课程的xml定义(by Scott’s Workblog  )

  • Class: Course
    • type (e.g. programme, module)
    • level (level of study)
    • dc:title (course title)
    • dc:description (course description)
    • image (an image, possibly for marketing)
    • dc:subject (keywords for searching)
    • begin (when it starts)
    • end (when it ends)
    • duration (how long, e.g “4 years FTE”)
    • dc:relation (link to related information, such as course homepage, reading list, or RSS feed)
    • awarded-by (the institution issuing awards for the course)
    • taught-by (an institution teaching the course)
    • contact (a person to contact about the course)
    • aim
    • outcome
    • approach
    • attendance mode
    • qualification
    • application-type
    • prerequisite
    • interview-info
    • topic (i.e. a part of the syllabus)
    • visit-info
    • interview-info
    • review (outcome of quality reviews etc)
    • accreditation
    • language-of-instruction
    • location (where the course meets)
    • expenses (fees, grants etc)
    • dc:hasPart (other courses that are part of this course)
    • dc:isPartOf (other courses of which this is a part)

It was all based on one idea, simple, really: that the world should be viewed as parts, which could be exchanged and interchanged. Understand those parts, and you could understand the world.

the content of the information being transmitted is no more important – and possibly less important – than the means by which the information was transmitted

It is not only the parts which are important, but also, how those parts interact. Or: it is not only data which matters, but how data is processed. Or: it is not only individuals that matter, but how those individuals form communities. When reality is composed both of parts and their interactions, then, when you change the interactions, you change reality

2、静态-》动态 (always available, always on)
5、教学目标-》学习目的(Objectives -》 Goals)Learning ‘objectives’ are not set by a designer It’s what people do to reach their goals

“Gradually, people are coming to realize that the term ‘free’ has to do with access, not with price. . .”
GNN’s Tim O’Reilly

AOL vs. Internet-> free access for the content

Open service Vs. Closed
Broadcast vs. Conversation(one way->two way)
Institution vs. Individual(who broadcast)
Hierarchy vs. Network(organization)
Centralized vs. Decentralized(aol->internet content location)
Product vs. Remix(customized product)
Planned vs. Chaotic()
Static vs. Dynamic(TV-content ready made ; Wiki-content dynamicly changing )
Push vs. Pull(broadcast->push, read web pages->pull)

Internet come to desktop; make people connect worldwide
new technology and new market come out

In general, new technology is introduced in two stages…First, it duplicates existing products and services…Second, it obliterates them…

Traditional models of production, business models, and distribution channels are threatened

Demand vs. Volunteer Enclyclopedia Britannica vs. Wikipedia
Business Models… Proprietary and commercial vs. free and open source Windows vs. Linux PDF vs. Plain Text Elsevier vs. Open Archives Distribution models… Broadcast vs. network MPAA vs. Gnutella NY Times Editorial vs Instapundit CD-ROM vs. online

local form< –>global form

Open< –>Closed
Learning Design…
The analogy of the play vs. the analogy of a game… direction vs action, package vs. materials

Learning Design
… wherein we tell people what they ought to do, rather than provide what they need when they need it… directed play vs. improv

In the history of the internet, ask yourself, what has been successful, what worked?
FTP, email, Usenet, the web, blogs, RSS
What did these have in common?
They were… – simple – decentralized – open – free… etc.

but nobody can learn only by listening, nobody can teach only by speaking
We need to be able to speak, to use the syntax of our new langauge…

The mechanism… – filter – repurpose – remix – feed forward

Title: Design, Standards and Reusability
author: Stephen Downes
source: http://www.downes.ca/cgi-bin/website/view.cgi?dbs=Article&key=1059622263&format=full

instructional context: the manner or way in which a learning resource will be used to foster learning. An instructional context thus defines the relation between resources with each other, such as the manner in which they are sequenced or presented to the learner. Alternatively, an instructional context may define the role that a given resource plays in a learning scenario: it may be an illustration, an example, an explanation or an exegesis, for example.

object olny with context that how this object foster learning can be a “learing object”

a more mature approach to instructional design will inform the designer of means and methods to anticipate, and design for, variable circumstances.

learning path in LMS:loop,branch,different ways of presentation according to learning styles

instructional design may be characterized as a set of decisions regarding the type and order of the instructional content to be presented.

learning= object + strategy

if the learnig design and learning object bounded tightly, the design can not reusable! In order to use a learning design with a set of objects, the learning design must specify the objects to be used, and if the objects to be used are specified, then the learning design is not reusable.

learning design requires a designer

what we are after is not reusable objects, but disposable ones. producing them to be used once, then discarded

It is the difference between telling people what to do and when to do it, and creating an environment where people decide for themselves what to do and when to do it. It is the difference between requiring a director and requiring a coach. It is the difference between giving a person directions to the Forum and giving them a map of the city and letting them choose their own route.


The great strength of Learning Design is that a teacher (not necessarily a designer) can take a sophisticated learning design and re-use it by tweaking and contextualizing or even changing the subject/content. Sure this is a manual process, but with a good editor, this is the type of contextualizing task that teachers have been doing for a long time and one that many see as defining the professional role of the teacher.


title:The Origins of Pattern Theory, the Future of the Theory, And The Generation of a Living World
author:Christopher Alexander
date:October of 1996, at The 1996 ACM Conference

A. 模式理论
建筑设计-〉由基因生成器官的方法(genetic approach)(规模从小到大/组成整体的各个部分要相互适应)

1 合理性moral component(整体和大环境的协调)
2 一致性the aim of creating coherence, morphological coherence in the things which are made with it.
3 生成性it is generative: it allows people to create coherence, morally sound objects, and encourages and enables this process because of its emphasis on the coherence of the created whole.

软件模式语言是为了让软件更好-〉good technical performance
1。a good way of exchanging fragmentary, atomic, ideas 
2。the moral capacity to produce a living structure and 
3。the generativity of the thing, its capability of producing coherent wholes

B. 有序的世界The Nature of Order

source: mfeldstein.com
title:Re-usable Learning Content Objects or Re-usable Learning Experience Objects?
author:Michael Feldstein
date:Sunday, October 03, 2004