2004年11月20日

http://scholar.google.com/
Google的学术搜索引擎,具有显示引用的功能。





Google scholar searches the databases of acadmeic publications and returns listings of published papers. One neat new feature: for any paper, it also shows the cites. The service is still new and so the cites are a bit incomplete, but it is certainly an advance over what was there. CiteSeer could learn a bit from the smooth Google interface. If Citeseer stays in business, that is.

2004年11月15日

Title: Blog Assisted Language Learning (BALL): Push button publishing for the pupils
Author: Jason M. Ward, American University Sharjah
Source: TEFL Web Journal Vol 3 No 1 2004 1
=========================================================
Blog应用于写作课

  • 真实观众
  • the [online] audience is not only anticipated but expected, and thus influences and structures the very manner in which the writer articulates,composes, and distributes the self-document”

  • 真实交谈内容
  • Weblogs are both monologues and dialogues and therefore can benefit from the advantages of both forms and they also intersect e-mail, discussion forums, instant messaging and conventional electronic publishing, they are continuous in the sense that they are not result oriented but process oriented.

  • 过程驱动的写作
  • combine the best elements of portfolio-driven courses where student work is collected, edited, and assessed, with the immediacy of publishing for a virtual audience

  • 同伴互评
  • Blogs can bring a collective intelligence to bear on a question

  • 解除压抑
  • People behave differently when communicating online compared to a face-to-face situation.
    Blog应用于阅读课

  • 阅读内容和阅读策略
  • cover range of current topics is available for free online.
    develops effective lateral skimming and scanning skills through regular use of this medium.

  • 积极阅读
  • 不可靠
  • Blog的潜在缺点:肤浅、不规范、网络礼节、安全

    Title: First Principles of Instruction
    Author: M. David Merrill


    ===========================================


    Reigeluth (1999) distinguishes two major kinds of instructional methods: <strong>basic methods</strong> and <strong>variable methods</strong>.First principles is an attempt to identify what Reigeluth calls basic methods but which the author prefers to call first principles.区分出两类主要的教学方法:基本方法和可变方法。首要原则就是基本方法。The author will refer to variable methods as programs and practices. 可变方法是指程序和实践。practices. <strong>A principle (basic method) is a relationship that is always true under appropriate conditions regardless of program or practice (variable methods)</strong>. 首要原则不考虑程序或实践只要条件合适就正确。<strong>A practice is a specific instructional activity. A program is an approach consisting of a set of prescribed practices.</strong> Practices always implement or fail to implement underlying principles whether these principles are specified or not. A given instructional approach may only emphasize the implementation of one or more of these instructional principles.


    首要原则有那些特性?
    1、首要原则促进学习计划和它的使用比例有关
    First, learning from a given program will be facilitated in direct proportion to its implementation of first principles.
    2、首要原则可以在任何递送环境或教学架构中实施
    Second, first principles of instruction can be implemented in any delivery system or using any instructional architecture?
    3、首要原则是面向设计而非面向学习的
    Third, first principles of instruction are design oriented rather than learning oriented.


    本文中作者的研究方法
    (a) Analyze instructional <strong>theories, models, programs, and products </strong>to extract general first principles of instruction.
    (b) Identify the <strong>cognitiveprocesses</strong> associated with each principle.
    (c) Identify <strong>empirical support </strong>for each principle.
    (d) Describe the implementation of these principles in a variety of different instructional theories and models.  (e)identify prescriptions for instructional design associated with these principles.


    <strong>PBL的教学阶段:</strong>(1) activation of prior experience, 激活已有的经验
    (2) demonstration of skills, 展示技能
    (3) application of skills, and 应用技能
    (4) integration or these skills into realworld activities.将这些技能整合到真实世界的活动中
    <a href=”http://localhost/blog/wp-content/pbl.jpg“>图1</a>


    Star Legacy
    (1)<em>Look ahead </em>provides the learning context and learning goals.
    (2)<em>The challenges </em>are problems to be solved. They use the metaphor of successively higher mountains to represent a progression of increasingly difficult challenges.
    (3)<em>Generate ideas </em>is an activation activity where learners interact with other learners to share experience and what they already know related to the challenges.
    (4)<em>Multiple perspectives</em> is an opportunity for the student to compare their view of the problem and possible solutions with the view of other students and more importantly with the view of experts.
    (5)<em>Research and revise</em> continues the demonstration phase and moves into the application phase in that the students gather lots of different ideas and try them out to see how they might solve the problem.
    (6)<em>Check your mettle </em>is an opportunity for students to apply their ideas and get feedback before they go public with their solutions.
    (7)<em>Go public </em>is a chance for the students to demonstrate their solutions and to defend their ideas
    (8)<em>Reflect back</em> is an opportunity for the students to review their learning activities and is another important aspect of integration.


    <strong>McCarthy — 4-MAT</strong>
    <a href=”http://localhost/blog/wp-content/4mat.jpg“>图2</a>


    Andre — <strong>Instructional Episode</strong>
    Activation-》instruction(presentation, discovery and practice)-》feedback
    ======================
    从首要原则中得出的教学启示:
    <strong>问题</strong>
    当学习者解决真实世界的问题时可以促进学习
        告知学习者完成课程或模块后他们能解决的问题或是完成的任务
             使学习者沉浸在问题或任务层面而非活动层面和操作层面
             学习者在解决一组渐进的问题
    问题化学习设计到四个层次的教学:the problem, the tasks required to solve the problem, the operations that comprise the tasks, the actions that comprise the operations.大部分的教学仅仅关注活动和操作两个较低的层面。
    问题的解决要有层次,要渐进,给予支架
    <strong>激活</strong>
    已有经验的激活对学习有帮助
        给予学习者相关经验作为新知识的基础
        已有知识可以作为新知识的基础
        给予学习者机会展示他们以前获得的知识和技能
    <strong>演示</strong>
    教师向学习者展示他们将要学习的内容比仅仅告诉他们他们要学什么效果要好。
        展示的内容要和学习目标一致 (a)examples and non-examples for concepts, (b) demonstrations for procedures, (c) visualizations for processes, and (e) modeling for behavior.
              给予学习者合适的指导 (a) learners are directed to relevant information, (b) multiple representations are
    used for the demonstrations, or (c) multiple demonstrations are explicitly compared.
              媒体担任合适的教学角色
    Dijkstra & van Merri?nboer (1997) identify three classes of problems: problems of categorization, problems of design (plans and procedures), and problems of interpretation (principles, models, and theories).
    媒体的两种作用:传递教学信息,展示现实世界
    <strong>运用</strong>
    要求学习者使用新知识或技能解决问题可以促进学习.
             实践和后继测试和学习目标一致(a) information-about practice — recall or recognize information, (b) parts-of practice — locate, name, and/or describe each part, (c) kinds-of practice — identify new examples of each kind, (d) how-to practice — do the procedure and (e) what-happens practice — predict a consequence of a process given conditions, or find faulted conditions given an unexpected consequence.
             在解决问题的过程中得到合适的反馈指导,包括发现问题纠正问题和逐步的减少指导
        要求学习者解决一系列的有变化的问题
    <strong>综合</strong>
    鼓励学习者综合、迁移新知识和技能到日常生活中
             给学习者机会公开展示他们的新知识和技能
             反思讨论和捍卫他们的新知识
        创造发明和探究自己运用新知识的方式
    ==========================
    对现有教学理论的简要分析
    <strong>Gardner — Multiple Approaches to Understanding</strong>
    <em>Entry points</em> are a form of activation. He then describes entry points from these six viewpoints:
    narrational, quantitative/numerical/ foundational/existential/ aesthetic, hands-on, and social.
    <em>Telling analogies</em> forms a transition from activation to demonstration.
    <em>Approaching the core</em> includes some of the prescriptions for demonstration.


    <strong>Nelson — Collaborative Problem Solving</strong>
    She provides an extensive list of guidelines, and the source for these guidelines, organized under nine process activities:
    <blockquote>(1) build readiness,
    (2) form and norm groups,
    (3) determine a preliminary problem definition,
    (4) define and assign roles,
    (5) engage in an iterative collaborative problem-solving process,
    (6) finalize the solution or project,
    (7) synthesize and reflect,
    (8) assess products and processes,
    (9) provide closure</blockquote>


    <strong>Jonassen — Constructivist Learning Environments (CLE)</strong>


    <strong>van Merri?nboer — Four Component Instructional Design Model (4C/ID)</strong>


    <strong>Schank — Learning by Doing</strong>
    There are seven essential components of a GBS: (1)the learning goals, (2)the mission,(3) the cover story, (4)the role, (5)the scenario operations, (6)the resources, and (7)the feedback, including coaches and experts”


    发现:上述理论或模式都包含一个或几个首要原则;没有任何理论或模式包括全部的首要原则;没有任何理论或模式违反上述首要原则;上述的理论或模式包含有其他原则。

    2004年11月11日

    source:http://www.blogchina.com/new/display/44989.html
    title:意义互联网与本体论
    author:姜奇平



    语义网包括三个关键,一是XML,二是RDF,三就是Ontology。Ontology直接的意思是一份正式定义名词之间关系的文档或文件,一般Web上的Ontology包括分类和一套推理规则。




    第一代互联网的Internet,对应硬件基础设施,第二代互联网的Intersubjectivity(主体间性),对应协同商务,第三代互联网“inter”的对象不一样:第一代定位于外界客体(net)的交互;第二代定位于社会主体(subject)的交互;第三代定位于思维符号(text)的交互。




    第一,意义大于指称,也就是语义大于语形,强调语言的丰富性、灵活性和社会性,翻译成IT语言就是一个词具有多种语义,搜索引擎要解决一词对多义的问题;第二,整体先于微观,主张“意义和结论产生在一个整体论结构中,而不产生在一个与思想或世界的原子关系中”,Google和百度的算法基础,在这里实际上从根本上做了一个清算结论,甚至下一代搜索引擎必须补充数学算法中所缺乏的语义结构这一点,也从本体论的高度提到了;第三,语境决定真理,上面说的intertextuality与语境(context)是一致的,本文间性离不开上下文关系,尤其是在意义的循环中,对话者互为语境,这就涉及到更高级的语用问题了。


    It was all based on one idea, simple, really: that the world should be viewed as parts, which could be exchanged and interchanged. Understand those parts, and you could understand the world.
    如何去测量和理解世界?将整体分割成互相联系的部分去分析



    the content of the information being transmitted is no more important – and possibly less important – than the means by which the information was transmitted
    麦克卢汉:内容本身不再重要,甚至不及传输它的媒体。(人们看电视,不完全是关注电视中的内容,而是关注电视这个媒体)




    It is not only the parts which are important, but also, how those parts interact. Or: it is not only data which matters, but how data is processed. Or: it is not only individuals that matter, but how those individuals form communities. When reality is composed both of parts and their interactions, then, when you change the interactions, you change reality
    不仅构成整体的部分是重要的,部分之间的先后关系也是重要的;
    不仅数据本身是重要的,数据的处理方法也是重要的;
    不仅个体是重要的,个体如何组成共同体的方式也是重要的;
    现实是由个体和个体之间的关系构成的,如果改变了关系,现实也会发生改变
    (石墨和金刚石的构成都是碳原子,只是结构不一样。制造飞机的每一个人都没有制造整个飞机的技能,但是将他们组织在一起却能制造出高度复杂飞机)




    新教学法:
    1、线性-》多线程(链-》网络)
    2、静态-》动态 (always available, always on)
    3、传递内容-》经验(沉浸、交互)
    4、内容展示-》从做中学
    5、教学目标-》学习目的(Objectives -》 Goals)Learning ‘objectives’ are not set by a designer It’s what people do to reach their goals
    6、标准化-》个别化



    “Gradually, people are coming to realize that the term ‘free’ has to do with access, not with price. . .”
    GNN’s Tim O’Reilly



    AOL vs. Internet-> free access for the content




    SOME CHANGES
    Open service Vs. Closed
    Broadcast vs. Conversation(one way->two way)
    Institution vs. Individual(who broadcast)
    Hierarchy vs. Network(organization)
    Centralized vs. Decentralized(aol->internet content location)
    Product vs. Remix(customized product)
    Planned vs. Chaotic()
    Static vs. Dynamic(TV-content ready made ; Wiki-content dynamicly changing )
    Push vs. Pull(broadcast->push, read web pages->pull)




    Trigger
    Internet come to desktop; make people connect worldwide
    new technology and new market come out




    In general, new technology is introduced in two stages…First, it duplicates existing products and services…Second, it obliterates them…
    新技术首先复制原有的功能,然后代替它




    Traditional models of production, business models, and distribution channels are threatened
    Production…

    Demand vs. Volunteer Enclyclopedia Britannica vs. Wikipedia
    Business Models… Proprietary and commercial vs. free and open source Windows vs. Linux PDF vs. Plain Text Elsevier vs. Open Archives Distribution models… Broadcast vs. network MPAA vs. Gnutella NY Times Editorial vs Instapundit CD-ROM vs. online



    local form< –>global form




    Open< –>Closed
    Learning Design…
    The analogy of the play vs. the analogy of a game… direction vs action, package vs. materials




    Learning Design
    … wherein we tell people what they ought to do, rather than provide what they need when they need it… directed play vs. improv




    In the history of the internet, ask yourself, what has been successful, what worked?
    FTP, email, Usenet, the web, blogs, RSS
    What did these have in common?
    They were… – simple – decentralized – open – free… etc.




    but nobody can learn only by listening, nobody can teach only by speaking
    We need to be able to speak, to use the syntax of our new langauge…




    The mechanism… – filter – repurpose – remix – feed forward


    Title: Design, Standards and Reusability
    author: Stephen Downes
    source: http://www.downes.ca/cgi-bin/website/view.cgi?dbs=Article&key=1059622263&format=full
    =========================================



    instructional context: the manner or way in which a learning resource will be used to foster learning. An instructional context thus defines the relation between resources with each other, such as the manner in which they are sequenced or presented to the learner. Alternatively, an instructional context may define the role that a given resource plays in a learning scenario: it may be an illustration, an example, an explanation or an exegesis, for example.




    object olny with context that how this object foster learning can be a “learing object”




    a more mature approach to instructional design will inform the designer of means and methods to anticipate, and design for, variable circumstances.




    learning path in LMS:loop,branch,different ways of presentation according to learning styles




    instructional design may be characterized as a set of decisions regarding the type and order of the instructional content to be presented.




    learning= object + strategy




    if the learnig design and learning object bounded tightly, the design can not reusable! In order to use a learning design with a set of objects, the learning design must specify the objects to be used, and if the objects to be used are specified, then the learning design is not reusable.




    learning design requires a designer




    what we are after is not reusable objects, but disposable ones. producing them to be used once, then discarded




    It is the difference between telling people what to do and when to do it, and creating an environment where people decide for themselves what to do and when to do it. It is the difference between requiring a director and requiring a coach. It is the difference between giving a person directions to the Forum and giving them a map of the city and letting them choose their own route.




    Comments:




    The great strength of Learning Design is that a teacher (not necessarily a designer) can take a sophisticated learning design and re-use it by tweaking and contextualizing or even changing the subject/content. Sure this is a manual process, but with a good editor, this is the type of contextualizing task that teachers have been doing for a long time and one that many see as defining the professional role of the teacher.