果听到自己不同意的意见,也要试着用英语表达自己的观点。
  读完一篇文章,试着用英文记下要点,有可能的话,写几句对这篇文章的看法。这样练习,就能将被动(passive)转变成主动(active),把输入(input)转换成输出(output)了。
  
  第三十九要诀:从洋迷信里找题材
  学习英语必须和英美人士的生活和文化相结合,才能学的有深度。了解英语国家的迷信和传说也是使英语能活学活用的有效又有趣的方法。
  就象中国迷信一样,洋迷信对外国人的宗教和生活方式都有根深蒂固的影响。例如老美看到朋友打喷嚏会连忙说“Gesundheit”或“(God)bless you.”,这都是“上帝保佑”的意思。因为根据西方人的古老传说,打喷嚏会喷出气息,连魂魄都会一起跑掉,当然需要上天保佑一命了。
  又象英国人常会对拙于言辞的人说“You should”ve kissed the Blarney Stone”(您早该亲一下布拉芮城那块石头了)。原来在爱尔兰的Blarney城有块怪石,据说只要在这石头上亲一下,笨嘴笨舌的人就会变的口齿伶俐。
  英美人一说“My ears are buring.”(我的两耳发热了。)就表示有人在背后造谣。“He has an itching hand  /palm)(他手掌发痒。)则意味着这人贪得无厌。
  他们抽烟点火时,往往两个人点燃烟后就把火熄掉,第三个人重新再点,因为有“Three on a match is bad luck.”(三人共用一根火柴会有霉运。)的迷信。还有很多迷信不胜枚举。
  收集并研究这些迷信或传说不但能增加对英语了解的深度,同时也能提高学习英语的兴趣。
  
  第四十要诀:熟悉有关运动的术语,有助于和老外沟通
  美国人不但喜爱运动,也爱看各种体育比赛,象American football(美式橄榄球),baseball(棒球),tennis(网球),basketball(篮球),boxing(拳击)都是热门的运动项目。各种比赛的胜负消息也常成为老美们茶余饭后的话题,例如每年元旦在全国几个地区举行的大学足球比赛(bowl games,如德州Dallas的棉花杯Cotton Bowl,加洲Pasadena的玫瑰杯Rose Bowl等,几乎是全国瞩目的新闻)。有些原是运动的术语,如“hit and run”(打带跑,现引申为驾车撞人后逃跑),“go to bat”(代打,现引申为帮人度过难关)等现在都成了一般常用语。  多留意运动发面的术语能够增加谈话的材料,尤其有志留学美国的男士更有需要。
  
  第四十一要诀:不必对自己苛求完美
  追求完美,本是值得嘉许的。学习英语的人总是希望自己能够达到正确无误的地步。但就学习英语的过程来讲,应该把“完美”当作一个将来追求的目标,而不必让它成为套在自己头上的枷锁。  自己练习时,虽然要尽可能作到正确无误,但也要容忍自己和别人犯错误。有些学生抱怨说,他们的老师因为求好心切,他们一开口练习就被纠正的体无完肤让他们越学越没信心。对自己或别人矫枉过正可能反而会产生反效果的,语言的学习尤其如此,因为语言的表达能力受心理的影响很大。
  在语言的应用上,不妨以沟通为第一目标。能听懂对方的话,也能让对方了解自己要表达的意思,就有了初步的成就。即使讲的结结巴巴,用的句子零零碎碎也总比开不了口好的多。突破了心理障碍,建立用英语沟通的信心,再继续不断追求雅致。当您为自己说的不好,写的不好而气馁时,请记得:“Every learner is entitled to make mistakes.”学习的人都有犯错误的权利。
  
  第四十二要诀:发挥创意,多做尝试
  上面所说的四十一要诀,可说是很生活化,实用化的学习方法。有志学好英文的人,可以因时制宜,因地制宜的选择其中几项来锻炼自己。也可以发挥创意,另做尝试,找到适合自己的学习方法。学习语言是一种艺术,也是一种不断自我超越的过程,在任何一点上都能起步,在任何一点上都能突破。只要您抱着热忱,毅力和尝试的勇气,再加上良好教材的指引,必定会有成功的一天!

互联网体验猜想(翻译稿)

Scratch 的一篇好文,“The Future web2.0 social experience”:(忍不住简要地翻译了)

下一个杀手应用 :

  • 并非某一个具体应用,是一种互联整合平台(网络)
  • 简单、灵活
  • 本质上,是与真实世界的耦合,串联人、机构、服务、产品、网站、实体等

想象(如此景象):

  • 打开浏览器, 立刻推送给你最关心的东西;
  • 搜索引擎的结果更精简、准确;
  • 某个场所(marketplace)会告诉你最好的产品和服务,并自由发布广告
  • 一个没有垃圾信息(Spam)的网络空间
  • 轻易地获取你好友的联系信息
  • 无论你身在何处,都可以轻松找到他们

持续的革命

  • 现在网络仍然是离散的,不一致的;但是他们应该相互嵌入和深度合作;
  • 新的网络平台,让些信息共享,目的很简单,让需求更容易被满足、更有效完成、更好玩。

非常重要的一点是,网络结构的本质是: 没有中心。 反思我们现在的“离散”网络

  • 似乎答案就在那里
  • 尽管大部分的网络应用服务商都努力满足人们所需要的信息,但都是离散的, 比如ebay巨大的商品信息数据库,满足人们找东西,google强大的索引信息,满足人们搜索需求;LinkeIn建立职场个人库,满足人际合作的需求;更多……
  • 他们都努力满足人们的各种需求,但都在他们自己的数据库中;换句话说,他们是整个(网络)场景的一部分
  • 无论多么优化的算法,(google, ask.com)都不能真正准确给你所需,因为数据被孤立了。

案例研究: 你想要找人帮我打扫房间 现在,在半个街区内,肯定有人合适这份活。 但是…..

  1. 他们没有通过互联网发布他们的广告
  2. 他们也没有进入黄页等分类信息里面
  3. 他们通过口碑的方式被人知晓
  4. 他们也许就在为你的邻居服务,但你不知道

而事实上,有一个合适的答案,但是你找不到它。 如果你用google 搜索“Cleaner Chesterfield”,结果有248,000 个,但是你只要一个! 问题出在那里呢? google 对待信息是“平等”的,对待个体是一样。 它只能通过我敲入的字判断,而不是我的背景此时此地的我。

(待续未完)

2006年09月22日