2005年06月14日

(1)社会发展词汇
211工程 211 Project
安居工程 housing project for low-income families
安居小区 a neighborhood for low-income families
保障妇女就业权利to guarantee women’s right to employment
补发拖欠的离退休人员统筹项目内的养老金 All back pension entitlements have been paid for the retired covered by the overall government plan.
裁定保险赔偿 adjudication of benefits
城镇居民最低生活保障 guarantee of subsistence allowances for urban residents在城镇强制推行以养老、失业、医疗为重点的社会保险 Social welfare insurance, particularly old-age, unemployment and medical insurance, must be made mandatory in urban areas.
城镇社会保障体系the social security system in urban areas
城镇职工基本医疗保险制度the basic medical insurance system for urban employees
创新精神 be innovation-minded; to have a creative mind
促进学生德、智、体、美全面发展 ensure that students improve in terms of their moral, intellectual and fitness level as well as in their appreciation of aesthetics
大家庭 extended family
大力推行个人助学信贷 Personal loans to finance education should be vigorously promoted.
大专文凭 associate degree (conferred to junior college students)
代培 training-on-contract program
代培生 trainee on contract
带薪分流 assign redundant civil servants to other jobs while allowing them to retain their original rank and benefits
待业人员 job seekers
待遇优厚的工作 a well-paid job
单亲家庭 single parent family
定向培训 training for specific posts
独生子女 the only child
对保障方案进行精算评估 Security programs should undergo actuarial review.
对口扶贫 provide poverty alleviation aid to the designated sister regions
恶性犯罪 major crimes
反对迷信 be against superstition
福利分房 buy a benefit-oriented apartment from the organization one works with
复式住宅 compound apartment
干部年轻化 rejuvenation of cadres
岗位培训 on-job training
高度重视精神文明建设 pay close attention to cultural and ethical progress
搞好优生优育 promote good prenatal and postnatal care
个人自愿计划 voluntary private plans
工伤保险制度the on-job injury insurance system
工资收入分配制度the wage and income distribution system
关系国计民生的大事 matters vital to national well-being and the people’s livelihood
关心和支持残疾人事业 Programs to help the physically and mentally challenged deserve our care and support.
关心老龄人 care for senior citizens.
贵族学校 exclusive school(美); select school(英)
国企下岗职工基本生活保障 guarantee of basic cost of living allowances for workers laid off from state-owned enterprises
过紧日子 tighten one’s belt
过温饱生活 live a life at a subsistent level
合理调整就业结构to rationally readjust the employment structure
后勤服务社会化 make logistic services independent in their operation
积极发展民办教育 Efforts should be made to develop schools not operated by government education departments.
基本养老金basic pensions
计划生育责任制 responsibility system of family planning
继续开展“扫黄打非”斗争 The fight against pornography, illegal publications and piracy shall be continued.
加快住房分配货币化进程 capitalization process of housing distribution/al本地
加强计划生育工作 further improve family planning
加强舆论监督 ensure that the correct orientation is maintained in public opinion
家庭美德 family virtues
坚持“两手抓、两手都要硬”的方针 adhere to the principle of “doing two jobs at once and attaching equal importance to each”
坚持正确的舆论导向 maintain the correct orientation for public opinion
建立集体合同制度to establish a group contract system
建立市场导向的就业机制to establish a market-oriented employment mechanism
建立新型的劳动关系to establish a new 无效 of labor relations
建设廉洁、勤政、务实、高效政府 build a clean and diligent, pragmatic and efficient government
建设一个富强、民主、文明的国家 build a prosperous, strong, democratic and culturally advanced country
教育程度 educational status; education received
教育程度比率 educational attainment ratio
戒毒所 drug rehabilitation center
精算界 actuarial profession
精算师 actuaries
扩大就业和再就业to expand employment and reemployment
劳动保障监察制度the labor security supervision system
劳动标准体系labor standard system
劳动争议处理体制the system of handling labor disputes
面临困境 face adverse conditions
努力稳定低生育水平 work to stabilize the low birth rate
培养创新精神和实践能力 help them develop practical abilities and a spirit of innovation
破案率 rate of solved criminal cases
强制性普及方案 universally compulsory program
切实减轻中小学生过重的课业负担 effectively reduce too heavy homework assignments for primary and secondary school students
确保国有企业下岗职工基本生活费和离退休人员基本养老金按时足额发放to ensure that subsistence allowances for laid-off workers from state-owned enterprises and basic pensions for retirees are paid on time and in full
人口出生率 birth rate
人口老龄化 aging of population
人口增长的高峰期 baby boom
人口增长与社会经济发展相协调 try to keep population growth in line with social and economic development
人民生活水平 quality of life; the living standards
认真贯彻实施中国妇女、儿童发展纲要 The programs for the development of work concerning women and children should be earnestly implemented.
弱势群体disadvantaged groups
扫除青壮年文盲 eliminate illiteracy among young and middle-aged people
伤残保险 disability insurance
社会保障 social security
社会保障“三条保障线”制度 social security system of “three guarantees”
社会福利制度the social welfare system
社会公德 social morality
社会互助制度the social mutual help system
社会治安状况好转 see an improved law-and-order situation
深入扎实地开展群众性精神文明创建活动 Extensive public participation activities are launched to promote cultural and ethical progress.
生活待遇 material amenities
生活费收入 income available for cost of living
生活费用 cost of living; income maintenance; subsistence cost
生育保险制度the childbirth insurance system
失学儿童 dropouts
失业保险 guarantee of unemployment insurance benefits
失业保险 unemployment insurance
失业保险制度the unemployment insurance system
失业率 rate of unemployment
实施积极促进就业的政策to implement the policy of vigorously increasing employment
实现基本普及九年义务教育 The goal in the effort to make nine-year compulsory education basically universal has been attained.
实现小康目标 attain the goal of ensuring our people a relatively comfortable life
实行弹性大、灵活性强、多样化的就业形式to adopt elastic, flexible, diversified forms of employment
实行计划生育、控制人口数量、提高人口素质 promote family planning and control the population size and improve the health of the people
实行劳动合同制度to institute a labor contract system
树立正确的价值观、世界观、人生观 help foster in the young the morally sound values and outlook on the world and life
思想道德建设(思想政治工作) moral education among people
提高部分优抚对象抚恤标准 Allowances for certain disabled service men and women and family members of revolutionary martyrs and service men and women have been increased.
提高劳动者素质to enhance workers’ quality
统筹兼顾城乡就业to make overall plans for urban and rural system
推动就业服务向社区延伸,形成多层次的就业服务网络to encourage the formation of community-run agencies as a part of the multi-level employment service network
推进素质教育 push ahead with education for all-around development
推行职业资格证书制度to introduce a vocational qualification credentials system
退休基金 pension fund
脱贫 lift off poverty; cast off poverty
完善和落实再就业优惠政策to improve and implement preferential reemployment
完善失业保险制度to improve the unemployment insurance system
文明城市 model city; culturally advanced city; city cited for high moral and cultural standards
物业管理 estate management, property management
消费价格总水平the general price level
小家庭 nuclear family
小康生活 enjoy a fairly comfortable life; be moderately better off
新生儿死亡率 infant mortality rate; neonatal mortality rate
行行出状元 Every profession produces its own leading authority.
研究生毕业证/学位证 graduate diploma/graduate degree’s diploma
养老保险 retirement insurance
养老保险制度the old-age insurance system
医疗保险 medical insurance
医疗保险制度the medical insurance system
应试教育 examination-oriented education system
优抚安置制度the special care and placement system
优化就业结构to optimize employment structure




有公德心 be civic-minded
舆论导向 direction of public opinion
舆论监督 supervision by public opinion
预期寿命 life expectancy
灾害救助制度the natural disaster relief system
在职博士生 on-job doctorate
招生就业指导 enrolment and vocation guidance
争取实现高等教育大众化 work to make regular higher education accessible to the majority of young people
政府主导计划 government-sponsored programs
职业道德 ethics of profession
中华人民共和国劳动法the Labor Law of the People’s Republic of China
中专生 secondary specialized or technical school student
重视发展具有比较优势和市场潜力的劳动密集型企业to stress the development of labor-intensive enterprises with comparative advantages and market potential
抓好农村和流动人口计划生育管理与服务 devote efforts to the management of family planning and related services in rural areas and among the floating population
自然增长率 natural growth rate
自学成才 self-taught and self-made person; become a qualified professional through self-taught way
最低生活保障制度the minimum living standard security system

(2)外经贸词汇
澳新紧密经济关系协定ANZCERTA:Australia New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Trade Agreement
摆脱亚洲金融危机的影响shake off the impact of the financial crisis
帮助人才脱颖而出help excellent talents find way to distinction
备件spare parts
部长级会议ministerial meeting
采取积极财政政策 proactive fiscal policy
出口创汇型/外向型产业 export-oriented industry
垂直兼并vertical merger
倒爷profiteer 
抵免offset
东盟自由贸易区 AFTA:ASEAN Free Trade Area
东南亚国家联盟 ASEAN:Association of South-East Asian Nations
对外项目承包foreign project contracting
反倾销措施anti-dumping measures against ……
防伪标志anti-fake label
放松银根ease monetary policy 
非配额产品quota-free products
非生产性投资investment in non-productive projects
风险管理/评估risk management/ assessment
风险基金venture capital
风险准备金loan loss provision/ provisions of risk
岗位培训on-the-job training
港元的联系汇率制the linkage system between the US dollar and the HK dollar
搞活国有大中型企业revitalize large and medium-sized state owned enterprises
工程项目engineering project
工业增加值industrial added value
公正合理equitable and rational
固定资产投资investment in the fixed assets
广开就业门路increase employment opportunities; create jobs in every possible way; open up more channels of employment
规模经济scale economy/ economies of scale
国合企业(即国有合作社)state-owned cooperatives
国际清算international settlement
国际收支平衡balance of international payments/ balance of payment
国际收支不平衡disequilibrium of balance of payment
国家补贴public subsidies
国家鼓励项目projects listed as encouraged by the state
国家科技创新体系State Scientific and Technological Innovation System
国家现汇结存state foreign exchange reserves
合理引导消费guide rational consumption
横向兼并horizontal merger
坏帐、呆帐、死帐bad account/ dead account/ uncollectible account/bad debt/ bad loan
货币市场money market
机构臃肿overstaffing in (government) organizations
机构重叠organizational overlapping 
技工贸结合的科技型企业scientific and technological enterprises that integrate scientific and technological developmentwith industrial and trade development
季节性调价seasonal price adjustments
既成事实established/accomplished facts
减免债务reduce and cancel debts
建材building materials
进口环节税import linkage tax
经常项目current account
经常性的财政收入regular revenues 
竟价投标competitive bidding
就业前培训pre-job training 
控股公司holding company
垃圾融资junk financing
劳动密集性企业labor-intensive enterprises
劳务合作labor service cooperation
累计实现顺差143.4美元accumulatively realizing trade surplus
利改税substitution of tax payment for profit delivery
流动人口floating population 
龙头产品lagship product
乱集资、乱摊派、乱收费unwarranted pooling of funds, arbitrary requisition of donations and exaction of fees from enterprises/ unauthorized pooling of funds, compulsory donations and random levies on enterprises
慢性萧条chronic depression 
农业技术合作 ATC:Agricultural Technical Cooperation
盘活存量资产revitalize stock assets
配件accessories
皮包公司flying-by-night company; bogus company
平等互利、讲求实效、形式多样、共同发展的方针pursuing practical results, adopting various waysand seeking common development/ the principle of equality, mutual benefit, efficiency, diversity andmutual development
瓶颈制约 “bottleneck”restrictions
企业的自我约束机制self-regulating mechanism of enterprises
企业技术改造technological updating of enterprises
企业亏损补贴subsidies to cover enterprise losses
企业所得税corporate income tax
千年问题、千年虫millennium bug
抢得先机take the preemptive opportunities
清理、修订screen and modify
求同存异overcome differences and seek common ground
商住和公益设施建设commercial, residential and public utility construction
申报制度reporting system; income declaration system
实行股份制enforce stockholding system
实行国民待遇grant the national treatment to, treat foreign investors as quals to the Chinese counterparts
市场准人的行政管理措施AAMA Administrative Aspects of Market Access
适销对路的产品readily marketable products 
双重轨制two-tier system / double-track system 
水利water conservation
所有制形式forms of ownership
贪图安逸crave comfort and pleasure 
通货紧缩deflation
通货膨胀inflation
同步增长increase in the same pace
外援方式modality of foreign aid
无氟冰箱freon-free refrigerator 
无纸交易paperless transaction 
现代企业制度modern corporate system
消费膨胀inflated consumption 
协议投标negotiated bidding
信息化informationize 
形成统一、开放和竞争有序的市场establish an unified, open market with orderly competition
亚欧会议ASEM:Asia-Europe Meeting
亚太法定计量论坛 APLMF:Asia Pacific Legal Metrology Forum
亚太工商咨询理事会 ABAC:APEC Business Advisory Council
亚太计量程序 APMP:Asia Pacific Metrology Program
亚太经合组织部长级会议AMM:APEC MinisteriaI Meeting
亚太经合组织经济领导人会议AELM: APEC Economic Leaders Meeting
亚太经济合作组织 APEC:Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
亚太能源研究中心 APERC:Asia Pacific Energy Research Center
亚太商业论坛 ABF:APEC Business Forum
亚太商业网络 APB-Net:Asia-Pacific Business Network
亚太实验室认可合作APLAC:Asia Pacific Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation
亚太通讯与数据系统ACDS:APEC Communications and Database System
亚太信息基础设施 APII:Asia-Pacific Information Infrastructure
亚太中小企业技术交流与培训中心ACTETSME:APEC Center for Technology Exchange and Training for Small and Medium Enterprises
亚洲开发银行 ADB: Asian Development Bank
以试点的形式实行外贸权自动登记制度implement an automatic registration system of foreign trading rights on a trial basis
营业税turnover tax
在巩固公有制主体地位的同时,促进多种所有制经济共同发展alongside fortifying the status of the public ownership as the mainstay, it is also encouraged to witness common development of different systems of ownership
债转股debt-to-equity swap
中华人民共和国保护台湾同胞投资实施条例Implementation Rules of the P.R.C. on the Protection of Investments by Compatriots from Taiwan
中介服务组织intermediary service organization
注入新的生机与活力bring new vigor and vitality into
转化经营机制change the method of operation
资本项目capital account
自1999年1月1日起实行 come into official enforcement as of January 1, 1999
自由浮动汇率free floating exchange rate; variable exchange rate
自主经营,自负盈亏responsible for their own management decisions, profits and losses
走上良性发展的轨道going on the track of sound progress

shipping service company 船务公司
generic products非商标(非专利)产品
prudent monetary policy稳健的货币政策
deficit spending超前消费
run on banks(到银行)挤兑
domestic support to agriculture 对农业的国内支持
special bonds特种债券
economy of abundance 富裕经济
Animal-based protein动物源性蛋白
dual purpose exports军民两用品出口
dual-use goods and technology 军民两用产品和技术
NAFTA North American Free Trade Area北美自由贸易区
global quota全球配额
grandfather clause祖父条款
Animal-derived food动物源食品
EVSL (Early Voluntary Sectoral Liberalization)部门提前自愿自由化
TILF (Trade and Investment Liberalization and Facilitation)贸易和投资自由化和便利化



常见缩略:
C&F(cost&freight)成本加运费价
T/T(telegraphic transfer)电汇
D/P(文档 against payment)付款交单
D/A (文档 against acceptance)承兑交单
C.O (certificate of origin)一般原产地证
G.S.P.(generalized system of preferences)普惠制
CTN/CTNS(carton/cartons)纸箱
PCE/PCS(piece/pieces)只、个、支等
DL/DLS(dollar/dollars)美元
DOZ/DZ(dozen)一打
PKG(package)一包,一捆,一扎,一件等
WT(weight)重量
G.W.(gross weight)毛重
N.W.(net weight)净重
(customs declaration)报关单
EA(each)每个,各
W (with)具有
w/o(without)没有
FAC(facsimile)传真
IMP(import)进口
EXP(export)出口
MAX (maximum)最大的、最大限度的
MIN (minimum)最小的,最低限度
M 或MED (medium)中等,中级的
M/V(merchant vessel)商船
S.S(steamship)船运
MT或M/T(metric ton)公吨
DOC (文档)文件、单据
INT(international)国际的
P/L (packing list)装箱单、明细表
INV (invoice)发票
PCT (percent)百分比
REF (reference)参考、查价
EMS (express mail special)特快传递
STL.(style)式样、款式、类型
T或LTX或TX(telex)电传
RMB(renminbi)人民币
S/M (shipping marks)装船标记
PR或PRC(price) 价格
PUR (purchase)购买、购货
S/C(sales contract)销售确认书
L/C (letter of credit)信用证
B/L (bill of lading)提单
FOB (free on board)离岸价
CIF (cost,insurance&freight)成本、保险加运费价
GMO (genetically modified organism)转基因组织
CAGA (compound annual growth average)年复合增长率

(3)改革开放词汇
保险业 The insurance industry
保证重点支出 Ensure funding for priority areas
被兼并或挤掉 annexed or forced out of business
补发拖欠的养老金 Clear up pension payments in arrears
不良贷款 Non—performing loan
层层转包和违法分保 Multi-level contracting and illegal subcontracting
产值 output value
城乡信用社 Credit Cooperative in both urban and rural areas
城镇居民最低生活保障 A minimum standard of living for city residents
城镇职工医疗保险制度 The system of medical insurance for urban workers
抽样调查 data from the sample survey
出口信贷 Export credit
初步建立社会主义计划商品经济新体制。 to establish at a preliminary level a new system of socialist planned commodity economy.
贷款质量 Loan quality
贷款质量五级分类办法 The five-category assets classification for bank loans
第二产业 secondary industry
第三产业 tertiary industry
第一产业 primary industry
独资企业 wholly foreign owned/funded enterprise
发电量 electric energy production
发挥市场的调节作用 to give play to the regulatory role of the market
发展过快 excessive growth
防范和化解金融风险 Take precautions agai