2007年09月06日

In my 11+ years in the high-tech industry, the least well-defined job that I have come across is that of the… drum roll please… ‘Product Manager’ (and the closely associated role of ‘Product Marketing Manager’). The role of a Product Manager (PM) varies quite widely across different segments in the high-tech industry, and even across different companies in the same segment.

In this article, I’ll try to shed some light on the role of a PM by summarizing their major responsibilities. But, first an anecdote!

It Is What You Define It Is!
About a year ago, I interviewed at a startup that makes software in the ‘human resources’ field – let us call them Scooby-Doo, Inc (not their real name!). They were looking to hire someone who can build their product management team. The two founders were the Chief Technology Officer (CTO) and VP of Engineering. They had secured about $10 Million in funding from two venture capitalists in Silicon Valley just a couple of weeks earlier.

I arrived on time at the well appointed offices of Scooby-Doo, Inc. First up was the CTO, a very pleasant guy dressed in Scooby-Doo T-Shirt, shorts and funky sandals! During the interview, I asked him what was the main reason he wanted to build a product management team.

He said he wanted someone to document all the features in their product (which had already been created) in one Word document so that they can understand what features were in their product. He also said he didn’t want the PM team to "muck around with defining features or product strategy" because between him and the VP of Engineering, they had it covered.

Next up was the VP of Engineering. I asked him the same question – "What is the biggest reason you want to build a product management team?". He told me that he wanted someone to create UML diagrams of the current product as well as for all the new features that he planned to come up with so that developers could implement them.

What Do Product Managers Do?
While the role of a PM varies widely depending on the company, there are several key responsibilities that product managers usually undertake at a vast majority of successful high-tech companies – based on my own experiences as well as conversations with friends in the industry. I’ve grouped them into the following six categories:

  1. Market Research:

    This refers to the activities of studying a market to understand the customer needs, competitive landscape, and market forces – with the ultimate goal of uncovering opportunities for creating product enhancements as well as new products.

    This is done via conversations with customers or potential customers, talking to customer-facing teams such as sales and support, studying reports and articles on the marketplace, test driving competitive products, keeping tabs on customer behavior, and other such activities.

    This culminates with the PM preparing a business case, product strategy and/or business requirements document (BRD) detailing how to capitalize on the uncovered opportunities.

  2. Product Definition and Design:

    a) Product Definition refers to the activities of specifying what a product needs to do. This is usually done via what is referred to as Market Requirements Document (MRD) or Product Requirements Document (PRD). This document may include information such as product vision, target market, competitive summary, detailed description of product features, prioritization of features, use cases, system requirements, performance requirements, sales and support requirements, etc.

    b) Product Design refers to the activities of specifying the look and feel of the product including the user interface (UI) and the user interaction with the product – covering the whole spectrum of user experience. In larger companies the PM works with UI designers or interaction designers to create this, while in startups the PM may do all of these.

    I consider this to be the most valuable among a PM’s activities – so much so that I actually think product manager jobs which don’t include this responsibility are really not product manager jobs at all!

  3. Project Management:

    This refers to the activities of leading cross-functional teams including engineering, QA, UI design, marketing, sales and support to develop and launch the product on-time and on-budget. This may include securing resources, creating project timelines, tracking progress against timeline, identifying critical paths, getting additional resources when needed, and communicating status to the executive team.

    In larger companies, Project Managers actually perform most of these activities with the support of PM’s. In very small startups, the PM may be asked to do these by herself. In some companies, the Engineering Lead may do most of these activities as well.

  4. Evangelizing the Product:

    This includes the activities of communicating the product benefits, features and target markets, and in general championing the product to internal teams such as sales, marketing, support and executives. This also includes evangelizing the product to external audience such as press, analysts and customers.

    In larger companies, the PM is supported by the Product Marketing, Marketing Communications (MarCom) and/or Press Relations (PR) teams in evangelizing to external audience.

    I consider this to be the second most valuable among a PM’s activities – especially evangelizing to the sales & marketing teams, and the executives to create excitement around the product.

  5. Product Marketing:

    This refers to the activities of outbound messaging – telling the world about the product. This includes creating collateral such as datasheets, brochures, website, flash presentations, press packages, trade shows and more.

    In larger companies, the product marketing activities are almost always separated from the PM. They’re instead performed by the Product Marketing Manager. The biggest shortcoming of this arrangement is the resultant inefficiencies in communication and the weakening of outbound messaging.

    In some companies the terms ‘Product Management’ and ‘Product Marketing’ are used synonymously and one person is responsible for all activities. In companies where there are separate ‘Product Management’ and ‘Product Marketing’ groups, the latter group performs all the activities mentioned in this category. They may also perform some of the activities in categories 1, 4 and 6.

  6. Product Life Cycle Management:

    This refers to the activities of managing a product as it goes through its life cycle from ideation to launch to growth to maturity, and eventually to decline.

    This includes tasks such as product positioning, pricing and promotion, product portfolio management, competitive strategy, making build/buy/partner decisions, and identifying and developing partnerships. The PM works with Product Marketing, Business Development and MarCom teams on many of these activities.

There you have it – my attempt at demystifying the role of product management (and the associated role of product marketing). I hope this helps product managers and product marketers as well as those who work with them – including a certain friendly CTO who likes cartoon T-Shirts!

P.S. In case you’re wondering, I decided to pass on Scooby-Doo, Inc. I ran into their CTO at an event recently – they have built a 3 person Product Management team and the company is doing well.

做为一名新进产品经理,甚至一名资深PM,你可能都或多或少对这个职位产生某种迷惑。到底什么是产品经理?这个职位的主要职责是什么?在IT产业的不同领域,甚至在同一领域的不同公司,这个职位的定义似乎都有不同。

本文尝试根据自己多年的产品经理经验,给出产品经理的主要职责。 虽然在不同的公司,产品经理的角色和职责互有差异,但是有一些关键职责是任何一个产品经理都应承担的。可以将其归纳为如下六个方面:

1、市场调研

市场调研是指研究市场以了解客户需求、竞争状况及市场力量(market forces),其最终目标是发现创新或改进产品的潜在机会。

可以通过下面的方式进行市场调研:

  • 与用户和潜在用户交流
  • 与直接面对客户的一线同事如销售、客服、技术支持等交流
  • 研究市场分析报告及文章
  • 试用竞争产品
  • 仔细观察用户行为等

市场调研最终会形成商业机会、产品战略或商业需求文档(BRD),详述如何利用潜在的机会。

2、产品定义及设计

a) 产品定义是指确定产品需要做哪些事情。通常采用产品需求文档(PRD)来进行描述,PRD可能包含如下信息:

  • 产品的愿景
  • 目标市场
  • 竞争分析
  • 产品功能的详细描述
  • 产品功能的优先级
  • 产品用例(UseCase)
  • 系统需求
  • 性能需求
  • 销售及支持需求等

b) 产品设计是指确定产品的外观,包括用户界面设计(UI,User Interface)和用户交互设计(User Interaction),包含所有的用户体验部分。在大型公司里,PM通常和UI设计师或互动设计师一起完成产品设计,不过在小公司或者创业公司里,产品经理也许需要全包这些工作。

这是产品经理工作中最有价值的部分, 如果产品经理工作中不包含这部分内容,那几乎可以肯定滴说,那不是产品经理的工作。

3、项目管理

项目管理是指带领来自不同团队的人员(包括工程师、QA、UI设计师、市场、销售、客服等),在预算内按时开发并发布产品。其中可能包括如下工作内容:

  • 确保资源投入
  • 制定项目计划
  • 根据计划跟踪项目进展
  • 辨别关键路径
  • 必要时争取追加投入
  • 向主管领导报告项目进展状况等

在大型公司里,通常会有项目经理来处理大部分项目管理工作,产品经理只需提供支持。不过在创业公司里,产品经理通常需要自己进行项目管理。在有些公司,技术负责人也可能做为项目经理,处理大部分项目管理事宜。

4、产品宣介

主要包括和内部同事如老板、销售、市场、客服等沟通产品的优点、功能和目标市场,也可能包括向外界如媒体、行业分析师及用户宣介产品。

大公司的产品经理通常都有产品市场、市场推广和媒体关系(PR)团队帮忙进行对外的产品宣介。

这是除了产品定义和设计之外,对产品经理而言价值第二高的工作,尤其是在向老板、市场同事宣介产品并让他们感到兴奋的时候。

5、产品市场

主要是对外的信息传播——告诉外界有关产品的信息。通常包括制作产品数据表、手册、网站、Flash演示、媒体专题以及展会演示等。

在大型公司,产品市场工作通常不会由PM来负责,这些公司会有专门的产品市场经理来打理此项工作。当然,这种分工最大的缺点就是导致沟通效率较低,并会削弱对外传播。

在某些公司,“产品管理”和“产品市场”被认为是同义词,会由一个人担当两者的职责。而在那些将产品管理团队和产品市场团队分开的公司,后者会打理本节所提及的工作职责,同时他们也可能会承担“市场调研”、“产品宣介”和“产品生命周期”管理的部分工作。

6、产品生命周期管理

指那些随着产品经历概念化->发布->成熟->退出市场整个生命周期中的产品管理活动。

主要包括的工作有:

  • 产品定位
  • 产品定价及促销
  • 产品线管理
  • 竞争策略
  • 建立或收购合作伙伴
  • 识别并建立合作关系等

产品经理和产品市场、BD及市场沟通同事一起完成这些工作。

希望这篇文章有助于你了解产品经理(包括产品市场经理),以及他们在公司中密切合作的部门,并祝你成长为一名优秀的产品经理