文/Donews博客作家 张书乐

【维基出版能否拯救出版业维基出版所遵循的长尾定律更大程度上是为了满足普通作者的出书欲望和提高出版业的生产效率,而非真正意义上繁荣图书文化的精神价值。

原载于《法人》2013年第9期
文/张书乐

王俞琪在日前举行的“维基出版与数字出版2.0”高端论坛上,中国新闻出版研究院出版研究所所长徐升国提出了维基出版的概念,在基于维基百科和维基解密开放、平等、分享和全球运作的基础上,以每个人均能参与为特点,一改传统出版精英化的方式,将出版业往互动化、傻瓜化方向推进。也就是通过自助出版和按需出版,“让每个人都可以实现自己的出书梦想”。

其实,维基出版并不新鲜。就在维基出版通过这一方式被人们所了解时,互联网上的另一端也在发生着变化。

互联网的版权破局

8月18日,韩寒主编最新文艺书系的第一部——《一个:很高兴见到你》全面发售,而百度文库独家获得该书的数字版权首发权,在首发期内,想购买电子版的用户只能通过百度文库尝鲜阅读。

据了解,百度文库不仅专门为此次首发活动搭建了活动专题,同时还为用户举办了预售优惠、封面DIY、抽奖互动等众多的网友参与活动。

颇值得玩味的是,仅仅在去年,韩寒还与百度文库站在对立面。

据媒体报道,去年10月19日,北京市海淀区法院针对韩寒等三位作家状告百度文库侵犯著作权纠纷案做出一审判决,百度需赔偿经济损失17.3万元人民币,此案宣判后,在上诉期内双方均未提起上诉。

在对此纠纷的讨论中,较为集中的意见都倾向于,百度文库上传韩寒、慕容雪村的《像少年啦飞驰》、《成都,今夜请将我遗忘》等代表性畅销作品,并向其他网络用户提供在线浏览和下载的行为,可以算是互联网侵权的大本营。而某种程度上,这种网上免费共享行为的极度普及,也造成了许多传统出版物的难以为继。

而仅仅一年,双方由对抗者变成了合作者,百度文库俨然成为了出版界新的竞技场。同时,这种合作出版,似乎也给出版业和作家带来了希望。

据百度提供的最新数据显示,自5月发布数字版权开放平台以来,百度文库已签约版权机构上千家和版权个人240人,收费的版权文档累积已经超过1000万份,平均每天售出文档近万份。而百度文库为了最大程度维护版权方的收益,三年内都不参与版权分成。

与之相似的是,其他互联网大佬们也纷纷加入到类似计划中,如网易通过其移动互联网应用“网易云阅读”大量收集各类作品的数字版权,或与出版社合作,或直接拿下作者本人授权,并大量引进如《南方人物周刊》、《彭博商务周刊》等热门期刊,其10万多本优质电子书、3000多种网站资讯源和多类品质杂志的内容分享,在短时间内就聚合了2000万的用户量,并开始实现付费阅读收益。

过去被出版业视为版权重灾区的互联网,此刻对出版业伸出了橄榄枝。然而,对于不少出版界人士来说,图书数字化,依然有饮鸩止渴的意味,目前不少热门图书的数字化阅读,也尚停留在部分章节试读阶段。

“简单的图书数字化,并不能真正改变出版业的窘境!”一位出版界人士称:“这也是为何此刻维基出版大红大紫的原因。”

长尾巴的维基出版

“维基出版最大的卖点在于出书梦对于自己来说不再遥远。”文学爱好者王湘华告诉笔者,“没有名气的作者在过去想要出书,除了花钱买书号外,就只剩下”天方夜谭”了。”

而在国外,维基出版已经让普通作者的天方夜谭变成了现实。一个广为传播的案例是美国作家范·迪肯,他就因自己的亲身经历而非常认可自助出版,他的一部书稿《赌注》在交付出版社后,单单书名就被要求修改达16次,而当他通过出版平台进行自助出版后,却一举登上了《纽约时报》畅销书榜。

但从某种程度上来说,范·迪肯的案例只能算是个案,因为更多需要通过维基出版来实现出书梦想的人,其出版的图书很难变为真正意义上的畅销书。

如媒体日前报道过的两个案例,其一是西南财经大学副教授杨霜因为要去日本进行学术交流,需要随身带走20本个人专著《电视媒体的政治经济学》。传统出版流程漫长,她这样的小批量出书显然不合算。杨霜找到了知识产权出版社的编辑,最后,20本日文版图书6天就出炉了。其二是茅盾的翻译作品,在其子整理后,却因为市场狭窄而不被出版社待见,最终还是知识产权出版社以按需出版的方式得以最终实现。

这两个案例可以视作国内维基出版方式的一种萌芽。更为关键的是,其核心依然是为小众图书提供了出版的可能。

当然,普通人更为极端的方法还是在不要书号的前提下印刷个性化书籍,这在网络之上早已经成为时尚。各种博文印书、个性化图书的网店为许多有出书梦想的人提供了可能。

然则,上述案例都不是真正的维基出版。“这样的出版还太过”孤芳自赏”。”文学爱好者张泛舟对笔者称,“维基出版真正应该解决的不单纯是小众市场问题,而是如何让更多好的作品能够通过网络平台,变为实体书,并最终为更多的人所认知。”

中国出版科学研究所应用理论研究室主任徐升国就指出,目前的维基出版从专业角度分为按需印刷和按需出版两大部分。前者为非正式出版物,后者为有书号的正式出版物。两者都是采用数码印刷技术,满足读者个性化需求,与传统出版物动辄上千上万册不同,一般印量很小,大都不超过几百册。

这样程度的出版,除了制造出空前泛滥的各种书外,真的能够拯救出版业吗?

需要更大的开放

在现阶段,维基出版所遵循的长尾定律更大程度上是为了满足普通作者的出书欲望和提高出版业的生产效率,而非真正意义上繁荣图书文化的精神价值。

“这在目前可以缓解出版社的一些经营压力,但究其本质,和过去的卖书号并没有多少不同,只是或许更便捷一点,更便宜一点罢了。”张泛舟一语道出了维基出版的现实窘境。

7月9日,一组数据振奋了出版界的人心。国家新闻出版广电总局发布的《2012年新闻出版产业分析报告》显示,2012年数字出版实现营业收入1935.5亿元,在全行业占比首次突破10%。其中,电子书、数字期刊、数字报纸的营业收入增长52.6%,超过数字出版整体增长速度,传统出版数字化转型的效果日益显现。

与此同时,网络期刊产品规模从2009年的9000种增至2012年的2.5万种;电子图书产品规模从2009年的60万种增至2012年的100万种,而多媒体互动期刊产品从2009年的2万种降至2012年的0.342万种。

在某种程度上,这是一种数字化的维基出版的胜利,特别是类似网易云阅读、搜狐新闻客户端之类的移动阅读平台的风行,在很大程度上,让许多传统出版物和电子图书有了新的延伸。

而这,依然可以被应用在需要实体化的维基出版之上。

“不再是个人出版,而是众包出版。”一位图书业内人士提出了一个升级版的维基出版展望,“一本书大家写,有点类似过去的有奖征文,但通过网络平台,可以缩短巨大的工作量。”

在他的展望中,一本书就类似一个百科词条,第一个创作者拿出一条主线,然后由若干个网上根本不认识的人来不断完善丰满,最终变成一个完整的词条。或许第一个创作者的角色类似主编,不断将其丰满完善,甚至在众人的协助下,改变故事的剧情或演绎出更精彩的内容来。而通过维基出版平台,招揽预定读者和出版商,颇为类似盛大文学上免费章节的阅读和后期的付费阅读,只是后期变成了实体书,通过电子商务环节发售,摆脱实体书店渠道,价格上更有优势。毕竟真正网络文学付费阅读的价格并不比一本书便宜。

其实许多网络小说就是如此完成的,所不同的是创作者是在现实中结团的文字工作室而已。而这一模式,更容易出现在类似历史解密探究之类由单个篇章组成,不需要太强连贯性和文字风格统一的出版物上,而且这样的维基出版,将更加不用担心互联网的侵权问题,因为双方的利益是共同的。】

转载请注明 Donews博客认证作家/张书乐


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