Title: First Principles of Instruction
Author: M. David Merrill


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Reigeluth (1999) distinguishes two major kinds of instructional methods: <strong>basic methods</strong> and <strong>variable methods</strong>.First principles is an attempt to identify what Reigeluth calls basic methods but which the author prefers to call first principles.区分出两类主要的教学方法:基本方法和可变方法。首要原则就是基本方法。The author will refer to variable methods as programs and practices. 可变方法是指程序和实践。practices. <strong>A principle (basic method) is a relationship that is always true under appropriate conditions regardless of program or practice (variable methods)</strong>. 首要原则不考虑程序或实践只要条件合适就正确。<strong>A practice is a specific instructional activity. A program is an approach consisting of a set of prescribed practices.</strong> Practices always implement or fail to implement underlying principles whether these principles are specified or not. A given instructional approach may only emphasize the implementation of one or more of these instructional principles.


首要原则有那些特性?
1、首要原则促进学习计划和它的使用比例有关
First, learning from a given program will be facilitated in direct proportion to its implementation of first principles.
2、首要原则可以在任何递送环境或教学架构中实施
Second, first principles of instruction can be implemented in any delivery system or using any instructional architecture?
3、首要原则是面向设计而非面向学习的
Third, first principles of instruction are design oriented rather than learning oriented.


本文中作者的研究方法
(a) Analyze instructional <strong>theories, models, programs, and products </strong>to extract general first principles of instruction.
(b) Identify the <strong>cognitiveprocesses</strong> associated with each principle.
(c) Identify <strong>empirical support </strong>for each principle.
(d) Describe the implementation of these principles in a variety of different instructional theories and models.  (e)identify prescriptions for instructional design associated with these principles.


<strong>PBL的教学阶段:</strong>(1) activation of prior experience, 激活已有的经验
(2) demonstration of skills, 展示技能
(3) application of skills, and 应用技能
(4) integration or these skills into realworld activities.将这些技能整合到真实世界的活动中
<a href=”http://localhost/blog/wp-content/pbl.jpg“>图1</a>


Star Legacy
(1)<em>Look ahead </em>provides the learning context and learning goals.
(2)<em>The challenges </em>are problems to be solved. They use the metaphor of successively higher mountains to represent a progression of increasingly difficult challenges.
(3)<em>Generate ideas </em>is an activation activity where learners interact with other learners to share experience and what they already know related to the challenges.
(4)<em>Multiple perspectives</em> is an opportunity for the student to compare their view of the problem and possible solutions with the view of other students and more importantly with the view of experts.
(5)<em>Research and revise</em> continues the demonstration phase and moves into the application phase in that the students gather lots of different ideas and try them out to see how they might solve the problem.
(6)<em>Check your mettle </em>is an opportunity for students to apply their ideas and get feedback before they go public with their solutions.
(7)<em>Go public </em>is a chance for the students to demonstrate their solutions and to defend their ideas
(8)<em>Reflect back</em> is an opportunity for the students to review their learning activities and is another important aspect of integration.


<strong>McCarthy — 4-MAT</strong>
<a href=”http://localhost/blog/wp-content/4mat.jpg“>图2</a>


Andre — <strong>Instructional Episode</strong>
Activation-》instruction(presentation, discovery and practice)-》feedback
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从首要原则中得出的教学启示:
<strong>问题</strong>
当学习者解决真实世界的问题时可以促进学习
    告知学习者完成课程或模块后他们能解决的问题或是完成的任务
         使学习者沉浸在问题或任务层面而非活动层面和操作层面
         学习者在解决一组渐进的问题
问题化学习设计到四个层次的教学:the problem, the tasks required to solve the problem, the operations that comprise the tasks, the actions that comprise the operations.大部分的教学仅仅关注活动和操作两个较低的层面。
问题的解决要有层次,要渐进,给予支架
<strong>激活</strong>
已有经验的激活对学习有帮助
    给予学习者相关经验作为新知识的基础
    已有知识可以作为新知识的基础
    给予学习者机会展示他们以前获得的知识和技能
<strong>演示</strong>
教师向学习者展示他们将要学习的内容比仅仅告诉他们他们要学什么效果要好。
    展示的内容要和学习目标一致 (a)examples and non-examples for concepts, (b) demonstrations for procedures, (c) visualizations for processes, and (e) modeling for behavior.
          给予学习者合适的指导 (a) learners are directed to relevant information, (b) multiple representations are
used for the demonstrations, or (c) multiple demonstrations are explicitly compared.
          媒体担任合适的教学角色
Dijkstra & van Merri?nboer (1997) identify three classes of problems: problems of categorization, problems of design (plans and procedures), and problems of interpretation (principles, models, and theories).
媒体的两种作用:传递教学信息,展示现实世界
<strong>运用</strong>
要求学习者使用新知识或技能解决问题可以促进学习.
         实践和后继测试和学习目标一致(a) information-about practice — recall or recognize information, (b) parts-of practice — locate, name, and/or describe each part, (c) kinds-of practice — identify new examples of each kind, (d) how-to practice — do the procedure and (e) what-happens practice — predict a consequence of a process given conditions, or find faulted conditions given an unexpected consequence.
         在解决问题的过程中得到合适的反馈指导,包括发现问题纠正问题和逐步的减少指导
    要求学习者解决一系列的有变化的问题
<strong>综合</strong>
鼓励学习者综合、迁移新知识和技能到日常生活中
         给学习者机会公开展示他们的新知识和技能
         反思讨论和捍卫他们的新知识
    创造发明和探究自己运用新知识的方式
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对现有教学理论的简要分析
<strong>Gardner — Multiple Approaches to Understanding</strong>
<em>Entry points</em> are a form of activation. He then describes entry points from these six viewpoints:
narrational, quantitative/numerical/ foundational/existential/ aesthetic, hands-on, and social.
<em>Telling analogies</em> forms a transition from activation to demonstration.
<em>Approaching the core</em> includes some of the prescriptions for demonstration.


<strong>Nelson — Collaborative Problem Solving</strong>
She provides an extensive list of guidelines, and the source for these guidelines, organized under nine process activities:
<blockquote>(1) build readiness,
(2) form and norm groups,
(3) determine a preliminary problem definition,
(4) define and assign roles,
(5) engage in an iterative collaborative problem-solving process,
(6) finalize the solution or project,
(7) synthesize and reflect,
(8) assess products and processes,
(9) provide closure</blockquote>


<strong>Jonassen — Constructivist Learning Environments (CLE)</strong>


<strong>van Merri?nboer — Four Component Instructional Design Model (4C/ID)</strong>


<strong>Schank — Learning by Doing</strong>
There are seven essential components of a GBS: (1)the learning goals, (2)the mission,(3) the cover story, (4)the role, (5)the scenario operations, (6)the resources, and (7)the feedback, including coaches and experts”


发现:上述理论或模式都包含一个或几个首要原则;没有任何理论或模式包括全部的首要原则;没有任何理论或模式违反上述首要原则;上述的理论或模式包含有其他原则。


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