2005年01月19日

 课程的xml定义(by Scott’s Workblog  )

  • Class: Course
    • type (e.g. programme, module)
    • level (level of study)
    • dc:title (course title)
    • dc:description (course description)
    • image (an image, possibly for marketing)
    • dc:subject (keywords for searching)
    • begin (when it starts)
    • end (when it ends)
    • duration (how long, e.g “4 years FTE”)
    • dc:relation (link to related information, such as course homepage, reading list, or RSS feed)
    • awarded-by (the institution issuing awards for the course)
    • taught-by (an institution teaching the course)
    • contact (a person to contact about the course)
    • aim
    • outcome
    • approach
    • attendance mode
    • qualification
    • application-type
    • prerequisite
    • interview-info
    • topic (i.e. a part of the syllabus)
    • visit-info
    • interview-info
    • review (outcome of quality reviews etc)
    • accreditation
    • language-of-instruction
    • location (where the course meets)
    • expenses (fees, grants etc)
    • dc:hasPart (other courses that are part of this course)
    • dc:isPartOf (other courses of which this is a part)
2004年11月11日


It was all based on one idea, simple, really: that the world should be viewed as parts, which could be exchanged and interchanged. Understand those parts, and you could understand the world.
如何去测量和理解世界?将整体分割成互相联系的部分去分析



the content of the information being transmitted is no more important – and possibly less important – than the means by which the information was transmitted
麦克卢汉:内容本身不再重要,甚至不及传输它的媒体。(人们看电视,不完全是关注电视中的内容,而是关注电视这个媒体)




It is not only the parts which are important, but also, how those parts interact. Or: it is not only data which matters, but how data is processed. Or: it is not only individuals that matter, but how those individuals form communities. When reality is composed both of parts and their interactions, then, when you change the interactions, you change reality
不仅构成整体的部分是重要的,部分之间的先后关系也是重要的;
不仅数据本身是重要的,数据的处理方法也是重要的;
不仅个体是重要的,个体如何组成共同体的方式也是重要的;
现实是由个体和个体之间的关系构成的,如果改变了关系,现实也会发生改变
(石墨和金刚石的构成都是碳原子,只是结构不一样。制造飞机的每一个人都没有制造整个飞机的技能,但是将他们组织在一起却能制造出高度复杂飞机)




新教学法:
1、线性-》多线程(链-》网络)
2、静态-》动态 (always available, always on)
3、传递内容-》经验(沉浸、交互)
4、内容展示-》从做中学
5、教学目标-》学习目的(Objectives -》 Goals)Learning ‘objectives’ are not set by a designer It’s what people do to reach their goals
6、标准化-》个别化



“Gradually, people are coming to realize that the term ‘free’ has to do with access, not with price. . .”
GNN’s Tim O’Reilly



AOL vs. Internet-> free access for the content




SOME CHANGES
Open service Vs. Closed
Broadcast vs. Conversation(one way->two way)
Institution vs. Individual(who broadcast)
Hierarchy vs. Network(organization)
Centralized vs. Decentralized(aol->internet content location)
Product vs. Remix(customized product)
Planned vs. Chaotic()
Static vs. Dynamic(TV-content ready made ; Wiki-content dynamicly changing )
Push vs. Pull(broadcast->push, read web pages->pull)




Trigger
Internet come to desktop; make people connect worldwide
new technology and new market come out




In general, new technology is introduced in two stages…First, it duplicates existing products and services…Second, it obliterates them…
新技术首先复制原有的功能,然后代替它




Traditional models of production, business models, and distribution channels are threatened
Production…

Demand vs. Volunteer Enclyclopedia Britannica vs. Wikipedia
Business Models… Proprietary and commercial vs. free and open source Windows vs. Linux PDF vs. Plain Text Elsevier vs. Open Archives Distribution models… Broadcast vs. network MPAA vs. Gnutella NY Times Editorial vs Instapundit CD-ROM vs. online



local form< –>global form




Open< –>Closed
Learning Design…
The analogy of the play vs. the analogy of a game… direction vs action, package vs. materials




Learning Design
… wherein we tell people what they ought to do, rather than provide what they need when they need it… directed play vs. improv




In the history of the internet, ask yourself, what has been successful, what worked?
FTP, email, Usenet, the web, blogs, RSS
What did these have in common?
They were… – simple – decentralized – open – free… etc.




but nobody can learn only by listening, nobody can teach only by speaking
We need to be able to speak, to use the syntax of our new langauge…




The mechanism… – filter – repurpose – remix – feed forward


Title: Design, Standards and Reusability
author: Stephen Downes
source: http://www.downes.ca/cgi-bin/website/view.cgi?dbs=Article&key=1059622263&format=full
=========================================



instructional context: the manner or way in which a learning resource will be used to foster learning. An instructional context thus defines the relation between resources with each other, such as the manner in which they are sequenced or presented to the learner. Alternatively, an instructional context may define the role that a given resource plays in a learning scenario: it may be an illustration, an example, an explanation or an exegesis, for example.




object olny with context that how this object foster learning can be a “learing object”




a more mature approach to instructional design will inform the designer of means and methods to anticipate, and design for, variable circumstances.




learning path in LMS:loop,branch,different ways of presentation according to learning styles




instructional design may be characterized as a set of decisions regarding the type and order of the instructional content to be presented.




learning= object + strategy




if the learnig design and learning object bounded tightly, the design can not reusable! In order to use a learning design with a set of objects, the learning design must specify the objects to be used, and if the objects to be used are specified, then the learning design is not reusable.




learning design requires a designer




what we are after is not reusable objects, but disposable ones. producing them to be used once, then discarded




It is the difference between telling people what to do and when to do it, and creating an environment where people decide for themselves what to do and when to do it. It is the difference between requiring a director and requiring a coach. It is the difference between giving a person directions to the Forum and giving them a map of the city and letting them choose their own route.




Comments:




The great strength of Learning Design is that a teacher (not necessarily a designer) can take a sophisticated learning design and re-use it by tweaking and contextualizing or even changing the subject/content. Sure this is a manual process, but with a good editor, this is the type of contextualizing task that teachers have been doing for a long time and one that many see as defining the professional role of the teacher.

2004年10月21日

source:http://www.patternlanguage.com/archive/ieee/ieeetext.htm
title:The Origins of Pattern Theory, the Future of the Theory, And The Generation of a Living World
author:Christopher Alexander
date:October of 1996, at The 1996 ACM Conference

A. 模式理论
建筑设计-〉由基因生成器官的方法(genetic approach)(规模从小到大/组成整体的各个部分要相互适应)
软件模式(Partern)的格式(情境/问题/解决方案)是很好的交流工具
通过模式可以讨论/分享/更改设计方案

70年代提出的建筑模式语言还有其他的重要部分
1 合理性moral component(整体和大环境的协调)
2 一致性the aim of creating coherence, morphological coherence in the things which are made with it.
3 生成性it is generative: it allows people to create coherence, morally sound objects, and encourages and enables this process because of its emphasis on the coherence of the created whole.

软件模式语言是为了让软件更好-〉good technical performance
在实际使用中(模拟)检验模式语言,模式是否具有一致性
模式语言要具有的能力
1。a good way of exchanging fragmentary, atomic, ideas 
2。the moral capacity to produce a living structure and 
3。the generativity of the thing, its capability of producing coherent wholes

B. 有序的世界The Nature of Order

source: mfeldstein.com
title:Re-usable Learning Content Objects or Re-usable Learning Experience Objects?
author:Michael Feldstein
date:Sunday, October 03, 2004
abstract: