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——搜索请求背后的动机

是的,此帖是想探求搜索请求背后的搜索需求,标题是有点绕,也有点拗,但好像除此表达外,很难找到其他确切表述。

多年前一位友人推荐我去学学肢体语言心理学,我觉得他在开玩笑,世界上哪有这样的学科,透过人的肢体所表达的语言能了解他或她的心理变化的特征?比如:你可以通过一个人的坐姿的变动来猜测到他此时的心情如何,还想不想跟你谈话。你还可以通过一个人的各种手势来了解他/她有没有说谎,以及有几句话是真的,等等。

现在从事了SEO,也就是一位搜索营销人员,天天所面对就是搜索引擎和搜索请求,不仅要了解搜索引擎的脾气和秉性,还要猜测搜索请求的心里和动机。前者面对的是机器人,很难,比如百度的蜘蛛就让人琢磨不透;后者面对的是活生生的人,更难,难在这样的搜索用户不是面对面的语言交流,而是只面对机器,你也只有通过他在搜索引擎这架巨型机器上键入的“关键字”来推想他们的心里活动。

搜索者在想要什么?搜索者在需要什么?也许连他们都不知道。

这个问题之所以很难,难在好多中文汉字有许多不同的理解。当搜索者在搜索框内输入“阅尽人间春色”这句话时,搜索引擎到底是如何理解这一搜索请求的。搜索者是想知道这句话是谁说的?还是想知道这句话的后一句是什么?还是这句话的准确意思是什么?等等……

因此,同样一个关键字请求的搜索者,他们所期望的搜索结果也是大相径庭。

就拿“电脑”这一关键字来说吧。输入这一关键字的人,你可以理解他为搜索查询者,因为他听别人说过电脑,但并非就知道电脑是什么样子,我经常就是这样,用很短的关键字所查询的都是它本身的概念和定义。如果搜索者在前面或后面再加个关键词变成“电脑 联想”或“IBM 电脑”,这时我们完全可以理解为导航型搜索。

也就是说,搜索者已经知道这个牌子的电脑了,只是不知道它的官网或代理商的网站,说白一点儿:哪里有我想知道的这个电脑,或这个牌子的电脑在哪里。如果这时搜索引擎你再呈现给他一些电脑的介绍或电脑的说明一点儿意义都没有,最好给出这个“联想 电脑”的官方网站或跟“IBM 电脑”最相关的站点。

如果搜索者键入“SL410k 电脑”这个关键字的时候,说明十有八九他连联想电脑都不想看了,他最想了解的就是这一型号的电脑以及跟相关型号的电脑进行比较,甚至决定购买。

如果,我们把搜索请求按上述进行分类的话,大概是这样:

1.求知型OR了解型的搜索者。一般就是个单字或单词,很大众,很广泛。利端是:热词做到前3会很有面子,很排场。(未必流量就大,后文阐述)。弊端是:以浏览新闻、满足好奇、迅速求知的形式秒视你的网站,不要指望有什么转化。一般在网站上不会超过5秒钟。

2.转换型OR导航型的搜索者。一般会是两个词组的拼合,或一个品牌词。如:“联想电脑”、“网易”、“hao123”等这样一些关键词,这时搜索者的心里是迅速跳出搜索,跳转到想要的那个产品或服务的网页上来。利端是:这样的一些词好上首页,也就是排名简单。弊端是:你不好给它们分配登陆页面,用首页?分类页?还是相关页?也就是说,通过这样的一些转换型的词,还不好排除搜索者不是了解型的。只是他从了解电脑上升到了解联想电脑的层次

3.转化型OR交易型的搜索者。如果你是网站是营销站,应该在这方面下大力气,因为这是一个双赢的局面。搜索者买到自己需要产品或服务的,网站主卖出自己商品或服务。如果你是一个软件下载站,透过搜索者的一个点击,你的软件就将会是他的客户端;如果你是一个在线调查类的网站,这一页面正是搜索者需要提交自己表单的最后一步。利端是:容易转化、容易下单;弊端是:流量较小、内容较少、不好优化,因为到这一步的经常是一些终极性的页面,如一个产品的最终介绍,它只有一张图片、几行文字、一个购物车按钮(注意,一定不能在此页面上放其他比较类的产品,这样,会干扰用户下单,比较比较就会比较到竞争对手的网站上,我常常就是这样;所以,在这儿不能再给搜索者产生分心的想法)。

不知道各位上网有没有这样的经历,想找个问题的答案,千篇一率全都是同一色的内容;想找个软件或电子产品的下载地址,不管怎么找,都是一些说明页面或欺骗链接。我是经常碰到这种情况,分析了一下,3个原因:1.搜索者的表述不明;2.搜索引擎的技术落后;3.搜索营销人员的优化不当;

搜索者就不用说了,他们是最最普通的网络大众,各式各样的搜索请求都有;搜索引擎也不用多说,毕竟现在都还没有达到语义搜索的高度,各大引擎基本上都是从Title上的描述和页面上的词频来给出搜索结果。所以,能够解决这一问题的还只是搜索营销人员。

我不知道现在很多SEOer接单或接受公司项目是从什么环节开始执行的,我大部分碰到的情况是给一堆很热的关键词,然后让你进行优化和排名。什么时候排上了,算是完成了。这就等于把一个搜索营销人员当成一部简单机械的排名工具在用,这么做,必然会出现如下问题:

好多关键词是没有经过如上述分析的那样,什么是了解型的关键词?什么是转换型的关键词?什么是转化型的关键词?很有可能完全把一个了解型的词当成转化型的期待在做,或导航型的当成转化型的在做。这样做的结果无非两种:1.搜索者找不到自己需要的。2.网站主得不到自己想要的。难怪好多人不停发感叹:为什么排名上去了,流量不行?为什么流量很大,销量却没有?到最后,彻底对SEO这一高效营销工具失望了,问题,就出在这儿。

也许,由于上级给我们的压力很大,迫不及待让你眉毛胡子一把抓,怀着碰碰看的运气,总想着,即使东边不亮西边亮的侥幸心里,结果是排名上来了,流量上不来(好多排在第一页的网站,一看描述就知道不对口,所以,连点都不点);流量上来了,销量却不行(以了解型或导航型的页面去承接搜索者想交易的搜索请求)。孰不知,搜索营销是一种最精准的营销,它们之间的结构层层相扣,你几乎一步都不能大意。搜索营销人员所面临的也不单单是一个变化无常的搜索引擎,排几个关键字那么简单;你还必须面对一个变化更无常的搜索请求。

搜索营销人员只有拆穿他们的搜索请求背后的搜索动机,及时、准确、有效地把搜索者最需要的页面通过搜索引擎呈现出来,你将无往而不利。

下一帖,想试着以事实案例的方式,加上这一帖的理论根据,分析一下中国知名B2C网站,凡客网。在搜索营销活动中的表现情况,说一下我的看法和见解。


5条评论

  1. 这个很重要

  2. 分析的很透彻,很不错啊,学习下,呵呵~

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